Military history of Georgia

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Monument of Battle of Didgori

The country of Georgia has known a rich military history, both as a battlefield of empires and as an independent political and military power. The strategic significance and natural wealth of its territory made it the target of many invasions, and the country's independence was preserved against multiple enemies by a succession of states. Before the unification of the country by the Bagrationi dynasty in the 10th century, several states, such as Iberia and Colchis had managed to subsist between the Roman empire (later Byzantine Empire in the West) and the Sassanid Empire (later replaced by the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates). Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the Kingdom of Georgia was a major regional power, which withstood invasions by the Great Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, and Timurid Empire, before its fragmentation and submission to the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Many Georgians fought in the armies of the empires that ruled the country from the 16th century, be it the Safavids (and successive Afsharids and Qajars), the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union, and the nation kept a reputation for military valour and skill. Since 1991, the newly independent Georgia has taken part in many conflicts: its conflicts with Russia culminated in the 2008 South Ossetia war, while its alliance with the United States led to Georgia's participation in the Afghan and Iraq wars.


Kingdom of Iberia[edit]

Georgian (Iberian) flag in the 4th to 6th centuries

Iberia (Georgian — იბერია, Latin: Iberia and Greek: Ἰβηρία), also known as Iveria (Georgian: ივერია), was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli[1] (4th century BC – 5th century AD), corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia.[2][3] The term Caucasian Iberia (or Eastern Iberia) is used to distinguish it from the Iberian Peninsula, where the present day countries of Spain, Portugal and Andorra are located.

The Caucasian Iberians provided a basis for later Georgian statehood and along with Colchis (early western Georgian state) formed a core of the present day Georgian people (or Kartvelians).[4][5]

Pompey's Georgian campaign[edit]

Georgian(Colchis) fortress of Surami, built in the 2nd-3rd centuries, heavily fortified in the 12th century

Pompey invaded Georgia in 65 BC after making the Kingdom of Armenia a vassal of Rome. He demanded vassalage from the Iberians, but the Iberians refused and began partisan wars against Pompey. The warriors were hiding in the woods and killing Roman soldiers in small ambushes. Reportedly, a sizable number of women also participated in this irregular warfare. Later in the same year, the Iberians fought against main forces of Pompey over the Aragvi river near Mtskheta, the capital of Iberia, Greek historian Plutarch called this battle a great battle and noted that Iberian casualties consisted of approximately 9,000 people, while more than 10,000 were taken captive by Romans. After subdueing Iberia, Pompey turned towards the Kingdom of Colchis and subjugated the main fortresses and various local peoples on the way with both cunning diplomacy and the use of force.

Kingdom of Colchis[edit]

Georgian Colchis and Iberia 600BC-150BC

In ancient Geography, Colchis or Kolkhis (Georgian and Laz: კოლხეთი, ḳolkheti or "ḳolkha"; Ancient Greek: Κολχίς, Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian[6][7][8][9] state[10][11] kingdom and region[12] in Western Georgia, which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation.[9][13][14] Its geography is mostly assigned to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the present-day Georgian provinces of Samegrelo, Imereti, Guria, Adjara, Abkhazeti, Svaneti, Racha; the modern Turkey’s Rize, Trabzon and Artvin provinces (Lazistan, Tao-Klarjeti); and the modern Russia’s Sochi and Tuapse districts.[15] The Colchians were probably established on the Black Sea coast by the Middle Bronze Age.[16]

War between Iberia and Armenia[edit]

The War between Armenia and Iberia (AD 51) is known chiefly through its description in Tacitus' Annals.[17] Fearing usurpation by Rhadamistus, his father convinced him to declare war upon his uncle and claim the Armenian throne for himself. The Iberians invaded with a large army and forced Mithridates to retreat into the fortress of Gorneas (Garni), which was garrisoned by the Romans under the command of Caelius Pollio, a prefect, and Casperius, a centurion. Rhadamistus was unable to take the fortress by assault or by siege. Pollio, swayed by bribery from Rhadamistus, induced the Roman soldiers to threaten the capitulation of the garrison. Under this threat, Mithridates left the fortress in order to make peace with Rhadamistus. Rhadamistus then executed Mithridates and his sons, despite a promise of non-violence, and became King of Armenia. Of this usurpation, Tacitus wrote "Rhadamistus might retain his ill-gotten gains, as long as he was hated and infamous; for this was more to Rome's interest than for him to have succeeded with glory".

Late Antiquty[edit]

Vakhtang Gorgasal's revolt against Sassanids[edit]

Caucasus region in late 1124 AD

In 327 Georgia adopted Christianity and became a Christian state, which caused it to grow more distant from its Zoroastrian neighbor.[18][19][20] From 483 to 522 the then Georgian king Vakhtang I turned Georgia into a strong regional power. Persians referred to him as "Gorgasal", which means wolf, due to his respectively shaped helmet that was partialy made of a wolf's head. The king wore that particular helmet during the Persian invsaion. Military ambitions also grew. The total number of troops under Vakhtang I was around 50,000-60,000 at that time.

Iberian War[edit]

The Iberian War was a conflict between the Eastern Roman and Sassanid Empires over the Georgian kingdom of Iberia,which lasted from 526 to 532. It began following a rise of tension between the two empires in the upper Mesopotamian and Transcaucasian regions, and an anti-Persian revolt in Iberia. The war had ended with the signing of the Treaty of Eternal Peace, in which the Sassanids kept Iberia, and the Byzantines (Eastern Romans) gained the region of Lazica. The treaty had essentially been broken with the start of the Lazic War nine years later.

Lazic War[edit]

In the Eternal Peace treaty signed between the Sassanid and Byzantine empires,the Sassanids saw Lazica as a region within the sphere of influence of the Byzantines and the Lazic king at the time (Tzath I) was granted baptism from Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople. Lazica effectively became a protectorate of the Byzantines,which eventually led to a fullscale revolt in 541,which was supported by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. The revolt essentially overthrew Byzantine control in the region.
However,the tables were turned in 548 when the situation turned against the Persians, and the Lazics began to revolt against the Persians with Byzantine help.
The conflict had ended with a status quo agreement made in 562,in which the Sassanids yet again recognized Lazica as a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire.

Early middle ages[edit]

War with Umayyad Caliphate[edit]

Georgian fortress of Tbilisi

War with Umayyad Caliphate took place from 735 to 737. Georgians lost the war and Marwan ibn Muhammad massacred many Georgians.

High Middle Ages[edit]

Georgian Kingdom at the peak of her might Early 13th century
Georgian Empire

Kingdom of Georgia[edit]

Georgian medieval flag

Georgia’s power reached its peak in the years from 1180–1236, creating one of the strongest medieval kingdoms in west Asia, with the population of approximately 5 million people and with an army of 40,000–90,000 warriors.

Byzantine–Georgian Wars[edit]

The Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Georgia were first began fighting each other in the years 1014–1208 AD. The Byzantines invaded Georgia while Georgia was busy in wars against the Seljuks and Arabs. The Byzantines conquered Georgian territories but as soon as the Kingdom of Georgia found power to fight the third invader, Georgia reconquered Tao-Klarjeti and invaded Byzantium. Soon Georgia conquered Trabzon and Sinope, established Trebizond Empire and finished the war with victory.

Georgian–Seljuk wars[edit]

Battle of Didgori[edit]

Main article: Battle of Didgori
Georgian rider at Didgori field

The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia (55,000) and Seljuk Empire (300,000) at Didgori, 40 km west of Tbilisi, (the modern-day capital of Georgia), on 12 August 1121. The battle resulted in King David IV of Georgia’s decisive victory over a Seljuk invasion army under Ilghazi and the subsequent reconquest of a Muslim-held Tbilisi, which became the royal capital. The victory at Didgori inaugurated medieval Georgia’s "Golden Age" and is celebrated in the Georgian chronicles as a "miraculous victory", while modern Georgians continue to remember the event as an annual September festival known as Didgoroba ("[the day] of Didgori").[21]

Battle of Shamkor[edit]

Main article: Battle of Shamkor

On 1 June 1195 Georgia crushed a 70,000-man army of Azerbaijani Atabeg commanded by Abu Bakr with a 35,000-strong Georgian army commanded by David Soslan, spouse of Tamar. The battle took place at the modern-day Shamkir District in Azerbaijan. Bakr was eventually captured as prisoner after a retreat to Nakhichevan.

Battle of Basian[edit]

Main article: Battle of Basian

On 27 July 1202 the Georgia crushed an approximately 400,000-man Muslim coalition army led by the Seljuqid Sultanate of Rum in the Basiani Vale, located 60 km northeast from Erzurum with a 65,000-man army.

Mongol invasions of Georgia and Armenia[edit]

The first appearance of the Mongols in the Caucasus was in 1220, when the Mongol generals Subutai and Jebe persuaded the Khwarazmian Shah (Muhammad the IInd) to invade Georgia, taking away several regions from the nation. Subutai and Jebe later advanced northwards into Kievan Rus'. The Mongols had launched a full-scale invasion of Georgia in 1236, along with the Empire of Trebizond and the Sultanate of Rum. They took the southernmost regions of the Georgian kingdom in Armenia, effectively annexing the nation,while the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and certain Crusader states willingly gave into vassalage. Georgia enjoyed a short period of independence from the Mongols under king George V, though the Timurid invasions eventually lead to its destruction.

Medieval Georgian army[edit]

From Highest to lowest rank in Medieval Georgian:

  • King (Commander of army)
  • Amirspasalar (General)
  • Tavadi (noble)
  • Aznauri (lord)
  • Mona-Spa (royal cavalry)
  • Aznauri cavalry (elite heavy cavalry)
  • Tadzreuli soldier (heavy infantry, later Royal Cavalry, analog of Templars)
  • Metsikhovne, khevsur, Mshvildosani, metsikhovne spearman and Kartlian spearman soldiers (Well trained and well armed soldiers, elite)
  • Qrma (light infantry, well armed Georgian man, Trained every year by Tavads)

Timur's invasions of Georgia[edit]

Georgian Kingdom in 1460, bordering Kara Koyunlu to the south.

Georgia, a Christian nation in the Caucasus, was subjected, between 1386 and 1404, to several disastrous invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia.

In the first of at least seven invasions, Timur sacked Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, and captured the king Bagrat V in 1386. Georgian resistance prompted a renewed attack by the Turco-Mongol armies. Bagrat’s son and successor, George VII, put up a stiff resistance and had to spend much of his reign (1395-1405) fighting the Timurid invasions. Timur personally led most of these raids to subdue the recalcitrant Georgian monarch. Although he was not able to establish a firm control over Georgia, the country suffered a blow from which it never recovered. George VII had eventually signed a peace treaty with the Timurids,though his kingdom consisted of little more than gutted towns, ravaged countryside and a shattered monarchy.

Turkoman invasions of Georgia[edit]

Following the death of Turco-Mongol ruler Timurlane,his empire began fragmenting into smaller states. One of these states was Kara Koyunlu,which took advantage of Georgia's weakness which befell them after several invasions by Timur, and launched an invasion in which they killed the Georgian king George VII. The next king, Constantine I allied himself with Shirvanshah Ibrahim I,however,he was defeated and taken captive in the Battle of Chalagan and was executed along with 300 other Georgians. Alexander I had re-taken Lori from the Turkomans, and encouraged the Armenian king Beskhen II Orbelian to attack the Turkomans in the modern-day Syunik Province in southern Armenia,which he had accomplished and gave Beskhen the Lori province under the terms that he became a vassal. Jahan Shah of Kara Koyunlu had launched two invasion forces into Georgia 1440 and 1444 due to Alexander's unwillingness to pay tribute to the Shah,sacking Tbilisi and other areas.
The Kara Koyunlu were destroyed by the Aq Qoyunlu,whom were tribal kin to Kara Koyunlu and were very similar in many ways. The Aq Qoyunlu took advantage of the fragmentation of Georgia and invaded several times under prince Uzun Hasan. The Georgians had eventually allied themselves with the founder of the Persian Safavid Dynasty Ismail I and defeated the Aq Qoyunlu,putting an end to their invasions.

Georgian Mamluks in Egypt[edit]

In the thirteenth century, Egyptians began recruiting mainly Christians of Georgia and Circassia as slave soldiers called Mamluks. After 1235, 70 percent of Egyptian Mamluks were Circassians or Georgians in origin and the other 30% were Kipchaks.[citation needed]

Georgian Mamluks in Iraq[edit]

At the start of the eighteenth century, Georgian Mamluks based in Iraq asserted autonomy from the Ottoman Empire and founded a dynasty which ruled an autonomous Iraq until 1831, when the Ottomans reimposed direct rule.

Georgian weapons[edit]

King David "the Builder" made his own sword, naming it "Khmali" (literally meaning "Sword" in Georgian) and supplied his army with it. The Georgians called it "Davitiuri" which means "Sword of David" in English. David personally called it "Sword of the Messiah".

The Georgian "Davitiuri" sword was a mixture between the European Knightly sword and the Persian bow sword. Later on, this sword saw the Georgians into the Golden age of Georgia in 11-12th centuries. The Georgian "Davitiuri" sword was adopted by all Caucasian nations and became a Caucasian sword.

Early modern period[edit]

Georgian–Safavid wars[edit]

Georgian–Ottoman wars[edit]

Georgian cavalry in 1918.

After the Mongol invasions and the collapse of the Kingdom of Georgia, from the 16th to the 19th century, Georgia is fighting against Persian, Ottoman, and Russian rule over the region in battles such as:

Absorption by the Russian Empire[edit]

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire starts to systematicaly annex single Georgian dominions until all of Georgia is absorbed into the empire.

20th Century[edit]

World War I[edit]

Georgia fought in the first world war as part of the Russian Empire. Out of a total population of 1.5 million around 200,000 soldiers took part in the Imperial Russian war efforts. 15,000 soldiers fought at side of Germany in the first Georgian Legion.

Georgian-Armenian War[edit]

A brief war erupts between the two newly established Caucasus republics over the control of regions ending in a military stalemate with little political and territorial gains on either side and hundreds or probably thousands of dead, wounded and captured.

Turkish–Georgian war[edit]

The Sochi conflict[edit]

Main article: Sochi conflict

In 1918 a three-sided dispute on wheter the region of Sochi which was under Georgian-Abkhazian rule during previous centuries should be the border between Russia and Georgia, sparks a conflict over the control of the territory primarily between the Democratic Republic of Georgia, the SFSR and the White Movement. The Abkhazian nobility requests military aid from the Georgian government as Bolshevik forces are attempting to capture Sochi. Georgia responds by sending troops to repulse the Bolshevik incursion with aid of the Abkhazians resulting in the capture of all three major areas along the entire coastline as far as Tuapse while Sochi is secured. Initialy the White Movement forces are considered allies by Georgia until their announcment of a Greater Russia including the entire Caucasus region as integral part. With Denikins forces pushing back the red army towards Tuapse the Georgians are forced to abandon the town but keep Sochi under their control which causes great protest among the White Movement leadership. In response Denikin conducts an unsuccessfull siege of the town until the Georgian forces under general Konyev give in to increasingly overwhelming numbers and are driven back as far as the Georgian town of Gagra. Before the Georgians are able to mount a counterattack, British representatives intervene resulting in the establishment of a temporary DMZ. After failed negotiations joint Abkhaz-Georgian troops under Mazniashvili conduct a large scale offensive retaking Gagra after a bloody battle intending to move further but the operation is halted when a British contingent arrives in the capital of Georgia forcing the Georgian government to back down.

Red Army Invasion of Georgia[edit]

In 1921 Soviet Russian forces invade and ultimately annex the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Thousands of people are killed on both sides including civilians.

August Uprising[edit]

Main article: August Uprising

In 1924 thousands of Georgian freedom fighters (including people from Abkhazia) are killed while trying to fight the Soviet takeover and rule over their country. Over 10.000 people are executed.

World War II[edit]

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union
Shalva Loladze, leader of the Georgian rebels on Texel

With a total population of 3 million Georgia contributes with up to 700,000 soldiers to the Soviet war efforts. 300,000 soldiers die and around 400,000 return home. 30,000 Georgians fight for the Axis within the second and other units including SS and Luftwaffe.
Notable Georgian figures of World War II: Joseph Stalin, Lavrenty Beria, Konstantine Leselidze, Nikoloz Muskhelishvili, Alexander Kartveli, Alexander Nadiradze, Vladimir Janjgava, Shalva Maglakelidze, Archil Gelovani.
Notable Georgian fighters and soldiers of World War II: Dimitri Amilakhvari, Noe Adamia, Meliton Kantaria, Geno Adamia, Vasilij Kvachantiradze, Yaroslav Iosseliani.

Texel Uprising[edit]

On 5 April 1945 the 882nd Infantry Battalion of the Georgian Legion under the command of Shalva Loladze revolts against the Germans on 5 April 1945 on the island Texel in an effort to bring it under their control and surrender to the allies. However total control is not achieved and with reinforcements the Germans are able to seize the island back rounding up and killing all but a few Georgians who are sheltered and hidden by the Dutch. Over 1,300 people die in what is often described as the last battlefield in Europe.

Wars in the 1990s[edit]

War in Abkhazia[edit]

Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union on 9 April 1991. After gaining independence, Abkhazia and South Ossetia declare independence from Georgia, which leads to a civil war in which Russia directly supports the Abkhazians. The conflict between Georgia and its separatist territories still has not yet been resolved. In 1992 Russia brokeres a cease-fire agreement between the breakaway region of South Ossetia and Georgia, during their war in the early 90's. Later in 2008 Russia declares that it recognizes South Ossetia as a sovereign nation alongside Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru.

21st Century[edit]

From East to West[edit]

Main article: Georgian armed forces
US special forces instructing Georgian troops, 2002, part of the Train and Equip program
The Georgian army is still largely relying and depending on Soviet era war material such as the BTR-80
US and Georgain troops conduct CQB training during Noble Partner 2015

After the Rose Revolution, Georgia undertakes a number of efforts and initiates reforms in order to upgrade the partialy very outdated military hardware and retrain its troops on Western NATO standarts and combat doctrines - wich is also to be regarded symbolic to the countries steady political shift and general advance towards the West and EU. The number of soldiers has been increased from 15,000 at the lowest point to about 37,000 at its peak while consistently increasing infrastructural quality, instituting stable insurances and raising the avarage saleries. As member of the Partnership for Peace initiative since 1994 and with the Georgia Train and Equip Program under the guidence and funding of the United States Georgian soldiers are able to conduct joint exercises with US troops including special forces.[22] Since 2001 Georgia acquires large quantities of mostly Soviet era armament from Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Poland etc but also increasingly Western small arms from Israel and an amount of AR-15 type weapons from the United States that are primarily used for peacekeeping operations. However the bulk of the armed forces arsenal consists of mainly Soviet weapons to this date. The structure of the Land Forces is based on brigade and battalion-sized military units modeled to some extent after NATO structures. The Light Infantry presents the backbone of the armed forces and is being trained and retrained based on the United States Marine Corps doctrine of a quickly deployable and mobile fighting force. Georgian infantry trains and regularly participates in joint training and deployment exercises respectively with US Marines. In 1999 a special operations group is formed with financial and material assistance from Turkey. From 2001 on this mostly classified unit begins training with special forces from various partner nations including Israel. The United States also gets involved later in 2003 amidst the units first deployment to Iraq in the same year.[23]

Domestic upgrades and Industry[edit]

Georgia establishes a state weapons research unit in the early-to mid 1990s later named "Delta". Starting with the development of protection gear such as personal armor and bomb disposal suits, the institute grows and upgrades over the years partialy with US funding. During WW2 Georgia was essential for the production of military equipment ranging from ammunition to aircraft and during the Cold War period missiles and parts for satellites. Short of such capabilities nowdays the current industry is still able and responsible for providing the Georgian army with the majority of equipment for personnel and to undisclosed extent even vehicles and weapons.

Part of Kosovo Force[edit]

Georgian troops become part of the NATO led Kosovo Force in 1999 and remain there until 2008 with initialy 34 personnel serving under Turkish command and later in 2003 150 soldiers under German command. The contingent is withdrawn in April 2008 as Georgia is preparing to increase it's military presence in Afghanistan.

Part of the Multi-National Force – Iraq[edit]

The first Georgian deployment in Iraq consists of 70 personnel medical staff, a sapper unit and special forces who are stationed in Baiji, Iraq and serve as QRF. The Georgian presence in Iraq steadily increases until it reaches its peak in 2008 at brigade strenght with around 2,300 soldiers. The mission is abandoned in August 2008 due to the war with Russia and the entire contingent transferred back to Georgia. A total of five soldiers have died and 19 were wounded during their service in Iraq.

2008 War with Russia[edit]

In 2008 after a series of provocation and skirmishes from both sides the Georgian goverment attempts to restore constitutional order over the seperatist region of South Ossetia by military force. In the fighting Russian peacekeepers get involved and some of them killed which triggers a Russian response resulting in a brief large scale conflict with hundreds of people killed, wounded and missing while tens of thousands are displaced. The Russian Federation actively supports the sessession of both breakaway regions contradicting its own firm political stance on separatism. Currently Russia is occupying 20% of Georgian de facto territory with considerable military presence.

Involvment in Afghanistan[edit]


Officialy Georgia starts to deploy troops in Afghanistan in 2004. The effort is then reinforced by a medical group in 2007. Military presence is further increased by conventional troops in 2009 and entire battallions from 2010 the peak deployment being over 1,500 troops in 2012. The bulk of the peacekeeping force is consistently stationed in the volitile Helmand province. Due to the rotational deployment of almost every single infantry battalion of the armed forces, the majority of Georgian soldiers thus has participated in the ISAF efforts. Amidst completion of the operation, the Special Mountain Battalion is deployed in 2014. A total of 30 soldiers have been killed and 435 wounded during the ISAF mission.

Resolute Support[edit]

To the current Afghanistan mission Georgia contributes with 870 troops.

Central African Republic[edit]

Main article: EUFOR RCA

A reinforced company of around 140 Georgian soldiers took part in the 2014 EUFOR operation to protect Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic and provide security for humanitarian aid convoys.[24][25]


  1. ^ Course of Ancient Geography, Henry Immanuel Smith, p. 279.
  2. ^ The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, Geoffrey Greatrex, Samuel N. C. Lieu, p. 82
  3. ^ The Emperor Domitian, Brian W. Jones, p. 156.
  4. ^ Ronald Grigor Suny. The Making of the Georgian Nation. Indiana University Press, p. 13 ISBN 0-253-20915-3.
  5. ^ William Coffman McDermott, Wallace Everett Caldwell. Readings in the History of the Ancient World. p. 404.
  6. ^ Ronald Grigol Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation, p 9
  7. ^ Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, David Braund Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. Pp. 359
  8. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p. 13
  9. ^ a b Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  10. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69
  11. ^ One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, James Minahan, p. 282
  12. ^ Marc Van de Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East, ca. 3000–323 BC, p 265 ISBN 978-1405149112
  13. ^ Charles Burney and David Marshal Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, p. 38
  14. ^ Oliver Wardrop, The Kingdom Of Georgia: Travel In A Land Of Women, Wine And Song (Kegan Paul Library of History and Archaeology)
  15. ^ Andrew Andersen, History of Ancient Caucasus, p. 91
  16. ^ David Marshal Lang, the Georgians, Frederich A. Praeger Publishers, New York, p 59
  17. ^ Tacitus. Annals. Book XII, Chapters 44-51. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  18. ^ Theodor Dowling, Sketches of Georgian Church History, New York, 1912, p 37
  19. ^ Charles Burney and David Marshal Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, p. 22
  20. ^ Allen, W.E.D.: A History of the Georgian People, 1932, p. 64
  21. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation, p. 36. Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-20915-3
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  25. ^