Names of European cities in different languages: Q–T

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Q[edit]

English name Other names or former names
Quimper Corisopitum (Latin), Kemper (Breton), Quimper (French), Кемпер (Macedonian)

R[edit]

English name Other names or former names
Raahe Brahestad (Swedish), Raahe (Finnish), Рахе (Macedonian)
Racibórz Ratibor (German),[1] Ratiboř (Czech)
Radzionków Radzionków (Polish), Radzionkau (German)
Rădăuți Rădăuți (Romanian), Radautz (German), Radevits - ראַדעװיץ (Yiddish), Rádóc (Hungarian), Radowce (Polish), Rothacenum (Latin), Радауци (Macedonian)
Radoviš Radoviš (Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, Bosnian), Радовиш (Macedonian)
Radymno Radymno (Polish), Redem - רעדעם (Yiddish), Радимно (Macedonian)
Raiding Doborján (Hungarian), Raiding (German), Rajnof (Croatian)
Rakvere Wesenberg or Wesenbergh (former German)
Rauma Rauma (Estonian, Finnish), Raumo (Swedish)
Ravenna Raben (old German), Rabenna - 라벤나 (Korean), Ravena - Равена (Bulgarian), Ravena (Romanian), Rávena or Ravena (Spanish)*, Ravenna (Azeri, Finnish, Italian, Maltese), Ραβέννα (Greek), Rawenna (Polish)
Regensburg Castra Regina (Latin), Radasbona (Hungarian), Ratisbon (former English), Ratisbona (Italian, Portuguese, former Romanian, Spanish, Catalan), Ratisbonne (French), Ratisvónni - Ρατισβόννη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Ratyzbona (Polish), Regensborg (Low Saxon), Regensburg (Dutch, German, Romanian), Řezno (Czech)
Reichenau La Punt (Romansh), Reichenau (German)
Reims Reims (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Interlingua, Italian, Romanian, Spanish), Reimsa (Latvian), Reimsas (Lithuanian), Remeš (Czech, Slovak), Ρήμες (Greek, καθαρεύουσα), Remso (Esperanto)
Rennes Rennes (Dutch, French, Finnish, German, Italian), Rennu - レンヌ (Japanese)*, Resnn (Gallo), Roazhon (Breton)*
Resen Resen (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Ресен (Macedonian)
Reykjavík Réicivíc (Irish), Léikèyăwèikè - 雷克雅未克 (Chinese)*, Reikiavik (Tagalog*), Reikyabikeu / Reik'yabik'ŭ - 레이캬비크 (Korean), Reikyabiku - レイキャビク (Japanese)*, Reikyavik (Persian), Reikjavīka (Latvian), Reikjavikas (Lithuanian), Reikiavik (Spanish), Reiquejavique (Portuguese), Rejkiawik and Reykjawik (Polish alternates), Reykjavik (Maltese), Reykjavík (Czech, Faroese, Icelandic), Rejkjaviko (Esperanto), Reykjavik (Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, Romanian, Swedish), Reykyavik (Azeri), Reykyavik or Reykavik (Turkish)
Rēzekne Rēzekne (German*), Rositten (archaic German), Rēzekne or Rēzne (Latgalian*), Rzeżyca (Polish*), Rezekne - Резекне (Russian*), Rezhitsa - Режица (archaic Russian)
Riga Lĭjiā - 里加 (Chinese)*, Rīġā (Arabic), Riga (Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Interlingua, Italian, Maltese, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Ríga - Ρίγα (Greek), Riga - リガ (Japanese)*, Riga - 리가 (Korean), Rīga (Latvian), Ríge (Irish), Rige - ריגע (Yiddish), Rīgõ (Livonian), Riia (Estonian), Riika (Finnish), Ryga (Lithuanian, Polish), Ryha - Рыга (Belarusian), Ryha - Рига (Ukrainian)
Rijeka Fiume (Italian*, Hungarian*), Reka (Slovene)*, Rieka (Persian, Kaykavian - Croat), Rijeka (Croatian*, Finnish*, German*, Polish*, Romanian*, Slovak), Rika (Chakavian - Glagolitic), Rykva (early Croatian), St. Veit am Flaum (older German)*
Rivne Рівне / Rivne (Ukrainian), Rovne - ראָװנע (Yiddish), Rovno (Romanian, Russian), Równe (Polish), Riwne (German), Rowno (older German)
Roč Roč (Croatian), Rozzo (Italian)
Roman Roman (Romanian), Románvásár (Hungarian), Romanvarasch (German)
Rome Erroma (Basque)*, Luómǎ - 罗马 (Chinese)*, Rhufain (Welsh), Rim (Croatian*, Serbian, Slovene*), Rím (Slovak)*, Řím (Czech)*, Рим / Rim (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian), Рим / Rym (Ukrainian), Rzym (Polish)*, Rô-ma or La Mã (Vietnamese, the latter is old-fashioned), An Róimh (Irish), An Ròimh (Scottish Gaelic)*, Rom (Danish*, German*, Swedish*), Róm (Icelandic), Roma (Azeri*, Catalan*, Interlingua, Italian*, Lithuanian*, Latvian*, Norwegian*, Portuguese*, Romanian*, Romansh, Spanish*, Tagalog*, Turkish*), Róma (Hungarian)*, Roma - רומא (Hebrew), Rōma - ローマ (Japanese)*, Roma - 로마 (Korean), Rome (Dutch*, French*), Rome, Roeme, Roame (Limburgish, depending on dialect), Rómi - Ρώμη (Greek), Romo (Esperanto), Rooma (Estonian*, Finnish*), Roum (Luxembourgish), Roym - רױם (Yiddish), Ruma (Maltese), Rūmiya (Arabic), Rzym (Polish)
Roskilde Hróarskelda (Icelandic), Roskilde (Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish, Polish)
Rostock Rostock (Estonian, Finnish, German, Romanian, Swedish, Turkish), Rostock / Rostok (Polish), Rostoka (Latvian), Rostokas (Lithuanian), Roztoka (former Polish), Roztoky (Czech)
Rouen Rouaan (Dutch alternate), Rouen (French, Italian, Romanian), Ruan or Ruán (Spanish)*, Ruão (Portuguese), Ruāna (Latvian), Rúðuborg (Icelandic), Ρουένη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα)
Rovaniemi Roavenjarga (Northern Sami), Rovaniemi (Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish), Rovaniemis (Lithuanian)
Rovinj Rovigno (Italian), Rovinj (Croatian, Slovene), Ruginium (Latin)
Ružomberok Rosenberg (German), Rózsahegy (Hungarian), Rużomberk (Polish), Ružomberok (Slovak)
Rzeszów Reichshof (German 1939-1945), Reisha - רישא (Hebrew), Řešov (Czech), Reyshe - רײשע (Yiddish), Ryashеv - Ряшев (Russian), Ryashiv (Ukrainian), Rzeszów (Polish)

S[edit]

English name Other names or former names
Saarbrücken Saarbrücken (German, Romanian), Sarrebruck (French, Spanish), Sarbriukenas (Lithuanian), Saarbrécken (Luxembourgish), Saarbrükken (Azeri), Zaarbriuk'eniზაარბრიუკენი (Georgian*)
Saarlouis Sarrelouis (French)*, Saarlouis (German)*, Saarlautern (German 1936–1945)*, Sarrelibre (French 1793–1804/1810)*
Sabinov Sabinov (Slovak, Czech), Zeben (German), Kisszeben (Hungarian)
Sagunto Sagunt (Catalan, German), Sagunto (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Saguntum (Latin)
St Albans Verlamion (former English), Verulamium (Latin), Verlamchester or Wæclingacaester (Old English)
St Andrews Cill Rìmhinn (Scottish Gaelic), Sanct Andraes (Lowland Scots), Kilrymont or Kilrule (former)
St. Gallen Saint-Gall (French, Romanian), Sankt Gallen (Dutch, German), San Gallo (Italian), San Galo (Spanish*), São Galo (Portuguese*) Son Gagl (Romansh), Svatý Havel (Czech)
St Petersburg Ayía Petrúpoli - Αγία Πετρούπολη (Greek), Cathair Pheadair (Irish), Shën Petersburg (Albanian), Peterburg and Peyterburg - פּעטערבורג (Yiddish), Peterburi (Estonian), Petroburgo (Esperanto), Pietari (Finnish), Saint-Pétersbourg (French), Sangteu Petereubureukeu / Sangt'ŭ P'et'erŭburŭk'ŭ - 상트페테르부르크 (Korean), Sankt-Pieciarburh - Санкт-Пецярбург (Belarusian), Sankt-Peterburg - Санкт-Петербург (Russian*), Sankt-Peterburg (Slovene), Sankt Peterburg (Serbian, seldom Slovak), Petrograd (traditional Serbian, independent of the 1914–1924 renaming), Sanktpēterburga (Latvian), Sankt Peterburgas (Lithuanian), Sankt Petěrburk (Czech), Sankt Petersborg (Danish), Sankt Petersburg (German, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Sankt'-Peterburgi - სანქტ-პეტერბურგი (Georgian*), Sankta Pætursborg (Faroese), Sankuto Peteruburuku - サンクトペテルブルク (Japanese)*, San Petersburgo (Spanish, Tagalog*), San Pietroburgo (Italian), San Pietruburgu (Maltese), Sānt Bītarsbūrġ (Arabic), São Petersburgo (Portuguese), Sint-Petersburg (Dutch), St. Petersburg (Norwegian), Sankt Peterburg* or Peterburg (Turkish), Szentpétervár (Hungarian), Sankti Pétursborg (Icelandic), Shèng Bĭdébāo - 聖彼得堡 (Chinese), Xanh Pê-téc-bua (Vietnamese)

1638–1703 (a 17th-century town at the site of the present city): Nevanlinna (Finnish), Niyen – Ниен (Russian), Nyen (Swedish)

1914–1924: Petorogurādo - ペトログラード (Japanese), Petrograd (former English, former French, former Russian, former Serbian, former Slovene, former Swedish), Petrogrado (former Spanish, former Portuguese), Petrohrad (former Czech, Slovak), Pietrogrado (former Italian), Piotrogród (former Polish), Pēterpils (former Latvian), Petrapilis (former Lithuanian)

1924–1991: Leningrad (former Czech, former English, former German, former Swedish), Leningrado (former Italian, former Spanish, former Portuguese), Lenjingrad (former Serbian), Reningeuradeu / Renin'gŭradŭ - 레닌그라드 (Korean), Reningurādo - レニングラード (Japanese), "Liènínggélè"-列寧格勒 (Chinese)

St. Moritz Sankt Moritz (German)*, San Murezzan (Romansh), Saint-Moritz (French)*, San Maurizio (Italian)*, San Morittsu - サンモリッツ (Japanese)*, Svatý Mořic (Czech), Sanktmorica (Latvian)
Saint-Quentin Saint-Quentin (French), San Quintino (Italian), San Quintín (Spanish)
Salzburg Salzburg (Bosnian, Croatian, German, Finnish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Swedish, Turkish), Såizburg (Bavarian), Salisburgo (Italian), Salzbourg (French), Salzburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Zarutsuburuku - ザルツブルク (Japanese)*, Jalcheubureukeu / Chalch'ŭburŭk'ŭ - 잘츠부르크 (Korean), Sà'ērzíbăo - 薩爾茨堡 (Chinese), Solnograd (old Slovene), Solnohrad (Czech), Zalcburga (Latvian), Zalcburgas (Lithuanian)
Samara SamaraСамара (Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian), Samara (German, Azeri), Szamara (Hungarian), Kujbišev (Slovene, former name), Kuybyshev (former name)
Sânnicolau Mare Sânnicolau Mare / Sân Nicolau Mare (Romanian), Groß Sankt Nikolaus (German), Nagyszentmiklós (Hungarian), Veliki Sveti Nikola (Serbian)
San Sebastián Donostia (Basque)*, Donostio (Esperanto)*, San Sebatian (Romania), San Sebastián (Spanish*, Portuguese*, Finnish*), Sant Sebastià (Catalan)*, Saint-Sébastien (French)*, San Sebastijanas (Lithuanian)
Santiago de Compostela Šānt Yāqūb (Arabic), Santiago de Compostel·la (Catalan), Sant Jaume de Galícia (former Catalan), Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle (French), Santiago de Compostela (Galician, Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish), Compostela (former Galician, current use also) ,Santiago di Compostela (Italian), Santiago di Compostella (old Italian)
Saragossa Caesaraugusta (Latin), Saragoça (Portuguese), Saragosa - 사라고사 (Korean), Saragosa (Ladino*, Latvian, Serbian, Slovene), Saragossa (English (U.S.), Catalan, German, Polish), Saragosse (French), Saragozza (Italian), Sarqasta - سرقسطة (Arabic), Zaragoza (Aragonese, Czech, English (U.K.), Finnish, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish)
Sarajevo Saarayego (Wolof), Sairéavó (Irish), Saraevo(Macedonian), Saraievo (Galician, Portuguese, Romanian), Seraium (Latin), Sarajeva (Latvian), Sarajevas (Lithuanian), Sarajevë (Albanian), Sarajevo (Bosnian, Croatian, English, Finnish, French, Italian, Maltese, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish), Sarajevó (Icelandic), Sarajewo (German, Lower Sorbian, Polish, Upper Sorbian), Saraybosna (Turkish), Sarayevo (Azərbaycan, Qırımtatarca, Haitian Creole, Kurdi, Swahili), Szarajevó (Hungarian), Σαράγεβο (Greek), Сараєво (Ukrainian), Сараjево (Bosnian, Serbian), Сараево (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Chuvash, Russian, Ossetic, Macedonian, Tatar, Tajik), Sàlārèwō - 撒拉熱窩 (Chinese), Saraebo - サラエボ (Japanese)*, Սարաևո (Armenian), Sarayebo - 사라예보 (Korean), سرايیقو Sarāyīfū / Sarāyēfū (Arabic), Saray - (Judaeo-Spanish), סראייבו (Hebrew)
Saranda Sarandë / Saranda (Albanian), Áyii SarándaΆγιοι Σαράντα (Greek), Santiquaranta (Italian)
Sarrebourg Saarburg (Dutch, German*), Sarrebourg (French*, German*)
Sarreguemines Sarreguemines (French), Saargemünd (German)
Sartene Sartè (Corsican), Sartena (Italian), Sartene (French)
Sassari Sàsser (Catalan), Sáçer (Old Spanish), Sassari (Sassarese, Corsican, Italian), Sassaro (Old Sassarese), Tathari / Tàthari / Tàttari / Tattari (Sardinian)
Saverne Zabern (German)
Schaffhausen Schaffhouse (French), Schaffhausen (German, Romanian), Sciaffusa (Italian), Schaffusa (Romansh), Szafuza (Polish), Šafhauzene (Latvian)
Schweinfurt Schweinfurt (German, Romanian, Slovene), Svinibrod (Czech)
Schwerin Schwerin (German), Swaryń (Polish), Zuarin (Obotritic), Zvěřín (Czech),
Schwyz Schwytz (French, Finnish), Schwyz (German), Svitto (Italian), Sviz (Romansh)
Sélestat Schlettstadt (German)*, Sélestat (French*, German*)
Senj Segna (Italian), Senj (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Zengg (former Hungarian)
Setúbal Saint Ives, St Ubes (former English), St Yves (former French)
Sevastopol Akyar / Sivastopol (Turkish), Aqyar (Crimean Tatar*, Tatar), Sebaseutopol / Sebasŭt'op'ol – 세바스토폴 (Korean)*, Sebastòpol (Catalan), Sébastopol (French), Sebastopol (Spanish, Portuguese, former English), Sebastopoli (Italian), Sevastopol (Finnish, Romanian), Sevastopol'Севастополь (Russian, Ukrainian), Sevastopole (Latvian), SevastúpoliΣεβαστούπολη (Greek), Sewastopol (Polish), Szevasztopol (Hungarian), Theodorichshafen (proposed German name during World War II)
Seville Hispalis (Latin), Išbīliya (Arabic), Sebiriya – セビリア / Sebīrya - セビーリャ (Japanese)*, Sebiya – 세비야 (Korean), Seviļa (Latvian), Sevila (Slovene), Sevilha (Occitan, Portuguese), SevíliΣεβίλλη (Greek), Sevilia (former Romanian), Sevilija (Lithuanian), Sevilja (Serbian), Seviljo (Esperanto), Sevilla (Galician, Finnish, German, Hungarian, Irish, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish), Séville (French), Sevilya (Turkish, Azeri), Seviya (Ladino)*, Sewilla (Polish), Siviglia (Italian), Sivilja (Maltese)
's-Hertogenbosch Den Bosch or 's-Hertogenbosch (Dutch), Bois-le-Duc (French), Herzogenbusch (German), Hertogenbosch (Italian), Boscoducale (older Italian), 's-Hertogenbosch (English, Polish, Swedish), n Bos(k) (Gronings), Bolduque (Spanish)
Shkodër İşkodra (Turkish), Scodra (Latin), Scutari (Italian, old Romanian), Shkodër (Albanian), Skadar (Czech, Serbian, Slovene), SkódhraΣκόδρα (Greek), Skutari (German), Szkodra (Polish)
Shrewsbury Amwythig (sometimes rendered Yr Amwythig) (Welsh)
Šiauliai ŠaŭliШаўлі (Belarusian), Schaulen (German), ShavliШавли (Russian), Shavl – שאַװל (Yiddish), Šiauliai (Lithuanian, Finnish), Šauļi (Latvian), Szawle (Polish)
Šibenik Sebenico (former Hungarian, Italian), Šibenik (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Szybenik (Polish)
Sibiu Hermannstadt (German)*, Nagyszeben (Hungarian)*, Sibiň (Czech)*, SibinjСибињ (Serbian), Sibiu (German*, Romanian*, Finnish*, Turkish*), Sybin (Polish)*
Siedlce Sedlets (Russian), Shedlets – שעדלעץ (Yiddish), Siedlce (Polish)
Siena Sena (former Portuguese, former Spanish), Siena (Dutch, Galician, German, Italian, Lithuanian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Turkish), Siena – 시에나 (Korean), Sienna (English variant), Sienne (French)
Sighetu Marmaţiei Máramarossziget or Sziget (Hungarian)*, Maramureschsigeth / Siget / Sighetu Marmaţiei (German)*, Marmarošská Sihoť or Sighetu Marmaţiei (Czech)*, Ostrovu Marmaţiei (medieval name), Siget Marmaćej or Siget (Croatian, Serbian)*, Siget - סיגעט (Yiddish)*, Sighet (former English)*, Sighetu Marmaţiei (Dutch*, Portuguese*), Sighetu Marmaţiei or Sighet (Italian)*, Sighetu Marmaţiei or Sighetul Marmaţiei (French)*, Sighetu Marmaţiei or Sighetul Marmaţiei or Sighet (Romanian)*, Sihoť or Syhoty (Slovak), Sihota (Rusyn), SygitСигіт or Sygit-Marmaros'kyyСигіт-Мармароський (Ukrainian)*, Syhot Marmaroski or Sygiet (Polish)*
Sighișoara Schäßburg (German)*, Segesvár (Hungarian)*, Sighișoara (German*, Romanian*), Sigiszoara (Polish)*
Simferopol Akmescit (Turkish), Aqmescit (Crimean Tatar*, Tatar*), Gotenburg (proposed German name during World War II), Simferopol'Сімферополь (Ukrainian), Simferopol'Симферополь (Russian), Simferopol (Romanian), Simferòpol (Catalan), Simferopole (Latvian), Symferopol (Polish), Συμφερούπολη (Greek), Szimferopol (Hungarian)
Sint-Truiden Sent-Trüden (Azeri)*, Saint-Trond (French)*, Oppidum Sancti Trudonis (Latin)*, Sinttreidena (Latvian)*, Sint Treidenas (Lithuanian)*
Skopje Scóipé (Irish), Scupi (Latin), Seukope / Sŭk'op'e - 스코페 (Korean), Shkupi (Albanian), Skop'eСкопье (Russian), SkópiaΣκόπια (Greek), Skopie (Bulgarian – Скопие, Polish, Spanish), Skopje (Dutch, German, Latvian, Maltese, Portuguese, Slovene, Romanian, Swedish), SkopjeСкопје (Macedonian), Scoplie (Romanian variant), Skoplje (Serbian, Croatian), Skūbyī (Arabic), Szkopje (Hungarian), Üszküp (Hungarian, historical), Üsküb (Ottoman Turkish), Üsküp (Turkish), Skopjė (Lithuanian), Sukopie – スコピエ (Japanese)*, Usküb (English in the 11th Edition of Encyclopædia Britannica), Üsküp (Rumelian Turkish)
Skwierzyna Schwerin an der Warthe (German)
Slavske Slavs'keСлавське (Ukrainian), Slawsko (Polish)
Sleswick Slesvig (Danish* Norwegian*), Schleswig (German), Sleswig (low German), Sleeswijk (Dutch), Šlēsviga (Latvian)
Sligo Sligeach (Irish)
Słupsk Stolp (German), Stolpe (Latin), Stôłpsk (Kashubian), Stölpe (Swedish), Slupska (Latvian), Слупск (Russian and other languages written in Cyrillic script)
Smolensk SmalenskСмаленск (Belarusian), Smolensk (Azeri, Dutch, French, German, Portuguese, Romanian), Smoleńsk (Polish), Smoļenska (Latvian), Smolenskas (Lithuanian), Szmolenszk (Hungarian), Смоленск (Russian)
Södertälje Nán Tàilìyē – 南泰利耶 (Chinese), Södertälje (Swedish), Telga australis (Latin)
Solin Salona (Dutch, Italian), Solin (Croatian, Slovene)
Sofia SafijaСафія (Belarusian), Serdica (Thracian), SófiaΣόφια (Greek), Sófia (Portuguese), Sofia (Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Swedish), Sofia – ソフィア (Japanese)*, Sofía (Spanish), SofijaСофия (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Macedonian), SofiyaСофія (Ukrainian), Sofija (Croatian, Slovene, Latvian, Lithuanian), Sofiya (Azeri), Sofio (Esperanto), Sofja (Maltese), Sofya (Turkish), Sóifia (Irish), Sopia / Sop'ia – 소피아 (Korean), Sredets (Slavic), Sūfiyā (Arabic), Suofeiya - 索菲亞 (Chinese), Szófia (Hungarian)
Solothurn Soleure (French), Solothurn (Dutch, German), Soletta (Italian), Soloturn (Romansh), Solura (Polish)
Sønderborg Sonderburg (German)
Sondrio Sondrio (Italian), Sunder (Romansh), Sùndri (Lombard), Sundrium (Latin)
Sopot Sopòt (Kashubian), Sopot (Polish), Zoppot (German), Sopota (Latvian)
Sopron Ödenburg (German), Šoproň (Slovak, Czech), Sopron (Hungarian, Romanian), Šopron (Croatian)
Sovetsk SovetskСоветск (Russian), Sovjetsk (Serbian, Slovene), Sovyetsk (Turkish), Tilsit (German), Tilzīte (former Latvian), Sovetska (Latvian), Tilžė (Lithuanian), Tylża (Polish)
Sparta Σπάρτη (Greek)
Speyer Espira (Spanish, Portuguese), Spiers (Dutch), Spira (Italian, Polish), Spire (French), Spires (former English), Špýr (Czech)
Spišská Nová Ves Igló (Hungarian), Nowa Wieś Spiska / Spiska Nowa Wieś (Polish), Noveysis (Romani), Spišská Nová Ves (Slovak), Villa Nova (Latin), (Zipser) Neu(en)dorf (German), Списка Нова Вес (Ukrainian)
Split Seupeulliteu / Sŭp'ŭllit'ŭ – 스플리트 (Korean), Spalato (former Hungarian, Italian), Split (Azeri, Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Spanish), Splita (Latvian), Splitas (Lithuanian), Σπολάτο (Greek – καθαρεύουσα)
Spreewald Błota (Lower Sorbian), Spreewald (German)
Spremberg Grodk (Lower Sorbian), Spremberg (German)
Starokonstantinov Alt-Konstantin (German), Starokonstantinov / Староконстантинов (Russian), Old Constantine (former English), Starokostyantyniv (Ukrainian)
Sterzing-Vipiteno Sterzing (German), Vipiteno (Italian), Stérzen or Sterzinga (former Italian)
Šabac Шaбац (Serbian, Macedonian), Šabac (English, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Schabatz (German), Szabács (Hungarian), Böğürdelen (Turkish)
Štip Štip (English, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Штип (Serbian, Macedonian)
Stockholm Estocolm (Catalan), Estocolmo (Galician, Portuguese, Spanish), Estokolmo (Tagalog*), Holmia (Latin), Istūkhūlm (Arabic), Seutokholleum / Sŭt'okhollŭm스톡홀름 (Korean), Sīdégē'ěrmó斯德哥爾摩 (Chinese)*, Stoccolma (Italian), Stockholbma (Sami), Stockholm (Basque, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Stócólm (Irish), Stoc Tholm (Scottish Gaelic, archaic), Stokgol'm - Стокгольм (Russian), Štokholm (Slovak), Stokholm (Albanian, Azeri, former Estonian, Serbian, Turkish), StokholmСтокхолм (Bulgarian), Stokhol'm (Ukrainian), Stokholma (Latvian), Stokholmas (Lithuanian), Stokholmo (Esperanto), StokkhólmiΣτοκχόλμη (Greek), Stokkhólmur (Faroese, Icelandic), Stokkolma (Maltese), Sutokkuhorumu - ストックホルム (Japanese)*, Sztokholm (Polish), Tukholma (Finnish),Sa-tok-homeสตอกโฮล์ม (Thai)*
Stargard Szczeciński Stargard Szczeciński (Polish), Stargard in Pommern or Stargard an der Ihna (German), Stargardia (Latin), Stôrgard (Kashubian/Pomeranian), Stargarda Ščeciņska (Latvian), Ščecino Stargardas (Lithuanian), Στάργκαρντ Σετσέτσινσκι (Greek), Stargard Ščecin′ski - Старгард Щециньски (Russian), Stargard Ščecin′skyj - Старгард Щецінський (Ukrainian)
Stralsund Stralsund (German, Swedish), Stralsunda (Italian), Strzałowo or Strzałów (Polish), Štrālzunde (Latvian)
Strasbourg Estrasburgo (Portuguese, Spanish), Estrasburg (Catalan), Schdroosburi or Strossburi (Alsatian), Seuteuraseubureu / Sŭt'ŭrasŭburŭ스트라스부르 (Korean), Straatsburg (Afrikaans and Dutch), Strasbourg (French, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Strasborg (Scottish Gaelic), Strasburg (Polish), Štrasburg (Slovak), Strasburgo (Esperanto, Italian),Strasburgu (Maltese), Štrasburk (Czech), Strassburg (Finnish, Swiss German, former Swedish), Straßburg (German), Strazbur (Serbian), Strazburg (Turkish), Strasbūra (Latvian), Strasbūras (Lithuanian), Stroossbuerg (Luxembourgish), StrasvúrgoΣτρασβούργο (Greek), Sutorasubūruストラスブール (Japanese)*
Straubing Straubing (German), Štrubina (Czech)
Struga Struga (English, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Struga - Струга (Macedonian, Serbian)
Strumica Strumica (English, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Strumica - Струмица (Macedonian, Serbian)
Stuttgart Estugarda (Portuguese), Shututtogaruto - シュトゥットガルト (Japanese)*, Štíhrad (Czech), Stoccarda (Italian), Schduagert (Swabian German)*, Stuttgart (Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), StoutgárdhiΣτουτγάρδη (Greek), Štutgarte (Latvian), Štutgartas (Lithuanian), Syututeugareuteu / Syut'ut'ŭgarŭt'ŭ - 슈투트가르트 (Korean)
Subotica Mariatheresiopel (German), SuboticaСуботица (Serbian), Subotica (Finnish, Slovene, Polish, Romanian), Szabadka (Hungarian)
Suceava Sedschopff (archaic German)[2], Shotsשאָץ (Yiddish),[3] Sotschen (archaic German),[4] Sučava - Сучава (Russian, Ukrainian), Suceava (Romanian), Suczawa (Polish, German), Sūqiàwǎ - 蘇恰瓦 (Mandarin Chinese), Szőcsvásár (archaic Hungarian), Szucsáva (Hungarian)
Sveti Nikole Sveti Nikole (English, Croatian, Bosnian), Sveti Nikole - Свети Николе (Macedonian, Serbian)
Swansea Abertaŭo (Esperanto), Abertawe (Welsh), Swansea (Dutch, German, Slovene), Svonsi (Serbian), Suonsiსუონსი (Georgian*),
Świnoujście Swinemünde (German), Świnoujście (Polish)
Syracuse Saraùsa (Sicilian), Siracusa (Italian, Romanian, Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan), Sioracús (Irish), Siragüza (Arabic), Sirakuso (Esperanto), Siracuza (former Romanian), Sirakuza (Azeri, Serbian), Sirakuża (Maltese), Siraküza (Turkish), Sirakuze (Slovene), Sirakūzai (Lithuanian), SirakúsesΣυρακούσες (Greek), Syrakuzy (Polish), Syrakus (German), Syrakusa (Finnish, Swedish), Syrakuse (Dutch), Syrakúzy (Slovak), Syrakusy / Syrákúsy[5] (Czech)
Szczebrzeszyn Shebreshin – שעברעשין (Yiddish), Szczebrzeszyn (Polish)
Szczecin Estetino (Portuguese, Spanish), Scecinum / Stetinum (Latin), Stettin (German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Turkish, former English), Stettyn (Afrikaans), Szczecin (Polish, Romanian), Štětín (Czech), Štetín (Slovak, Slovene), Stettino (Italian), Ščecina (Latvian), Šćećin (Serbian), Štetinas (Lithuanian), ŠčecinШчэцін (Belarusian), Syuchechin / Syuch'ech'in슈체친 (Korean)*, Στεττίνο (Greek)
Szczytno Ortelsburg (German), Ortulfsburg (older German), Szczytno (Polish)
Szeged Partiscum (Latin), Segedín (Czech, Serbian, Slovak), Segedin (Turkish), Szeged (Hungarian), Seghedino (Italian), Segedyn or Szegedyn (Polish), Seghedin (Romanian), Szegedin or Segedin (German), Siget (Croatian)
Székesfehérvár Alba Regia (Latin), Stoličný Bělehrad (Czech), Stolni Biograd (Croatian), Stuhlweißenburg (German), Stoličný Belehrad (Slovak), İstolni Belgrad (Turkish), Stolni Beograd - Столни Београд (Serbian)
Szentendre SentandrejaСентандреја (Serbian), Svatý Ondřej (Czech), Szentendre (Hungarian)
Szombathely Kamenica (Slovak), Kamenec (Czech), Sambotel (Croatian), Savaria or Sabaria (Latin), Sombotel (Slovene), Steinamanger (German), Szombathely (Hungarian)

T[edit]

English name Other names or former names
Tallinn Kolõvan (former Estonian), Koływań (former Polish), Lindanise (former Estonian), Lyndanisse (former Danish variant), Lindanäs (former Swedish variant), Räffle (former Swedish variant), Rääveli (former Finnish), Rävel (former Swedish variant), Reval (former Dutch, English, French, German, Swedish and Danish), Revalia (Latin), Revel′ - Ревель (former Russian), Rewel (former Polish), Rēvele (former Latvian), Tālīn - تالين (Arabic), Talinas (Lithuanian), Talin (alternate Portuguese, Serbian, alternate Turkish), Tǎlín - 塔林 (Chinese), Ταλλίνη (Greek - καθαρεύουσα), Tallin / T'allin - 탈린 (Korean), Tallin (Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak; also a variant in Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, used mainly between 1944–1991), Talinny (Hungarian), Tallinn (Azeri, Estonian, Danish, Dutch, German, Maltese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swedish, Turkish), Taillinn (Irish), Tallina (Latvian), Tallinna (Finnish; former Estonian), Tarin - タリン (Japanese)*
Tampere Tammerfors (Danish, Swedish), Tampere (Azeri, Estonian, Finnish, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish), Tampere / T'amp'ere - 탐페레 (Korean), Tamperė (Lithuanian)
Taranto Taranto (Italian, Romanian), Táras - Τάρας (ancient Greek), Tárantas - Τάραντας (modern Greek) Tarent (Czech, German, Polish, Romanian variant, Serbian), Tàrent (Catalan), Tarente (French), Tarento (Spanish), Tarentum (Latin)
Târgu Mureș Marosvásárhely (Hungarian*),[KNAB] Maroš Vazargeli - Марошъ Вазаргели (archaic Russian),[KNAB] Neumarkt (am Mieresch) (German), Nový Trh (nad Máruši) (alternative Czech),[KNAB] Oșorhei (archaic Romanian),[KNAB] Târgu Mureș (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Mureș (Romanian, old spelling), Tyrgu-Mureš - Тиргу-Муреш (Ukrainian*), Tyrgu-Mureš - Тыргу-Муреш (Russian*)[KNAB]
Târgu Neamţ Németvásár (Hungarian), Târgu Neamţ (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Neamţ (Romanian, old spelling)
Târgu Ocna Aknavásár (Hungarian), Târgu Ocna (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Ocna (Romanian, old spelling)
Târgu Jiu Zsilvásárhely (Hungarian), Târgu Jiu (Romanian, current spelling), Tîrgu Jiu (Romanian, old spelling), Tergoschwyl (German)
Tarnów Tarne - טארנע (Yiddish), Tarnów (Polish), Tarniv - Тарнів (Ukrainian)
Tarnowskie Góry Tarnovice (archaic Czech),[6] Tarnovske-Gury - Тарновске-Гуры (Russian*), Tarnovské Hory (archaic Czech),[7] Tarnovs′ki Hury - Тарновські Гури (Ukrainian*), Tarnowitz (German), Tarnowskie Góry (Polish), Tarnowske Gůry (Silesian*)
Tarragona Tarragona (Catalan, Spanish, English), Tarraco (Latin), Tarragone (French)
Tartu Derpt - Дерпт (former Russian), Dorpat (former German, Polish and Swedish), Tarto (Võro), Tartto (Finnish), Tartu (Estonian, German, Latvian, Romanian, Russian, Swedish, Turkish), Tērbata (Latvian, before 1918), Tharbata (Latin), Yur′yev - Юрьев (former Russian)
Tarvisio Tarvis (Friulian, German), Tarvisio (Italian), Trbiž (Slovene)
Tauragė Tauragė (Lithuanian),[KNAB] Tauraģe (Latvian*),[KNAB] Tauragie (Samogitian*), Tauroggen (German),[KNAB] Taurogi (Polish*),[KNAB] Taurogy (alternative Czech),[KNAB] Tovrik - טאווריק (Yiddish)
Tekirdağ Byzanthe (Ancient Greek name of a Thracian town very near the modern city), Raedestus / Rhaedestus (Latin), Rhaidestos (Greek), Rodosçuk (early Ottoman Turkish), Rodosto (Italian and various European languages), Rodostó (Hungarian), Tekfurdağı (late Ottoman Turkish), Tekirdağ (Turkish), Visanthi (Modern Greek form of Byzanthe)
Tempio Pausania Tempio Pausania (Italian), Tempiu (Corsican, Sardinian), Tempio (Spanish, Catalan, former Italian)
Terezín Terezín (Czech, Slovak), Theresienstadt (German), Terezin (Polish)
Tetovo Tetovo (English, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene), Tetovo - Тетово (Macedonian), Kalkandelen (Turkish)
The Hague Ang Haya (Tagalog*), D'n 'Aegt (Zeelandic), Lāhāy - لاهاي (Arabic), La Hay or La Haye (Vietnamese), Lahey (Turkish), L'Aia (Italian), L-Aja (Maltese), Gaaga - Гаага (Russian), De Haach (West Frisian), De Haag (local Haags dialect), Den Haag / 's-Gravenhage (Dutch), Den Haag (Indonesian), Haag (Croatian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish), Den Haag / der Haag (German), Haaga - Гааґа (Ukrainian), Hag (Serbian), Hāga (Latvian), Haga (Polish, Romanian, Lithuanian, Albanian), Hága (Hungarian), Hago (Esperanto), Hāgu - ハーグ (Japanese)*, Haia (Portuguese), An Háig (Irish), Hǎiyá - 海牙 (Chinese), La Haya (Spanish), La Haye (French), Ηáyi - Χάγη (Greek), Heigeu / Heigŭ - 헤이그 (Korean)
Thessaloniki Salonic (Romanian), Salonica (alternative English name), Salónica (alternate Portuguese, alternate Spanish, alternate Ladino), Salonicco / Tessalonica (Italian), Salonikai (Lithuanian), Saloniki (Azeri, German, Latvian, Polish, Ladino, alternative Greek name), Saloniki - Салоники (Russian), Saloniki / Thessaloniki (Swedish), Saloniky - Салоніки (Ukrainian), Salonique / Thessalonique (French), Salonka (Maltese), Săruna (Aromanian), Selanik (Ladino*, Turkish, Albanian), Solun - Солун (Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian, Slovene), Soluň (Czech), Solún (Slovak), Sołuń (Polish, historical), Szaloniki / Tesszaloniki (Hungarian), Thessaloniki - Θεσσαλονίκη (Greek), Teasaloinicé (Irish), Tesalloniki / T'esallonik'i - 테살로니키 (Korean), Tesalonic (alternative Romanian name), Tesalonica (Tagalog*), Sālōnīk - سالونيك (Arabic), Tesalónica (Spanish), Tesalonika (Indonesian), Tessalónica and Salónica (Portuguese), Tessalònica (Catalan), Tessaloniki (Finnish), Salonik'i - სალონიკი / Tesalonik'i - თესალონიკი (Georgian*)
Thionville Diedenhofen (German), Diedenhoven (former Dutch), Diddenhuewen (Luxembourgish), Thionville (French)
Thusis Thusis (German), Tusaun (Romansh)
Timișoara Temešvár (Czech, Slovak), Temeswar / Temeschburg / (Temeschwar) (German), Temesvár (Hungarian), Temišvar (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Timișoara (Romanian), Timiszoara (Polish), טמשוואר (Yiddish), Temeşvar (Turkish)
Tipperary Tiobraid Árann (Irish)
Tirana Tiorána (Irish), Tiran (Turkish), Tirana (Azeri, Catalan, Finnish, Italian*, Maltese, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish), Τίρανα (Greek), Tirana - ティラナ (Japanese)*, Tirana / T'irana - 티라나 (Korean), Tirāna (Latvian), Tirana - Тирана (Ukrainian, Russian), Tiranë / Tirana (Albanian), Trnava - Трнава (old Macedonian)
Tongeren Tongeren (Dutch), Tongern (German), Tongres (French), Tongue (Walloon), Aduatuca (Latin)
Tornio Duortnus (Northern Sami), Toreunio / T'orŭnio - 토르니오 (Korean), Torneå (Swedish), Tornio (Estonian, Finnish)
Tórshavn Thorshavn (Danish, Finnish, Romanian), Torshamn (Swedish), Tórshavn (Faroese), Þórshöfn (Icelandic), Toreuseuhaun / T'orŭsŭhaun - 토르스하운
Toruń Torun (Romanian), Toruń (Polish), Toruň (Czech), Thorn (German), civitas Torunensis, Thorun (Latin), Torń (Kashubian), Torun′ - Торунь (Russian, Ukrainian)
Toulon Toló (Catalan), Tolón (Spanish)*, Tolone (Italian), Toulon (French, Finnish, Romanian) Tulon (Azeri, Polish, old Romanian), Tulona (Latvian)
Toul Toul (French*, Finnish*, German*, Portuguese*, Romanian*, Swedish*), Tull (old German *)
Toulouse Tolosa de Llenguadoc (Catalan), Tolosa (Italian, Latin, Occitan, former Spanish, Basque), Toulouse (French, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Swedish), Tullujeu / T'ullujŭ - 툴루즈 (Korean), Tuluz (Serbian), Tuluza (Azeri, Polish), Tulūza (Latvian, Lithuanian), Tulúzi - Τουλούζη (Greek), Tuluza - Тулуза (Bulgarian, Ukrainian), Tūrūzu - トゥールーズ (Japanese)*
Tournai Doornijk (Flemish), Doornik (Dutch), Dornick (German), Tournai (French, Romanian)
Tours Tours (French), Caesarodunum (Latin), Teurgn (Breton)
Trakai Troki - Трокі (Belarusian), Trakai (Lithuanian, Turkish), Trakay (alternative Turkish), Traķi (Latvian), Troki (Polish), Troky (Czech), Trakaj - Тракай or Troki - Троки (Ukrainian)
Tralee Trá Lí (Irish)
Trenčín Laugaricio (Latin), Trentschin (German), Trenčin - Тренчин (Russian), Trenczyn (Polish), Trencsén (Hungarian)
Trento Trent (older English), Trente (Dutch, French), Trento (Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish), Trident (Czech), Tridentum (Latin), Trient (German), Trydent (Polish)
Trier Augusta Treverorum (Latin*),[KNAB] Drir (local German), Tèlǐěr特里爾 (Mandarin Chinese*), Teurieo트리어 (Korean*), Torīaトリーア (Japanese*), Treberis (Basque),[KNAB] Tréier (Luxembourgish*),[KNAB] Trevere (Venetian*), Trevèri (Occitan*), Treveris (Basque*),[8] Tréveris (Galician*,[9] Portuguese*, Spanish*,[KNAB]), Trèveris (Catalan*), Treves (archaic English),[10][KNAB] Trèves (French*),[KNAB] Trevír (Czech*,[KNAB] Slovak[KNAB]), Treviri (Italian*),[KNAB] TrevíroiΤρεβήροι (Katharevousa Greek), Trewir (Polish*),[KNAB] Trier (Danish*, Dutch*, German*, Hungarian*, Swedish*, Turkish*), Triers (archaic English),[10] TrirТрир (Bulgarian*, Russian*,[KNAB] Serbian*), TrirТрір (Ukrainian*), TrirΤριρ (Greek*), Trīr ترير (Arabic*), Trīre (Latvian*), Triri (Albanian*), Trîve (Walloon), TryrТрыр (Belarusian*), Tryras (Lithuanian*)
Trieste Tergeste (Latin), Terst (Czech, Slovak), Teryésti - Τεργέστη (Greek), Teurieseute / T'ŭriesŭt'e - 트리에스테 (Korean), Toriesute - トリエステ (Japanese)*, Triëst (Dutch), Triest (Catalan, Dutch, Friulian, German, Polish, Romanian variant), Trieszt (Hungarian), Trieste (Finnish, Italian, Latvian, Maltese, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish), Triyeste (alternative Turkish), Trst (Croatian, Serbian, Slovene), Triest - Трієст (Ukrainian)
Trogir Traù (Italian), Trogir (Croatian, Romanian, Serbian)
Trnava Tyrnavia (Latin), Nagyszombat (Hungarian), Tyrnau (German), Trnava - Трнава (Ukrainian),
Tromsø Romsa (Sami),[KNAB] Teuromsoe / T'ŭromsoe - 트롬쇠 (Korean), Tromsë - Тромсё (Russian),[KNAB] Tromsīeg (Anglo-Saxon*), Tromsö (Swedish, Turkish), Tromssa (Finnish)[KNAB]
Trondheim Drontheim (archaic German), Nidaros (archaic Norwegian), Niðarós (archaic Icelandic),[KNAB] Niðaróss (Old Norse), Nidrosia (Latin*),[11] Råante (Southern Sami), Roanddin (alternative Northern Sami), Tèlónghèmǔ - 特隆赫姆 (Mandarin Chinese*), Tèlúnhàn - 特倫汗 (alternative Mandarin Chinese), Trånnhjæm (local Norwegian), Troandin (Northern Sami*),[KNAB] Troanddin (alternative Northern Sami),[KNAB] Trondheim (Dutch*, German*, Norwegian*, Romanian*, Swedish*, Turkish), Trondheimas (Lithuanian*), Tróndheimur (Faroese),[12] Trondhjem (archaic Danish, Dano-Norwegian, alternative Norwegian), Tronheima (Latvian*), Tronxejm - Тронхейм (Russian*), Þrándheimur (Icelandic*)[KNAB]
Truro Truru (Cornish) *
Trzebiatów Treptow an der Rega (German)
Tübingen Túbīngēn - 圖賓根 (Chinese), Tubinga (Catalan, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish), Tübingen (German, Swedish), Tubingue (French), Tubinky / Tybinky (Czech), Tybinga (Polish), Tivíngi - Τυβίγγη (Greek), Tībingene (Latvian)
Turin Augusta Taurinorum (Latin), Taurasia (probably pre-Roman Celtic),Taurinum (medieval Latin), Torí (Catalan), Torino (Finnish, Italian, Croatian, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Serbian, Slovene, Turkish), Torinó (Hungarian), Torino - トリノ (Japanese)*, Torino / T'orino - 토리노 (Korean), Turijn (Dutch), Turim (Portuguese), Turin (Piedmontese, Azeri, Basque, French, Friulian, German, Maltese, Occitan, Lombard, Genoese, Swedish), Turini - ტურინი (Georgian*), Turín (Czech, Slovak, Spanish), Turyn (Afrikaans, Polish), Turīna (Latvian), Turinas (Lithuanian), Turien (Limburgish), Τουρίνο (Greek)
Turckheim Turckheim (French)*, Türkheim im Elsass (German, obsolete)*
Turku Abo - Або (archaic Russian)[13][14] Åbo (Norwegian*, Swedish*[KNAB]), Aboa (Latin),[11][15][16] Aboia (Latin), Árbæ (alternative Icelandic), Kaby - Кабы (archaic Russian),[17] Toúrkou - Τούρκου (Greek*), Túrcú (Irish*), Turcua (Latin), Tureuku / T'urŭk'u - 투르쿠 (Korean), Turu (Estonian),[KNAB] Turku (Azeri, Finnish, Latvian, Romanian, Sami*, Turkish), Turku - Турку (Russian*)[KNAB]
Tver Kalinin (former name), Tver (Azeri, Italian, Romanian, Slovene, Swedish), Twer (Polish, German), Tvera (Latvian), Tverė (Lithuanian), Ćvier - Цвер (Цьвер) (Belarusian), Tiveri (Karelian), Tver - Твер (Ukrainian)
Tyszowce Tishevits - טישעװיץ (Yiddish), Tyszowce (Polish)

References[edit]

  1. [KNAB] "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  1. ^ Buruma, Ian. Year Zero: A History of 1945. Penguin, 2013.
  2. ^ Johannes Schiltberger. Hans Schiltbergers Reisebuch. Tübingen, Litterarischer Verein in Stuttgart, 1885. p. 111.
  3. ^ ספר יהודי סוצ׳בה (שוץ) וקהילות הסביבה Sefer Yehude Suts'avah (Shots) ṿe-kehilot ha-sevivah. Book of the Jews from Suceava (Shotz) and the surrounding communities . Ṭeper, 2007. ISBN 9789657226162
  4. ^ Peter Kosta. Eine russische Kosmographie aus dem 17. Jahrhundert: sprachwissenschaftliche Analyse mit Textedition und Faksimile. Munich: Otto Sagner, 1982. ISBN 9783876902005
  5. ^ cs:Syrakusy
  6. ^ Jan Krejčí (1876). "Přehled geologicko-orografický zemí českoslovanských". Časopis Musea království Českého. 50 (3): 434. 
  7. ^ Vincenc Prasek (1900). "Judiciorum saxonicorum per Moraviam sept. Silesiam austr. acta, nexus = Organisace práv magdeburských na sev. Moravě a v rak. Slezsku". Olomouc: Ed. Hölzel: 25. 
  8. ^ Euskaltzaindia (2010-05-23). "157. araua - Europako hiriak" (PDF).  (in Basque)
  9. ^ Isaac Díaz Pardo, Víctor F. Freixanes, Antón Mascato (editors) (2007). Diciopedia do século 21. Editorial Galaxia. ISBN 9788482893600.  (in Galician)
  10. ^ a b George Landmann. "Treves, or Triers." A universal Gazetteer; or geographical dictionary of the World. Founded on the works of Brookes and Walker, etc. 1835.
  11. ^ a b J. G. Th. Graesse, Orbis Latinus (Dresden: Schönfeld, 1861; 1909. Brunswick, 1972) Ed. 1861 Ed. 1909 Ed. 1972
  12. ^ Heims Atlas. 2nd ed. Tórshavn : Føroya skúlabókagrunnur, 1994. p. 19. (in Faroese)
  13. ^ А. М. Комков. „Або“. «Словарь географических названий зарубежных стран». 1986. p. 7. (in Russian)
  14. ^ Николай Михайлович Книпович. „Або“. «Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона» в 86 т. (82 т. и 4 доп.). — СПб., 1890—1907. (in Russian)
  15. ^ Il mondo antico, moderno, e novissimo, ovvero Breve trattato ..., vol. 2, p. 706
  16. ^ Tuomo Pekkanen & Reijo Pitkäranta, Lexicon hodiernae Latinitatis Finno-Latino-Finnicum. Societas Litterarum Finnicarum, Helsinki, 2006; Ebbe Vilborg, Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok. Andra upplagan. Norstedts akademiska förlag, Stockholm, 2009. (in Swedish)
  17. ^ Иван Яковлевич Павловскій (1843). Географія Россійской Имперіи. Vol. 2. Dorpat: Типография Шюнманна. p. 166.