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3un9 ctermhex.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases NLRX1, CLR11.3, DLNB26, NOD26, NOD5, NOD9, NLR family member X1
External IDs MGI: 2429611 HomoloGene: 11623 GeneCards: NLRX1
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 119.17 – 119.18 Mb Chr 9: 44.25 – 44.27 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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NLRX1 or NLR family member X1, short for nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat containing X1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRX1 gene.[3][4] It is also known as NOD-like receptor X1, NLR family, X1, NOD5, NOD9, and CLR11.3, and is a member of the NOD-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors.


NLRX1 is an intracellular protein that plays a role in the immune system. NLRX1 has been proposed to affect innate immunity to viruses by interfering with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)/retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) mitochondrial antiviral pathway.,[5] although this was recently questioned.[6][7]

NLRX1 also plays a role in host immunity during bacterial infections, such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Helicobacter pylori, by regulating bacterial burden and inflammation in mononuclear phagocytes. Mechanisms underlying the modulation of NLRX1 are not well characterized, however computational modeling predictions suggest that levels of NLRX1 may be controlled by negative feedback circuits induced early after infection.[8][9][10]


NLRX1 has a unique protein structure composed of 3 protein domains: an N-terminal effector domain containing a mitochondrion localization signal; a central NACHT domain; a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain.[11]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: NLR family member X1". 
  4. ^ Inohara N, Nuñez G (May 2003). "NODs: intracellular proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 3 (5): 371–82. doi:10.1038/nri1086. PMID 12766759. 
  5. ^ O'Neill LA (Apr 2008). "Innate immunity: squelching anti-viral signalling with NLRX1". Current Biology. 18 (7): R302–4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.021. PMID 18397740. 
  6. ^ Rebsamen M, Vazquez J, Tardivel A, Guarda G, Curran J, Tschopp J (Aug 2011). "NLRX1/NOD5 deficiency does not affect MAVS signalling". Cell Death and Differentiation. 18 (8): 1387. doi:10.1038/cdd.2011.64. PMC 3172102Freely accessible. PMID 21617692. 
  7. ^ Soares F, Tattoli I, Wortzman ME, Arnoult D, Philpott DJ, Girardin SE (2013). "NLRX1 does not inhibit MAVS-dependent antiviral signalling". Innate Immunity. 19 (4): 438–48. doi:10.1177/1753425912467383. PMID 23212541. 
  8. ^ Castaño-Rodríguez N, Kaakoush NO, Goh KL, Fock KM, Mitchell HM (2014-01-01). "The NOD-like receptor signalling pathway in Helicobacter pylori infection and related gastric cancer: a case-control study and gene expression analyses". PLOS ONE. 9 (6): e98899. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098899. PMC 4047072Freely accessible. PMID 24901306. 
  9. ^ Philipson CW, Bassaganya-Riera J, Viladomiu M, Kronsteiner B, Abedi V, Hoops S, Michalak P, Kang L, Girardin SE, Hontecillas R (2015-01-01). "Modeling the Regulatory Mechanisms by Which NLRX1 Modulates Innate Immune Responses to Helicobacter pylori Infection". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0137839. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137839. PMC 4569576Freely accessible. PMID 26367386. 
  10. ^ Abdul-Sater AA, Saïd-Sadier N, Lam VM, Singh B, Pettengill MA, Soares F, Tattoli I, Lipinski S, Girardin SE, Rosenstiel P, Ojcius DM (Dec 2010). "Enhancement of reactive oxygen species production and chlamydial infection by the mitochondrial Nod-like family member NLRX1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (53): 41637–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.137885. PMC 3009891Freely accessible. PMID 20959452. 
  11. ^ Meylan E, Tschopp J (Mar 2008). "NLRX1: friend or foe?". EMBO Reports. 9 (3): 243–5. doi:10.1038/embor.2008.23. PMC 2267384Freely accessible. PMID 18311173. 

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