Zambian Defence Force

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Military of Zambia
Service branches Army, Air Force
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief President Edgar Lungu
Minister of Defence Davies Chama
Manpower
Military age n/a
Available for
military service
2,477,494, age 15–49 (2004 est.)
Fit for
military service
1,310,814, age 15–49 (2004 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
NA (2004 est.)
Active personnel 15,100
Expenditures
Budget $42.6 million (2003)
Percent of GDP 0.9% (2003)

The Zambian Defence Force consists of the Zambia Army, the Zambia Air Force and Zambia National Service, a training and public works organisation.[a] The Zambian Defence Force is established for the defence of Zambia. Being a landlocked country Zambia has no navy, although a small Marine Unit was formed in Zambia Army during 2015 to patrol inland waterbodies.[1]

Command[edit]

During 1970 Zambia adopted a unified command system, in which the three Service Chiefs reported to a Commander of the 'Zambian National Defence Force' (ZNDF). The Commander of Zambia Air Force at the time, Air Commodore Peter Zuze, was promoted to Lieutenant-General and appointed as Deputy Commander of the ZNDF.[2] However, the Zambia Air Force and Zambia National Service resented this system because Army officers filled most senior appointments in the ZNDF and the system was ended in 1980. The country then reverted to the command system inherited at independence where Service Chiefs report to the Head of State.[3]

The current (2017) Command is:

- President and Commander-in-Chief: Edgar Lungu (from January 2015)

- Defence Minister: Davies Chama (from September 2016)

- Permanent Secretary for Defence: Stardy Mwale[4]


- Commander Zambia Army: Lieutenant-General Paul Mihova (from October 2011)

- Deputy Commander Zambia Army: Major-General Jackson Miti (from September 2016)


- Commander Zambia Air Force: Lieutenant-General Eric M. Chimese

- Deputy Commander Zambia Air Force: Major-General David Muma (from January 2015; a predecessor, Major-General Muliokela Muliokela, was killed in an aircraft accident during May 2014).


- Commandant Zambia National Service: Lieutenant-General Nathan Mulenga

Zambia Army[edit]

Organisation[edit]

The current Army organisation is:[5][6][7]

Three infantry brigades -

1 Brigade, Lusaka[8]

2 Brigade, Kabwe (during July 2016 the Brigade Commander was Brigadier Martin Banda)

3 Brigade, Ndola (during March 2017 the Brigade Commander was Brigadier Laston Chabinga)

With the following units:

  • 64 Armoured Regiment (tank). U.S. State Department International Military Education and Training records from FY-2006 indicate a Zambian officer attended from 64 Armoured Regiment at Mikongo Barracks, east Lusaka.[9]
  • 17 Cavalry Regiment (armoured reconnaissance)
  • 10 Medium Regiment, Kalewa Barracks, Ndola (also given as an artillery regiment/brigade of two Fire Direction Artillery Battalions and one Multiple Rocket Launchers battalion)
  • 1 Engineer Regiment, Mufulira
  • 6 Construction Regiment, raised March 2017?[10]
  • one mechanised battalion
  • six light infantry battalions, titled 1 to 6 Battalions Zambia Regiment
  • 1 Commando Battalion (special forces), Ndola
  • 48 Marine Unit, Kawambwa, raised July 2015.[11][12]
  • three reserve infantry battalions (7 to 9 Battalions Zambia Regiment[13])
  • Support units (logistics, transport, medical, ordnance, electrical and mechanical engineering)
  • Specialist schools (armour, artillery, engineers and signals)

Equipment[edit]

Small Arms[edit]

Vehicles and Towed Artillery[edit]

Origin Type Versions In service Notes
T-54/55  Soviet Union Main Battle Tank 25[15] Deliveries in 1976 and 1981.
PT-76  Soviet Union Light tank 50[15]
BTR-70  Soviet Union Armoured Personnel Carrier 20[15]
BTR-60  Soviet Union Armoured Personnel Carrier 13[15]
WZ551  China Armoured Personnel Carrier 6X6 WZ551B variant.[15] 20
Buffel  South Africa Armoured Personnel Carrier Rhino variant. 1[15]
Ratel  South Africa Infantry Fighting Vehicle 14[16]
Ferret  United Kingdom Armoured car 28 Inherited from Northern Rhodesian security forces.[15]
BRDM-2  Soviet Union Scout car 44 Acquired in 1981.[15]
BRDM-1  Soviet Union Scout car 44 Acquired in 1980.[15]
D-30  Soviet Union Howitzer 24[15]
M-46  China Howitzer Type 59. 18[15]
BM-21  Soviet Union MLRS 50[15]


Zambia Air Force[edit]

Zambia Air Force is a small air force that developed from the rump of the former Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Air Force. In recent years the aircraft inventory has largely been updated with Chinese aircraft reflecting the increasing closeness between the Zambian Defence Force and China. During 1999 eight Karakorum-8 jet trainers were delivered and in 2006 Zambia Air Force received two Xian MA60 and five Yakovlev Yak-12 transport aircraft from China. During March 2012 a further eight K-8 were received.[17] Four Harbin Z-9 helicopters were delivered during June 2012, with a further four delivered by March 2013 (when one of the new aircraft was lost in an accident, see below).[18]

During April 2014 six Hongdu L-15 Falcon supersonic lead-in fighter/trainer jets were ordered from China, the first arriving in December 2015. Around the same time orders were placed for six SIAI-Marchetti SF.260TW trainer aircraft, one Alenia C-27J Spartan transport aircraft, and a number of Russian-made Mil Mi-17 helicopters.[19] These orders were expected to be delivered during 2016.[20]

Recent aircraft losses[edit]

  • On 13 March 2013 a Harbin Z-9 helicopter crashed while attempting to land at Lusaka City Airport. The pilot, Major Misapa Mukupa, was killed and the co-pilot, Lieutenant Kenneth Chilala, injured. The helicopter was taking part in Youth Day celebrations and it was suggested the accident was caused by a national flag attached to the aircraft coming loose and then entangled in the tail rotor.[21]
  • On 19 May 2014 a Saab MFI.15 crashed in Lusaka West. Both crew were killed. The crew were the Deputy Commander ZAF, Major-General Muliokela Muliokela, and Colonel Brian Mweene.[24] [25]
  • On 14 September 2015 an Agusta-Bell AB.205 helicopter crashed near Sinazongwe, apparently while returning from taking Defence Minister Richwell Siamunene on a private trip.[26] Five people were injured.[27]

Zambia National Service[edit]

Zambia National Service (ZNS) personnel have been included in peacekeeping contingents deployed by Zambia to the United Nation's MINUSCA mission in the Central African Republic.[28]

Six months of training for 400 youths was planned for 2016. This was to include 200 males to be trained at Chiwoko ZNS Training Centre, Katete, Eastern Province, and 200 females to be trained at the Kitwe ZNS training camp.[29] [30]

United Nations Peacekeeping Missions[edit]

Zambia has been an active participant in several UN peacekeeping operations, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Zambian personnel have been fated to be caught up in some of the more dramatic incidents of recent UN Peacekeeping in Africa: witnessing the Kibeho Massacre in Rwanda during April 1995; having large numbers of Zambian peacekeepers taken hostage by rebels in Sierra Leone during 2000; [31] and with troops caught up in fighting between Sudanese and South Sudanese forces in the contested Abyei area during May 2011.[32] Despite these crises Zambian forces have generally performed well and earned a reputation as effective peacekeepers.[33][34]

UN missions which have seen the deployment of battalions of Zambian troops, or other significant contingents, include the following.

UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda)

Three Zambian fatalities.[35]

UNAMSIL (United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone)

Thirty-four Zambian fatalities.[36]

  • Zambatt 1, deployed April 2000. Shortly after deployment some 200 Zambian peacekeepers were taken hostage by rebels and some were later murdered.[37]
  • Zambatt 2.
  • Zambatt 3 (Lt. Col. MS Sitwala). On 5 January 2002 six personnel were killed and another 12 injured in an accidental explosion while transferring surrendered mortar bombs to storage.[38]
  • Zambatt 4, deployed mid-2002, 830 strong.[39]
  • Zambatt 5.
  • Zambatt 6.
  • Zambatt 7 (Col. John Siame) – 821 personnel; deployed February 2004 to …[40] (Note: Sgt [Ms] Megani Forry died of natural causes during deployment, early 2004.[41])

UNMIS (United Nations Mission in the Sudan)

Three Zambian fatalities. [42] Four Zambian peacekeepers were wounded on 10 May 2011,[43] shortly before the independence of South Sudan and before an outbreak of fighting when the Zambians were criticised for not better protecting civilians.[44]

MINUSCA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic)

  • Zambatt 1, 750 personnel, including 50 Special Forces, deployed 30 April 2015 to April 2016.[45]
  • Zambatt 2, deployed 22 April 2016.[46]
  • Zambatt 3 (Lt. Col. John Banda), 750 personnel. Undertaking pre-deployment training under Zambian, United States and British instructors during March 2017.[47]


See also[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The National Service Act defines the role of the ZNS to be "... the training of citizens to serve the Republic and the employment of its members in tasks of national importance and otherwise in the service and defence of the Republic. The Service shall organise and run such leadership and other courses for citizens as the Minister may, by statutory instrument, prescribe.", <http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/acts/Zambia%20National%20Service%20Act.pdf>

References[edit]

  1. ^ 'Zambia Army Commando Unit splits, forms Marine Unit', Lusaka Voice, 18 February 2015, accessed 5 February 2017, <http://lusakavoice.com/2015/02/18/zambia-army-commando-unit-splits-forms-marine-unit/>
  2. ^ Lungu, H. & Ngoma, N. (2005) The Zambian military—trials, tribulations and hope. In: Rupiya, M. (ed.) Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria: 331-329. ISBN 1-919913-82-3
  3. ^ Chewe, Innocent (2014) An Examination of Professionalism in the Zambia Army, thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master Of Military Art and Science, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA613529
  4. ^ 'Pre-deployment training starts', ZNBC, 16 January 2017, accessed 23 April 2017, <http://www.znbc.co.zm/?p=47663>
  5. ^ Chewe, Innocent (2014) An Examination of Professionalism in the Zambia Army, thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master Of Military Art and Science, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA613529
  6. ^ Griffiths, J.L. (2014) ‘Zambia Defence Force’, Defenceweb.com, 8 October 2014, accessed 10 January 2017, <http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=36502:zambia-defence-force&catid=119:african-militaries>
  7. ^ Lungu H. & Ngoma, N. (2005) The Zambian military—trials, tribulations and hope. In: Rupiya, M. (ed.) Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria: 331-329. ISBN 1-919913-82-3
  8. ^ Sakala, Y. (2014) ‘64 Armoured Regiment Win 2014 Army Athletics’, Times of Zambia, 28 March 2014
  9. ^ https://www.state.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/fmtrpt/2007/92084.htm
  10. ^ 'Zambia Army establishes a Construction brigade', Lusaka Times, 11 March 2017, accessed 24 March 2017, <https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/03/11/zambia-army-establishes-construction-brigade/>
  11. ^ 'Zambia Army Commando Unit splits, forms Marine Unit', Lusaka Voice, 18 February 2015, accessed 5 February 2017, <http://lusakavoice.com/2015/02/18/zambia-army-commando-unit-splits-forms-marine-unit/>
  12. ^ Siame, N. (2015) 'Marine Unit Launched', Times of Zambia (Lusaka), 27 July 2015.
  13. ^ For example, see Banda, G. (2009) 'Ninth Battalion, Zambia', Zambia Post, Friday 25 December 2009, (http://www.postzambia.com/post-read_article.php?articleId=3598)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Arms Trade Register". SIPRI. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  16. ^ SA Ratels in Libya spur DA to call for investigation
  17. ^ 'Zambian Air Force receives more K-8 trainers', DefenceWeb, 16 April 2012.
  18. ^ 'Zambian Air Force Z-9 crashes', DefenceWeb, 14 March 2013.
  19. ^ Nkala, O. (2015) 'Hongdu Prepares to Deliver First Light Attack/Trainer Jet to Zambia', Defensenews.com, 31 December 2015.
  20. ^ 'As Zambia Air Force Grows, it Plays a Regional Role', Africa Defence Forum, 19 July 2016, accessed 25 April 2017, <http://adf-magazine.com/?p=6306>
  21. ^ 'Zambian Air Force Z-9 crashes', DefenceWeb, 14 March 2013.
  22. ^ 'Zambian Air Force MFI-17 crashes', DefenceWeb, 20 January 2014.
  23. ^ 'Deputy Zambian Air Force Chief killed in MFI-15 crash', DefenceWeb, 20 May 2014.
  24. ^ 'Zambia's Deputy Air Force Chief Killed in Plane Crash', Agence France Presse via Defensenews.com, 19 May 2014.
  25. ^ 'Deputy Zambian Air Force Chief killed in MFI-15 crash', DefenceWeb, 20 May 2014.
  26. ^ 'Crashed ZAF Chopper Was Returning From Taking Minister to His Village', Zambian Watchdog (Lusaka), 15 September 2015.
  27. ^ 'No Fatalities as ZAF Chopper Plunges', Zambia Reports (Lusaka), 15 September 2015.
  28. ^ Mwenya, G.(2014) 'Zambian Peacekeeping Troops Lack Funds to Deploy to CAR', Zambia Reports, 25 November 2014.
  29. ^ '400 Youths to Undergo ZNS Training', Times of Zambia, 27 July 2015.
  30. ^ Musonda, A. (2015) 'Zambian UN Troops to Central African Republic', Zambia Reports, 29 April 2015.
  31. ^ Ashby, Phil (2003) Unscathed: Escape from Sierra Leone, Pan Macmillan Ltd, London.
  32. ^ Mbao, E. (2011) 'Zambia defends Abyei peacekeepers', Africa Review (Kenya), 6 June 2011, accessed 20 December 2016, <http://www.africareview.com/news/Zambia-defends-Abyei-peacekeepers/979180-1176182-format-xhtml-abqrq0/index.html>
  33. ^ Lungu H. & Ngoma, N. (2005) The Zambian military—trials, tribulations and hope. In: Rupiya, M. (ed.) Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria: 331-329. ISBN 1-919913-82-3
  34. ^ Chewe, Innocent (2014) An Examination of Professionalism in the Zambia Army, thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master Of Military Art and Science, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA613529
  35. ^ UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission - up to 31 October 2016, accessed 18 November 2016, <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/fatalities/documents/stats_2.pdf>
  36. ^ UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission - up to 31 October 2016, accessed 18 November 2016, <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/fatalities/documents/stats_2.pdf>
  37. ^ Perlez, J. & Wren, C.S. (2000) 'U.N. Reports Rebels Now Hold 300 of Its Troops in Sierra Leone', New York Times, 6 May 2000, accessed 6 February 2017, <http://www.nytimes.com/2000/05/06/world/un-reports-rebels-now-hold-300-of-its-troops-in-sierra-leone.html>
  38. ^ UNAMSIL Press Briefing, 08 Jan 2002, Report from UN Mission in Sierra Leone, published on 08 Jan 2002, accessed 19 December 2016, <http://reliefweb.int/report/sierra-leone/unamsil-press-briefing-08-jan-2002
  39. ^ 'Zambian peacekeepers decorated in Sierra Leone', Panapress, 16 November 2002, accessed 6 February 2017, <http://www.panapress.com/Zambian-peacekeepers-decorated-in-Sierra-Leone--13-468570-17-lang2-index.html>
  40. ^ UNAMSIL, 2004, ‘SRSG Decorates Zambian Peace Keepers with UN Peace Medal’, press release, 28 May.
  41. ^ UNAMSIL, 2004, ‘SRSG Decorates Zambian Peace Keepers with UN Peace Medal’, press release, 28 May.
  42. ^ UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission - up to 31 October 2016, accessed 18 November 2016, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/fatalities/documents/stats_2.pdf
  43. ^ 'Four Zambian UN peacekeepers shot in Sudan', Lusaka Times (Lusaka), 11 May 2011, accessed 17 December 2016, <https://www.lusakatimes.com/2011/05/11/zambian-peacekeepers-shot-sudan/>
  44. ^ Mbao, E. (2011) 'Zambia defends Abyei peacekeepers', Africa Review (Kenya), 6 June 2011, accessed 20 December 2016, <http://www.africareview.com/news/Zambia-defends-Abyei-peacekeepers/979180-1176182-format-xhtml-abqrq0/index.html>
  45. ^ Nkala, O. (2015) ‘Zambia Begins Delayed UN Mission to CAR’, Defence News (web site), 20 May 2015
  46. ^ Cancio, F. (2016) ‘Zambia: 500 Soldiers off for Peace Keeping in CAR’, Centrafrican News Agency, 23 April 2016, accessed 17 December 2016, <http://www.lanouvellecentrafrique.org/2016/01/21/rwanda-rdf-officers-in-car-decorated/>
  47. ^ 'UK Government Supports Training of Zambia Peacekeeping Defence Forces', UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office press release via PR Newswire (New York), 24 March 2017, accessed 25 March 2017, <http://allafrica.com/stories/201703250093.html>