!O!ung language

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Northern ǃXuun, Sekele, Vasekela
Native to Namibia, Angola
Region Okavango and Ovamboland Territory
Native speakers
1,000[1] (2003)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 vaj
Glottolog oung1238[2]

ǃOǃung (!'O!Khung, ǃʼOǃKung, ǃʼO ǃuŋ, [ǃˀoːǃʰũ] "Forest ǃKung"), or Northern ǃXuun (Northern Ju); also known by the Angolan Bantu name Sekele (Vasekele) and in one source as Maligo (Sekele Maligo), is the northern variety of the !Kung (ǃXuun) dialect continuum. It was widespread in southern Angola before the civil war, but now is principally spoken among a diaspora in northern Namibia.

A variety currently being investigated is Mangetti Dune !Kung (Mangetti Dune !Xuun), spoken by a resettled diaspora community of 500–1000 in Namibia and South Africa in the settlements of Mangetti Dune and Omtaku (Omatako?), east of Grootfontein, Namibia, halfway to the Botswana border; and in Schmidtsdrif, west of Kimberley, South Africa.


Mangetti Dune !Kung has clicks with four places of articulation, /ǃ ǀ ǁ ǂ/. (A reported distinction between dental lateral and postalveolar lateral clicks has not been confirmed by further research.)

These come in the same eight series as in Grootfontein !Kung, here represented with the palatal articulation:


  1. ^ International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE-Esperanto. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 363. ISBN 9780195139778. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "!O!ung". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 


  • Snyman, Jan Winston. 1980. The Relationship Between Angolan ǃXu and Zuǀʼõasi. In Bushman and Hottentot Linguistic Studies 1979, pp. 1–58. Ed. Snyman, J. W.. University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria.
  • Miller, Amanda et al.. 2011. "The Phonetics of the Modernday Reflexes of the Proto‐palatal Click in Juu Languages" (Ekoka and Mangetti Dune)

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