Dungannon

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Dungannon
Church of St Patrick, Dungannon - geograph.org.uk - 112576.jpg
St Patrick's Roman Catholic church
Dungannon Coat of Arms v2.png
Dungannon Coat of Arms
Dungannon is located in Northern Ireland
Dungannon
Dungannon
Location within Northern Ireland
Population14,340 (2011 Census)
Irish grid referenceH7962
• Belfast40 miles (64 km)
District
County
CountryNorthern Ireland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townDUNGANNON
Postcode districtBT70, BT71
Dialling code028
PoliceNorthern Ireland
FireNorthern Ireland
AmbulanceNorthern Ireland
UK Parliament
NI Assembly
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Tyrone
54°30′N 6°46′W / 54.50°N 6.77°W / 54.50; -6.77Coordinates: 54°30′N 6°46′W / 54.50°N 6.77°W / 54.50; -6.77

Dungannon (from Irish: Dún Geanainn, meaning 'Geanann's fort')[1] is a town in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is the second-largest town in the county (after Omagh) and had a population of 14,340 at the 2011 Census.[2] The Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council had its headquarters in the town, though since 2015 the area has been covered by Mid-Ulster District Council.

For centuries, it was the 'capital' of the O'Neill dynasty of Tír Eoghain, who dominated most of Ulster and built a castle on the hill. After the O'Neills' defeat in the Nine Years' War, the English founded a plantation town on the site, which grew into what is now Dungannon. Dungannon has won Ulster in Bloom's Best Kept Town Award five times. It currently has the highest percentage of immigrants of any town in Northern Ireland.

History[edit]

For centuries, Dungannon's fortunes were closely tied to that of the O'Neill dynasty which ruled a large part of Ulster until the 17th century. Dungannon was the clan's main stronghold. The traditional site of inauguration for 'The O'Neill' was Tullyhogue Fort, an Iron Age mound some four miles northeast of Dungannon. The clan O'Hagan were the stewards of this site for the O'Neills. In the 14th century the O'Neills built a castle on what is today known as Castle Hill; the location was ideal for a fort, for it was one of the highest points in the area and dominated the surrounding countryside, giving (depending on the weather) the ability to see seven counties.

Dungannon Market Square in the 1880s

This castle was burned in 1602 by Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, as Crown forces under Lord Mountjoy closed in on the Gaelic lords towards the end of the Nine Years' War. In 1607, ninety-nine Irish chieftains and their followers, including Hugh O'Neill, set sail from Rathmullan, bound for the continent, in an event known as the Flight of the Earls. In what became known as the Plantation of Ulster, their lands were confiscated and awarded to Protestant English and Scots settlers; Dungannon and its castle were granted to Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland.[3]

Sir Phelim O'Neill seized the town in the opening stages of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, and issued the Proclamation of Dungannon, in which the rebels set out their aims and proclaimed their loyalty to Charles I. O'Neill claimed they had been ordered to rise by the King, and later produced a forged commission in support of this.[4] During the course of the Irish Confederate Wars, Dungannon changed hands several times; Scots Covenanter forces under Alexander Leslie captured it in September 1642, before O'Neill took it back in spring 1643.[5]

In 1973, the town became the seat of the new district of the Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council. In 1782, the town was the location where the independence of the Irish Parliament was declared by members of the Protestant Ascendancy who controlled the parliament at the time.[6]

The castle was partially excavated in October 2007 by the Channel 4 archaeological show Time Team, uncovering part of the moat and walls of the castle.

The Troubles[edit]

In the late 1960s Northern Ireland was plunged into an ethnopolitical conflict known as the Troubles. On 24 August 1968, the Campaign for Social Justice (CSJ), the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA), and other groups, held Northern Ireland's first civil rights march from Coalisland to Dungannon. The rally was officially banned, but took place and passed off without incident. The publicity surrounding the march encouraged other groups to form branches of NICRA.[7]

During the conflict Dungannon suffered numerous bombings, and almost 50 people were killed in and around the town.[8] The deadliest attack was on 17 March 1976, when a loyalist car bomb killed four Catholic civilians.

Demography[edit]

Dungannon had a population of 14,340 at the 2011 census, rising by 3,349 (over 30%) from 10,983 in 2001, making it one of the fastest growing towns in Northern Ireland.[2] It has the highest percentage of immigrants of any town in Northern Ireland.[9] Immigrants make up about 11% of its population; more than twice the average. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of immigrants in Dungannon increased tenfold; the biggest increase of any town.[9] Many came to work in the local food processing plants. There have been several attacks on immigrants[10] and clashes between rival groups of immigrants[11] in the area.

The population of the town increased slightly overall during the 19th century:[12][13]

Year 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
Population 3,801 3,854 3,994 3,886 4,084 3,812
Houses 675 686 720 727 812 830

On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 14,340 people living in Dungannon (5,388 households), accounting for 0.79% of the NI total.[2] Of these:

  • 22.01% were aged under 16 years and 12.09% were aged 65 and over;
  • 50.33% of the usually resident population were female and 49.67% were male;
  • 64.82% belong to or were brought up in the Catholic Christian faith, 30.46% belong to or were brought up in a 'Protestant and Other Christian (including Christian related)' religion;
  • 31.63% had an Irish national identity, 28.27% indicated that they had a British national identity and 23.93% had a Northern Irish national identity (respondents could indicate more than one national identity);
  • 34 years was the average (median) age of the population;
  • 15.93% had some knowledge of Irish (Gaelic), 4.82% had some knowledge of Ulster-Scots and 23.18% did not have English as their first language.

Places of interest[edit]

Georges Street in the late 19th century

An interesting feature of the town is the former police barracks at the top right-hand corner of the market square which is quite unlike any other barracks of a similar vintage in Ireland. A popular but apocryphal story relates that the unusual design of this building is due to a mix-up with the plans in Dublin which meant Dungannon got a station designed for Nepal and they got a standard Irish barracks, complete with a traditional Irish fireplace. Dungannon Park covers seventy acres; it is centred round an idyllic still-water lake, with miles of pathways and views of the surrounding townland.[14][15]

Geography[edit]

Dungannon is in the southeast of County Tyrone, within the historic barony of Dungannon Middle and the civil parish of Drumglass.[16]

The town grew up around a hill, known locally as Castle Hill. There are three small lakes on the southern edge of town, the biggest of which is Black Lough. There are also two parks in the eastern part of town: Dungannon Park and Windmill Park. Surrounding settlements include Moygashel (a village at the southern edge of Dungannon), Coalisland (to the northeast), Donaghmore (to the northwest), Eglish (to the south) and Castlecaulfield (to the west).[citation needed]

Townlands[edit]

Dungannon sprang up in a townland called Drumcoo. Over time, the urban area has spread into the neighbouring townlands. Many of its roads and housing estates are named after them. The following is a list of these townlands and their likely etymologies:[17][18]

  • Ballynorthland Park
  • Ballysaggart (from Irish: Baile na Sagart, meaning 'homestead of the priests')
  • Coolhill (from Cúlchoill meaning "the backwoods")
  • Drumcoo (from Druim Cuaiche meaning "ridge of the cuckoo")
  • Drumharriff (from Druim Thairbh meaning "ridge of the bull")
  • Gortmerron (from Gort Mearain meaning "Merron's field")
  • Killymaddy (from Coill na Madaí meaning "wood of the dogs")
  • Killymeal (from Coill na Maoile meaning "wood of the bald/hornless cow")
  • Lisnaclin (from Lios na Clinge meaning "ringfort of the bell chime")
  • Lisnahull (from Lios a' Choill meaning "ringfort of the hazel")
  • Lurgaboy (from Lurga Buí meaning "yellow shin" i.e. shin-shaped hill)
  • Mullaghadun (from Mullach a' Dúin meaning "hilltop of the fort")
  • Mullaghanagh (from Mullán na hÁithe meaning "hillock of the kiln")
  • Mullaghconor (from Mullach Conchobhair meaning "Conchobhar's hilltop")
  • Mullaghmore (from Mullach Mór meaning "big hilltop")

Economy[edit]

The then Tyrone Crystal building in Dungannon (2008)

Until its closure in 2010, the crystal glass producer Tyrone Crystal was based in Dungannon.[19][20]

Schools[edit]

Primary
  • Aughamullan (Holy Family) Primary School (RC)
  • Bush Primary School
  • Clintyclay Primary School
  • Derrylatinee Primary School (RC)
  • Donaghey Controlled Primary School
  • Dungannon Primary School
  • Killyman Primary School
  • Laghey Primary School (RC)
  • Lisfearty Primary School
  • Newmills Primary School
  • Orchard County Primary School (amalgamation of Annaghmore and Tullyroan primary schools)
  • St Mary's Primary School
  • St Patrick's Primary School
  • Tamnamore Primary School
  • Walker Memorial Primary School
  • Windmill Integrated Primary School
Secondary

Transport[edit]

Dungannon is linked to the M1 motorway, which runs from the southeast of the town to Belfast. There is an Ulsterbus town bus service that runs daily that serves the town's suburbs,[22] formerly operated by the Optare Solo buses. The nearest railway station is Portadown on Northern Ireland Railways.

Former railways[edit]

The Irish gauge 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Portadown, Dungannon and Omagh Junction Railway (PD&O) linked the town with Portadown from 1858 and Omagh from 1861,[23] completing the PortadownDerry railway route that came to be informally called "The Derry Road".[24] The Great Northern Railway took over the PD&O in 1876[25] and built a branch line from Dungannon to Cookstown in 1879.[23]

The GNR Board cut back the Cookstown branch to Coalisland in 1956[26] and the Ulster Transport Authority (UTA) closed the branch altogether in 1959.[26] In accordance with the Benson Report submitted to the Government of Northern Ireland 1963 the UTA closed the "Derry Road" through Dungannon in 1965.[26][27] The site of Dungannon station is now a public park and the former trackbed through the station is now a greenway.

Notable people[edit]

1800s[edit]

1900s[edit]

Sport[edit]

Cricket[edit]

Dungannon Cricket Club was established in 1865.[52] Attempts were made to re-establish the club after the First World War and this was done in 1929 and survived until 1933 when Lord Ranfurly died, which for a second time left the club without a ground. Cricket was kept alive by the Royal School, Bankers and the RUC until 1939 when the Second World War broke out. The club was reformed in 1948 mainly due to the efforts of Eddie Hodgett and the NCU leagues in 1952 and continues to do so to the present time. The club has never quite reached senior cricket as it has limited resources and relies on the District Council for a ground. The club has played on at least five different locations during its existence. Home games are played at Dungannon Park.[53]

Football[edit]

Dungannon Swifts F.C. is the town's local team, which plays in the NIFL Premiership, and is Tyrone's only representative in the league, following Omagh Town's collapse. The club represented Northern Ireland in European competition in the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup[54] and the 2007–08 UEFA Cup.[55]

Gaelic games[edit]

The local boys' Gaelic football club is Dungannon Thomas Clarkes (Thomáis Uí Chléirigh Dún Geanainn) while the ladies' football team is Aodh a Ruadh.[56]

Golf[edit]

Dungannon Golf Club, which provides an 18-hole course, appointed its first woman captain in January 2022.[57]

Hare coursing[edit]

The local Hare Coursing Club has been in existence since the 1920s but the sport was popular in the area long before the formation of the club. With hare coursing currently banned in Northern Ireland, the Dungannon club organises meetings in the Republic of Ireland.[58][59]

Greyhound racing[edit]

Greyhound racing was once a popular sport in Dungannon. The Dungannon Greyhound Stadium was opened in July 1930, the third track in Northern Ireland after Celtic Park and Dunmore Stadium.[60] The stadium, also known as the Oaks Park Greyhound Stadium, remained operational until January 2003 when it was closed by Dungannon (Oaks Park) Stadium Greyhound Racing Limited who had taken over the track in 1995 and saw the opportunity to make a substantial profit by developing the site.[61]

Rugby[edit]

Dungannon Rugby FC, founded in 1873, was one of the first towns in Ireland to form a rugby club.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dún Geanainn/Dungannon". Logainm.ie. 3 November 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Census 2011 Population Statistics for Dungannon Settlement". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  3. ^ McCavitt 2004.
  4. ^ Royle 2004, p. 140.
  5. ^ Clarke 2004.
  6. ^ 'Dungannon' from Britannica 2001 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM, 1999–2000.
  7. ^ "A Chronology of the Conflict – 1968". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  8. ^ CAIN Archived 30 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, cain.ulst.ac.uk; accessed 17 June 2016.
  9. ^ a b "NI migrant population triples in decade, says study" Archived 20 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News, 26 June 2014
  10. ^ "Politicians unite to condemn 'racist' sign in Moygashel" Archived 10 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Tyrone Courier, 8 January 2014; accessed 7 September 2014.
  11. ^ Bowcott, Owen (30 May 2006). "Loyalists blamed as racist attacks on migrants double in Ulster". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Census of Ireland 1851". Enhanced Parliamentary Papers on Ireland. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  13. ^ "Census of Ireland 1891". Enhanced Parliamentary Papers on Ireland. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  14. ^ Discover Northern Ireland – Dungannon Park Archived 15 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Discovernorthernireland.com; accessed 25 September 2015.
  15. ^ Dungannon Park – Tourist attraction in Dungannon district Archived 5 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Inthedistrict.com; accessed 25 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Townlands of County Tyrone". IreAtlas Townland Database. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Northern Ireland Placenames Project". Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  18. ^ "OSI Dungannon". Ordnance Survey Ireland. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  19. ^ "Crystal closure 'a dreadful blow'". BBC News. 11 March 2010.
  20. ^ "200-year crystal making tradition ends with factory closure". The Telegraph.
  21. ^ "Home". Stpatrickscollege-dungannon.net. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  22. ^ "Timetable: Dungannon, Square – Dungannon, Bus Station – Service 377E". Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  23. ^ a b Hajducki, S. Maxwell (1974). A Railway Atlas of Ireland. Newton Abbott: David & Charles. map 8. ISBN 0-7153-5167-2.
  24. ^ FitzGerald, J.D. (1995). The Derry Road. Colourpoint Transport. Gortrush: Colourpoint Press. ISBN 1-898392-09-9.
  25. ^ Hajducki, op. cit., page xiii
  26. ^ a b c Hajducki, op. cit., map 39
  27. ^ Baker, Michael H.C. (1972). Irish Railways since 1916. London, UK: Ian Allan. pp. 155, 209. ISBN 0-7110-0282-7.
  28. ^ "Richard Dowse (1824–1890)". Dictionary of Ulster Biography. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  29. ^ Evans, Henry Oliver (1942). Iron Pioneer: Henry W. Oliver, 1840–1904. Dutton. p. 44.
  30. ^ Nelke, David Inman (1895). The Columbian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery of the Representative Men of the United States Wisconsin Volume Part 1. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 404.
  31. ^ Campbell, John H.; Dougherty, Daniel J. (1952). History of the Society of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick For the Relief of Immigrants from Ireland of Philadelphia, 17 March 1771 – 17 March 1892. Friendly Sons of St. Patrick. p. 365.
  32. ^ Foy, Michael T. (2014). Tom Clarke: The True Leader of the Easter Rising. History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-9935-2.
  33. ^ Reymond, Lizelle (1999). Dedicated : a biography of Nivedita. [S.l.]: Arcana Pub. p. 91. ISBN 0-910261-16-4.
  34. ^ Exshaw, John (14 May 1999). "Obituary: Birdy Sweeney". The Independent. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  35. ^ "Austin Currie obituary". The Guardian. 10 November 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  36. ^ "Artist, 73, revisits zoo photos which helped to launch his career". News Letter. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  37. ^ "Bernadette Devlin". A Century of Women. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  38. ^ "Professor P. G. (Gerry) McKenna". www.gerrymckenna.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  39. ^ "Pulitzer prize for Dungannon-born journalist". Ulster Herald. 17 May 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  40. ^ "Adrian Logan's profile at u.tv". Archived from the original on 16 January 2003. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
  41. ^ "Gerry McGeough is denied attempted murder pardon". BBC. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  42. ^ "On This Day: Aug 14 1968: Dungannon golfer Darren Clarke is born". Irish News. 14 August 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  43. ^ "Dungannon snooker star Patrick Wallace looks back on his big break at the World Championship". Tyrone Courier. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  44. ^ "Ryan Farquhar says 'watch this space' as Dungannon man considers racing return". BBC. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  45. ^ "Joanne Salley: Love, life and the lessons I have learnt". Belfast Telegraph. 30 January 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  46. ^ "Profile". KrisMeeke.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  47. ^ "Dungannon's Gareth Steenson Hits 98th Minute Winner As Exeter Chiefs Win Premiership Final". Balls.ie. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  48. ^ "Colin Morgan". Empire Online. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  49. ^ "Co Tyrone actor Fra Fee to star alongside Olivia Colman in upcoming Netflix Christmas flick". Belfast Live. 20 July 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  50. ^ "Niall McGinn gives his backing to new Dungannon Swifts kits". News Letter. 14 June 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  51. ^ Brennan, Colin (1 April 2016). "Michaella McCollum Connolly released from jail in Peru". Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Desperate Dungannon make pitch for survival". Belfast Telegraph. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  53. ^ "Dungannon Cricket Club". Dungannoncricketonline.moonfruit.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  54. ^ Velasco, Santiago. "Intertoto Cup 2006". www.linguasport.com. First Round. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  55. ^ "UEFA Europa League 2007/08 Clubs". UEFA.com. First qualifying round: UEFA Europa League. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  56. ^ Mooney, Francis (5 March 2021). "Major development plans for Dungannon Clarkes and Aodh Ruadh". The Irish News. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  57. ^ "First woman appointed as captain of Northern Ireland golf club". The Irish News. 25 January 2022. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  58. ^ "Cross-border row over hare coursing ban". Belfast Telegraph. 5 July 2008. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  59. ^ Owen Bowcott. "Northern Ireland bans hare coursing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  60. ^ Barnes, Julia (1988). Daily Mirror Greyhound Fact File. Ringpress Books. p. 325. ISBN 0-948955-15-5.
  61. ^ "Dungannon" (PDF). greyhoundracinghistory.co.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  62. ^ "Market Town Rivalry In Ulster". Irish Rugby. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2022.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]