Lunar Precursor Robotic Program
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The Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP) is a NASA program that uses robotic spacecraft to prepare for future human spaceflight missions to the Moon by 2020. The program will gather crucial data such as Lunar radiation, surface imaging, areas of scientific interest, temperature and lighting conditions, and potential resource identification.  Two LPRP missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), were launched in June 2009. The lift off above Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida was successful on June 18, 2009. The unmanned Atlas V rocket launched the two space probes towards the Moon, where they will provide a 3-D map and search for water in conjunction with the Hubble Space Telescope.
The launch date, originally planned for October 2008, was moved to June 17, 2009 due to a postponement of the June 13, 2009 launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, resulting from a hydrogen fuel leak. This lunar program marked the first United States mission to the Moon in over ten years. Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon occurred July 20, 1969, and this launch was just 32 days shy of the 40th anniversary. The actual journey to the Moon took about four days, at which time the LRO entered a low orbit around the Moon, while the LCROSS mission performed a "swing-by" to enter a much different orbit to set up for a collision with the Moon's surface several months later. Projected lunar impact of the Centaur and LCROSS spacecraft was on October 9, 2009 at 11:30 UT (7:30 a.m. EDT, 4:30 a.m. PDT), ± 30 minutes. The plume[disambiguation needed] from the Centaur impact was predicted by NASA to be visible through telescopes with apertures as small as 10 to 12 inches (300 mm).
Initially, the LPRP program was a part of the Science Mission Directorate of NASA (SMD) and was called the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP). Management of the RLEP program was assigned to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in February, 2004. At that time, the Program's goal was to "...initiate a series of robotic missions to the Moon to prepare for and support future human exploration activities." In 2005, responsibility for RLEP was moved to NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and management assigned to the Ames Research Center (ARC). In 2006, the program was renamed to the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program and management responsibility reassigned to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The US$583 million space mission comes equipped with a $504 million state of the art 4,200 pounds (1,900 kg) LRO space probe and a $79 million LCROSS satellite.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first mission of the LPRP program. Management of LRO was assigned to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2004. LRO launched on an Atlas V 401 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 18, 2009, at 5:32 p.m. EDT (2132 GMT). The planned lift off at 5:12 p.m. EDT (2112 GMT) was delayed by 20 minutes due to thunderstorms. It was scheduled to orbit the moon for one year, gathering high resolution images of the lunar surface that would allow the creation of detailed maps. LRO's goals included finding safe landing sites for human visits to the Moon, identifying lunar resources, studying the lunar radiation environment, and providing a 3-D map of the Moon's surface to allow astronauts to return to the moon by 2020. The LRO carried seven main instruments, the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), and Miniature Radio Frequency radar (Mini-RF).
The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission is co-manifested with LRO. It was selected as a secondary payload in 2006, and management of the program was assigned to Ames Research Center (ARC). The mission will explore a permanently shadowed region of a lunar pole by crashing the 2,300 pounds (1,000 kg) spent Centaur rocket upper stage of the Atlas V launch vehicle into a dark crater. The composition of the ejecta plume will be observed by a shepherding spacecraft, which will itself crash-land 4 minutes later, creating a second plume. NASA expects the impact velocity will be over 9,000 km/h (5,600 mph). The ejecta plume will be in the order of 350 tons (317 metric tons) and rise 6 miles (9.7 km) from the surface.
For the proposed International Lunar Network, NASA and international partners would land two stations on the lunar surface. Their objective was to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface and eventually, in lunar orbit as well. 
The Lunar Mapping and Modeling project is using the obtained data to develop detailed topographic maps of the lunar surface that support lunar science, exploration, commercial, and educational and public outreach activities. In addition, solar radiation levels will be mapped and modelled. These integrated data will be used by NASA to make decisions about, for example, lunar outpost designs.
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