The Blue Marble

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The Blue Marble, taken by the Apollo 17 crew in 1972

The Blue Marble is an image of Earth taken on December 7, 1972, from a distance of around 29,000 kilometers (18,000 miles) from the planet's surface.[1][2][3] Taken by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft on its way to the Moon, it is one of the most reproduced images in history.[4][5][a]

It mainly shows Earth from the Mediterranean Sea to Antarctica. This was the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap, despite the Southern Hemisphere being heavily covered in clouds. In addition to the Arabian Peninsula and Madagascar, almost the entire coastline of Africa and most of the Indian Ocean are clearly visible, A Cyclone in the Indian Ocean is also visible, The South Asian mainland is on the eastern limb.

NASA has also applied the name to a 2012 series of images which cover the entire globe at relatively high resolution. These were created by looking through satellite pictures taken over time in order to find as many cloudless photographs as possible to use in the final images. NASA has verified all images of the 2012 "blue marble" are composites as they cannot get far enough away and have to combine multiple photos together. Likewise, these images do not fit together properly and due to lighting, weather and cloud interference it is impossible to collect cohesive or fully clear images to begin with.[7]

The photograph[edit]

Color-calibrated version.

The photograph, taken on December 7, 1972,[8] is one of the most widely distributed photographic images in existence.[5] The astronauts had the Sun above[9] them when they took the image. To the astronauts, the slightly gibbous Earth had the appearance and size of a glass marble, hence the name.

History[edit]

Context[edit]

The Blue Marble was not the first clear color image taken of an illuminated face of Earth, since such images by satellites had already been made and released as early as 1967,[10] and is the second time such a photo was taken by a person after the 1968 photograph Earthrise taken by William Anders of Apollo 8.[11]

Before the Blue Marble a picture of the fully illuminated Earth by the ATS-3 satellite was used in 1968 by Stewart Brand for his Whole Earth Catalog, after campaigning since 1966 to have NASA release a then-rumored satellite image of the entire Earth as seen from space. He got inspired during an LSD trip, seeing a "psychedelic illusion" of the Earth's curvature, convincing him that a picture of the entire planet would change how humans related to it.[12][13] He sold and distributed buttons for 25 cents each[14] that asked: "Why haven't we seen a photograph of the whole Earth yet?"[15] During this campaign, Brand met Richard Buckminster Fuller, who offered to help Brand with his project.[16] Several of the pins made their way to NASA employees.[13]

The Apollo 17 image, however, released during a surge in environmental activism during the 1970s, became a symbol of the environmental movement, as a depiction of Earth's fragility, vulnerability, and isolation amid the vast expanse of space.[4]

Today, as speculated by NASA archivist Mike Gentry, The Blue Marble is among the most widely distributed images in history.[5]

Circumstances[edit]

AS17-148-22727, from which The Blue Marble was cropped.

The photograph's official NASA designation is AS17-148-22727. It is the third of a series of shots which were taken just before and are nearly identical, NASA photograph AS17-148-22725[17] and AS17-148-22726, the second also having been used as a full-Earth image.[18] The widely published versions are cropped and chromatically adjusted from the original photographs.[19][20]

According to the photograph description by NASA it was taken at 05:39 a.m. EST,[11] 5 hours 6 minutes after launch of the Apollo 17 mission,[21] and about 1 hour 54 minutes after the spacecraft left its parking orbit around Earth to begin its trajectory to the Moon.[22] Alternatively, Eric Hartwell has identified it as having been taken slightly earlier at 5 hours 3 minutes, when one crew member states having changed the f-number, presumably between AS17-148-22725, the first of the series of photos, and the following less exposed images like the Blue Marble.[5] At that time Africa was in noon[11] daylight and with the December solstice approaching, Antarctica was also illuminated.

The photograph is at times oriented with Earth's south pointing up,[21] relative to the capsule.[23] Although in Eric Hartwell's analysis Earth's north is pointing up from the seat and perspective he has identified the image must have been taken from.[5]

Cyclone Sixteen (16B) can be seen in the upper right of the image. This storm had brought flooding and high winds to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu on December 5, two days before the photograph was taken.[24]

The photographer used a 70-millimeter Hasselblad camera with an 80-millimeter Zeiss lens.[25][26] NASA generally[5] credits images to the whole crew of a mission. All crew members, Gene Cernan, Ronald Evans and Harrison Schmitt, took photographs during the mission with the on-board Hasselblad, and have appeared trying to distract from who is the photographer by each but together claiming having taken it.[27] However, interviews[9] and evidence examined by Eric Hartwell after the mission suggests that Schmitt was the photographer.[5]

Apollo 17 was the last crewed lunar mission. No human since has been far enough from Earth to photograph a whole-Earth image[4] such as The Blue Marble, but whole-Earth images have been taken by many uncrewed spacecraft missions.[28]

Subsequent Blue Marble images[edit]

Subsequent similar images of Earth (including composites at much higher resolution) have also been termed Blue Marble images, and the phrase "blue marble" (as well as the picture itself) is frequently used, as in the Earth flag by environmental activist organizations or companies attempting to promote an environmentally conscious image. There has also been a children's television program called Big Blue Marble. Poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar penned an Earth anthem inspired by the Blue Marble which contains "all the peoples and the nations of the world, one for all, all for one, united we unfurl the blue marble flag".[29][better source needed]

Imaging series 2001–2004[edit]

Blue Marble composite images generated by NASA in 2001 and 2002.
NASA Earth Observatory animation of Blue Marble Next Generation (2004).[30]

In 2002, NASA released an extensive set of satellite-captured imagery, including prepared images suitable for direct human viewing, as well as complete sets suitable for use in preparing further works.[31] At the time, 1 km/pixel was the most detailed imagery available for free, and permitted for reuse[32] without a need for extensive preparatory work to eliminate cloud cover and conceal missing data, or to parse specialized data formats. The data also included a similarly manually assembled cloud-cover and night-lights image sets, at lower resolutions.

A subsequent release was made in 2005, named Blue Marble Next Generation.[33] This series of digital image mosaics was produced with the aid of automated image-sifting upon images from NASA's Earth Observatory, which enabled the inclusion of a complete, cloud-free globe for each month from January to December 2004, at even higher resolution (500 m/pixel).[34] The original release of a single-image set covering the entire globe could not reflect the extent of seasonal snow-and-vegetative cover across both hemispheres, but this newer release closely modeled the changes of the seasons.

A number of interactive viewers for these data have also been released, among them a music visualization for the PlayStation 3 that is based on the texture data.[34][35]

Blue Marble 2012[edit]

Blue Marble 2012 – a composite satellite image

On January 25, 2012, NASA released a composite image of the Western Hemisphere of Earth titled Blue Marble 2012. Robert Simmon is most notable for his visualization of the Western Hemisphere. The picture logged over 3.1 million views on the Flickr image hosting website within the first week of release.[36] On February 2, 2012, NASA released a companion to this new Blue Marble, showing a composite image of the Eastern Hemisphere from data obtained on January 23, 2012.[37]

The picture is composed of data obtained by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the Suomi NPP satellite on January 4, 2012.[37][38] The data was obtained from six orbits of the Earth by the Suomi NPP over an eight-hour period.[37] The image was created using a near-sided perspective projection with the viewing point placed 2100 km above 20° North by 100° West. This projection results in a very wide-angle presentation such as one might get with a fish-eye lens, and it does not include the whole hemisphere.

Black Marble 2012[edit]

Black Marble – North and South America at night,[39] Hurricane Sandy can be seen off the coast of Florida.

On December 5, 2012, NASA released a nighttime view of Earth called Black Marble[39] during an annual meeting of Earth scientists held by the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.[40] The images display all the human and natural matter that glows and can be detected from space.[41] The data was acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite in April and October 2012 and then mapped over existing Blue Marble imagery of Earth to provide a realistic view of the planet.[42] The Suomi NPP satellite completed 312 orbits and gathered 2.5 terabytes of data to get a clear shot of every parcel of the Earth's land surface. Named for satellite meteorology pioneer Verner Suomi, the satellite flies over any given point on Earth's surface twice each day and flies 512 miles (824 km) above the surface in a polar orbit.[43]

The nighttime views were obtained with the new satellite's "day-night band" of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared, and uses filtering techniques to observe dim signals such as city lights, gas flares, auroras, wildfires, and reflected moonlight. Auroras, fires, and other stray light have been removed in the case of the Black Marble images to emphasize the city lights.[42] The images have been used to study the spatial distribution of economic activity, to select sites for astronomical observatories, and to monitor human activities around protected areas.[42]

DSCOVR[edit]

A color corrected image of the Earth taken by the DSCOVR satellite in February 2022 nearly 50 years after the original Blue Marble image

On July 21, 2015, NASA released a new Blue Marble photograph taken by a U.S. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), a solar weather and Earth observation satellite that was launched in February 2015 and will provide a near-continuous view of the entire sunlit-side of the Earth. The image was taken on July 6, 2015.[44] The photograph, of the Western Hemisphere, is centered over Central America. The Western United States, Mexico and the Caribbean are visible, but much of South America is hidden beneath cloud cover. Greenland can be seen at the upper edge of the image.

The EPIC science team plans to upload 13 new color images per day on their website. The color balance has been adjusted to approximate an image that could be seen with the average human eye. In addition to images, scientific information will be uploaded as it becomes available after in-flight calibration is complete. The science information will be ozone and aerosol amounts, cloud reflectivity, cloud height, and vegetation information. The EPIC instrument views the Earth from sunrise in the west to sunset in the east 12 to 13 times per day as the Earth rotates at 15 degrees of longitude per hour. Clearly visible are storms forming over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, major slowly moving "cloud rivers", dust aerosol plumes from Africa, the sun's reflection in the oceans, ship exhaust tracks in the clouds, rivers and lakes, and the variegated land surface patterns especially in the African deserts. The spatial resolution of the color images is about 10 km, and the resolution of the science products will be about 20 km. Once every three months, lunar images are obtained that are the same as those viewed from Earth during our full Moon. On occasion, the other side of the Moon will appear in the Earth images as the Moon crosses in front of the Earth.

Cultural reception[edit]

The picture has been identified as one of the most widely publicised and influential images since its release, particularly in the advocacy for environmental protection.[4][5]

Its reflection, and of images from space in general, has been in parts critically analyzed as distracting from human geographic issues and from being a technological product produced by a dominant spacefaring country, which developed the image and its overview effect as a boundless worldview instead of as an image inviting an intricate and critical overview.[45][46][47]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ The image has the official NASA designation AS17-148-22727.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Apollo 17 PAO Mission Commentary Transcript" (PDF). NASA. 2001. p. 106. Retrieved May 11, 2017. SC: 'You're loud and clear, Bob, and could you give us our distance from the Earth?' ... CAPCOM: '18 100, Fido says.'
  2. ^ "Visible Earth: The Blue Marble from Apollo 17". NASA. January 31, 2001. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  3. ^ "Apollo 17 30th Anniversary: Antarctica Zoom-out". Scientific Visualization Studio. NASA. November 21, 2002. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d Petsko, Gregory A. (April 28, 2011). "The blue marble". Genome Biology. 12 (4): 112. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-112. PMC 3218853. PMID 21554751.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Apollo 17: The Blue Marble". Ehartwell.com. April 25, 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  6. ^ "Apollo Imagery". NASA. November 1, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  7. ^ "Elegant Figures - Crafting the Blue Marble". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. October 6, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  8. ^ Cosgrove, Ben (April 11, 2014). "Home, Sweet Home: In Praise of Apollo 17's 'Blue Marble'". Time. Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2019.
  9. ^ a b "The Story of Blue Marble Images, Part 2". CleanTechnica. January 4, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2022. From astronaut Schmitt stating that Earth was beneath them.
  10. ^ Mars, Kelli (December 17, 2020). "90 Years of Our Changing Views of Earth". NASA. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c "The Story of the Blue Marble". CleanTechnica. January 1, 2022. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  12. ^ "Lunch with the FT: Stewart Brand". Financial Times. January 8, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  13. ^ a b "The Guardian Profile: Stewart Brand". The Guardian. August 3, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  14. ^ Brand, Stewart. "Photography changes our relationship to our planet". Smithsonian Photography Initiative. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  15. ^ Brand, Stewart (2009). Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto. Viking Adult. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-670-02121-5.
  16. ^ Leonard, Jennifer. "Stewart Brand on the long view". Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  17. ^ "March to the Moon". March to the Moon. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  18. ^ "Earth from Apollo 17". The Astrophoto Lab. December 7, 1972. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  19. ^ "AS17-148-22727". Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. NASA. June 1, 2019. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  20. ^ "AS17-148-22726". Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. NASA. June 1, 2019. Archived from the original on June 1, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  21. ^ a b Reinert, Al (April 12, 2011). "The Blue Marble Shot: Our First Complete Photograph of Earth". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  22. ^ "Apollo 17 Image Library". Apollo 17 Multimedia. NASA. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
  23. ^ "Worth a thousand worlds". Geek Trivia. TechRepublic. December 6, 2005. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
  24. ^ "History of Past Cyclones". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on September 25, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  25. ^ Parker, Phill. "Apollo-11 Hasselblad Cameras". Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. NASA.
  26. ^ Apollo 17 Index: 70 mm, 35 mm, and 16 mm Photographs (PDF). Mapping Sciences Branch, Johnson Space Center, NASA. May 1974. p. 88.
  27. ^ Berger, Erin (December 6, 2017). "The Mystery Behind Who Took the Blue Marble Photo". Outside Online. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  28. ^ "Apollo 17 (AS-512)". National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  29. ^ Kumar, Abhay (May 24, 2013). "Voices: An anthem for the Earth". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on July 17, 2015.
  30. ^ See also interactive SVG map from January to December 2004 on Wikimedia Commons.
  31. ^ "The Blue Marble: True-Color Global Imagery at 1km Resolution". NASA Earth Observatory. October 13, 2005. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  32. ^ Hormann, Christoph (May 30, 2007). "Earth renders using the Blue Marble 2002 data". Imagico.de. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  33. ^ Stöckli, Reto (January 1, 2005). "Blue Marble Next Generation". Blue Marble Research.
  34. ^ a b Stöckli, Reto (October 13, 2005). "Blue Marble Next Generation". NASA Earth Observatory.
  35. ^ Sheffield, Brandon (December 26, 2007). "Special: Q-Games on PS3's 'Gaia' Music Visualizer". Gamasutra.
  36. ^ "Most Amazing High Definition Image of Earth – Blue Marble 2012". Flickr.com. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. January 4, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  37. ^ a b c "VIIRS Eastern Hemisphere Image – Behind the Scenes". NASA. February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  38. ^ "Blue Marble, 2012". NASA. January 25, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  39. ^ a b Cole, Steve; et al. (December 5, 2012). "NASA-NOAA Satellite Reveals New Views of Earth at Night". NASA. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  40. ^ "NASA Photos Show 'Black Marble' Earth at Night". ABC News Radio. December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  41. ^ Samenow, Jason (December 5, 2012). "Satellites unveil Black Marble and spy on the moon". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  42. ^ a b c "Black Marble – Americas". Flickr.com. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. April–October 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  43. ^ "'Black Marble' images shine light upon a sleeping world". The Washington Post. December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  44. ^ Lendino, Jamie (July 21, 2015). "Humanity gets a new Blue Marble photo of Earth — and it's stunning". ExtremeTech. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
  45. ^ Flores, Teresa Mendes (April 10, 2012). "The Global Imagination: from "The Blue Marble" photograph to "Google Earth"". Academia.edu. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
  46. ^ Biondi, Charleyne (January 21, 2018). "Haris A. Durrani - The Bogotá Declaration: A Global Uprising? – Uprising 13/13". Log In ‹ Blogs @ Columbia Law School. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
  47. ^ Bimm, Jordan (February 1, 2014). "Rethinking the Overview Effect". Quest: The History of Spaceflight. Retrieved October 22, 2022.

External links[edit]

  • NASA history of Blue Marble image releases

1972 photograph[edit]

21st century NASA composite images[edit]