|City of regional significance|
|• Mayor||Volodymyr Khomko|
|• Total||63.00 km2 (24.32 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,274/km2 (11,070/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+3)|
Rivne (Ukrainian: Рівне [ˈriu̯nɛ]; Russian: Ровно, translit. Rovno; Polish: Równe) is a historic city in western Ukraine and the historical region of Volhynia. It is the administrative center of Rivne Oblast (province), as well as the surrounding Rivne Raion (district) within the oblast. Administratively, Rivne is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. The estimated population was around 250,242 as of 2013[update].
Before World War II the city was located in Poland and during the German occupation in 1941–44 the city was designated as a capital of the German Ukraine (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Rivne is an important transportation hub, with the international Rivne Airport, and rail links to Zdolbuniv, Sarny and Kovel, as well as highways linking it with Brest, Kiev and Lviv.
Rivne was first mentioned in 1283 as one of the inhabited places of Halych-Volhynia. From the second half of the 14th century it was under the rule of Great Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1492 the city was granted Magdeburg rights. Following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 Rivne became a part of Russian Empire, and in 1797 it was declared to be a regional town of the Volhynian Governorate.
During World War I and the period of chaos shortly after, it was briefly under German, Ukrainian, Bolshevik, and Polish rule. In April–May 1919 Rivne served as the temporary capital of Ukrainian People's Republic. At the conclusion of the conflict, in accordance with the Riga Peace Treaty of 1921 it became a part of Polish Volhynian Voivodeship, which would last until the Second World War.
In 1939, as a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the partition of Poland, Rivne was occupied by the Soviet Union. From December of the same year Rivne became the centre of the newly established Rivne Oblast, within the Ukrainian SSR.
On June 28, 1941 Rivne was captured by Nazi Germany, which later established the city as the administrative centre of Reichskommissariat Ukraine. At the time, roughly half of Rivne's inhabitants were Jewish; of these, about 23,000 were taken to a pine grove in Sosenki and killed between November 6 and 8. At the same period well known German actor Olaf Bach was flown over to the city to perform for the German forces, for morale and supporting the troops. He remained in Rivne from November 8 to the 13th. A ghetto was established for the remaining 5,000 Jews. In July 1942, its population was sent somewhat further 70 km (43 mi) north to Kostopil where they were killed; the ghetto was subsequently liquidated. Later on, a memorial complex of 20 thousand square meters was established, commemorating the killing of 17,500 Jews during the Holocaust. On June 6, 2012, the World War II Jewish burial site was vandalized, allegedly as part of an anti-Semitic act.
Rivne has a moderate continental climate with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. Snow cover usually lasts from November until March. The average annual precipitation is 598 mm (24 in) June and July being the wettest months and January and February the driest.
|Climate data for Rivne, Ukraine (1959-2011)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.2
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−34.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.4
|Average precipitation days||21.2||19.5||16.9||12.5||10.1||11.2||10.4||8.2||10.4||12.1||14.6||21.2||168.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87.4||85.3||79.0||66.7||67.1||72.0||74.5||73.2||77.1||81.2||87.6||89.0||78.3|
During Soviet times the provincial town was transformed into an industrial center of the republic. There were two significant factories built. The first a machine building and metal processing factory capable of producing high-voltage apparatus, tractor spare parts and others. The other a chemical factory and synthetic materials fabrication plant. Light industry, including a linen plant and a textile mill, as well as food industries, including milk and meat processing plants and a vegetable preservation plant have also been built. In addition the city became a production center for furniture and other building materials.
As an important cultural centre, Rivne hosts a humanities and a hydro-engineering university, as well as a faculty of the Kiev State Institute of Culture, and medical and musical as well as automobile-construction, commercial, textile, agricultural and cooperative polytechnic colleges. The city has a historical museum.
Following the fall of the Soviet Union, the monument for the Soviet hero D.N.Medvedev was removed, and the N.I.Kuznetsov monument was moved to another location within the city. Instead, in order to reflect the controversial history of the region the monuments for "People who died in the honour of Ukraine", and "Soldiers who died in local military battles" were installed.
- Church of the Assumption (1756)
- Cathedral of the Intercession (2001)
- Cathedral of the Ascension (1890)
- A classicism-style gymnasium building (1839)
- During Soviet times the centre of the city from Lenin street to Peace Avenue (1963 architects R.D. Vais and O.I. Filipchuk) was completely rebuilt with Administrative and Public buildings in neo-classical, Stalinist style.
- Monument to the 25th Anniversary of the Liberation of Rivne from the Fascists, Mlynivs'ke Highway
- Monument to the Victims of Fascism, Bila Street Square (1968, by A.I. Pirozhenko and B.V. Rychkov, architect-V.M.Gerasimenko)
- Monument to the 30th Anniversary of the Liberation of Ukraine from German Fascist Occupation, Soborna Street
- Hero of the Civil War—M.M. Bohomolov, Pershoho Travnja Street Square
- Bust on the Tomb of Partisan M. Strutyns'ka and Relief on the Tomb of Citizens S. Yelentsia and S. Kotiyevs'koho, Kniazia Volodymyra Street, Hrabnyk Cemetery
- Monument to the Perished of Ukraine, Magdeburz'koho Prava Plaza
- Communal Grave of Warriors, Soborna Street
- Monument of Eternal Glory, Kyivs'ka Street
- Bust of Olenko Dundych, T.H. Shevchenko Park
- Monument to Taras Shevchenko, T.G. Shevchenko Park; Statue on Nezalezhnosti Plaza
- Memorial to Warriors' Glory, Dubens'ka Street, Rivne Military Cemetery (1975, by M.L. Farina, architect-N.A. Dolgansky)
- Monument to the Warrior and the Partisan, Peremohy Plaza (1948 by I.Ya. Matveenko)
- Monument to Colonel Klym Savura, Commander of the Ukrainian People's Army, Soborna Street
- Monument to Symon Petliura, Symon Petliura Street
- Monument to N.I. Kuznetsov (bronze and granite, 1961 by V.P Vinaikin)
- Monument to the Jewish Victims of the Holocaust - mass grave site (ca. 1991)
- Monument to the victims of the Chernobyl disaster, Simon Petliura Street
- Statue and Plaza dedicated to Maria Rivnens'ka, Soborna Street
Famous people from Rivne
- Zuzanna Ginczanka, Polish poet
- Sophie Irene Loeb, U.S. journalist and social-welfare advocate
- Mira Spivak, member of the Canadian Senate representing the province of Manitoba
- Serhiy Honchar, professional road racing cyclist
- Dahn Ben-Amotz, Israeli writer
- Ancestors of U.S. composer Leonard Bernstein. His father Samuel was born in Berezdiv, his mother Jennie in Sheptevoka in the Rovno region.
- Andrzej Milczanowski, born in Rivne in 1939. Polish politician, parliamentarian and member of anticommunist opposition, Minister of Internal Affairs of Poland (1992–1995)
- Jan Kobylański, Polish-Paraguayan businessman, founder of the Union of Polish Associations and Organizations in Latin America
- Mikhail Molchanov, Canadian political scientist, professor, foreign member of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine
- Fania Mussman, mother of Amos Oz, famous Israeli writer
- Anna Walentynowicz, trade unionist, member of Solidarity
- Sergiy Fjordsson, Musician, known for his Dark Ambient / Black Metal formation Moloch. Sergiy is also the owner of Depressive Illusions Records, well-known within the Black Metal community.
- Yaroslav Alexandrovich Evdokimov - (born 22 November 1946) is a singer, baritone, Honored Artist of the Russian Federation, People's Artist of Belarus.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Rivne is twinned with:
Independence square with theatre and statue of Taras Shevchenko
- "В Ривне вандалы осквернили место массового расстрела евреев.". MIG news.com.ua. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- On bringing the name of Rovno city and Rovno Oblast in accordance to rules of Ukrainian spelling. Ukrainian parliament. 11 June 1991
- "Rivne, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- (in Ukrainian) Рівне, план міста, 1:12000. Міста України. Картографія.
- The memorial was desecrated on June 8th 2012 by breaking parts of it and spraying swastikas. The teenagers in charge of the antisemitic action were caught and trialed. see http://antisemitism.org.il/article/72708/ukraine-police-nab-3-teens-suspected-desecrating-jewish-mass-grave and http://mignews.com.ua/skandaly/v_ukraine/829325.html
- Артист Ярослав Евдокимов рассказал «ОГ» о своих корнях Областная газета, 12 ноября 2013
- (in Ukrainian) Рівне, план міста, 1:12000. Міста України. Картографія.
- infomisto.com — map of the Rivne, information and reference portal.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rivne.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rivne.|
|Look up rivne in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Official website of Rivne City Council and Rivne City Administration (in Ukrainian)
- Rivne Bird webcam (in Ukrainian)
- Rivne Places of Interest (in English)
- Rowno, a Memorial to the Jewish Community of Rowno, Volyn (Rivne, Ukraine) (in English)