Network File System
|Internet protocol suite|
Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network much like local storage is accessed. NFS, like many other protocols, builds on the Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call (ONC RPC) system. The Network File System is an open standard defined in RFCs, allowing anyone to implement the protocol.
Versions and variations
Sun used version 1 only for in-house experimental purposes. When the development team added substantial changes to NFS version 1 and released it outside of Sun, they decided to release the new version as v2, so that version interoperation and RPC version fallback could be tested.
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Version 2 of the protocol (NFSv2) was first implemented in SunOS version 2.0, which was released in May 1985. People involved in the creation of NFS version 2 include Russel Sandberg, Bob Lyon, Bill Joy, Steve Kleiman, and others. The protocol is defined in RFC 1094, published in March 1989.
NFSv2 originally operated only over UDP. Its designers meant to keep the server side stateless, with locking (for example) implemented outside of the core protocol. The decision to make the file system stateless was a key decision, since it makes recovery from server failures trivial: all network clients freeze up when a server becomes unavailable, but once the server is again operational all the state to retry each transaction is contained in each RPC, which is retried by the client stub(s). This design decision allows UNIX applications, which usually cannot tolerate file server crashes, to ignore the problem.
The Virtual File System interface allows a modular implementation, reflected in a simple protocol. By February 1986, implementations were demonstrated for operating systems such as System V release 2, Microsoft DOS, and VAX/VMS using Eunice.
Due to 32-bit limitations, NFSv2 allows only the first 2 GB of a file to be read.
Version 3 (RFC 1813, June 1995) added:
- support for 64-bit file sizes and offsets, to handle files larger than 2 gigabytes (GB);
- support for asynchronous writes on the server, to improve write performance;
- additional file attributes in many replies, to avoid the need to re-fetch them;
- a READDIRPLUS operation, to get file handles and attributes along with file names when scanning a directory;
- assorted other improvements.
At the time of introduction of Version 3, vendor support for TCP as a transport-layer protocol began increasing. While several vendors had already added support for NFS Version 2 with TCP as a transport, Sun Microsystems added support for TCP as a transport for NFS at the same time it added support for Version 3. Using TCP as a transport made using NFS over a WAN more feasible.
Version 4 (RFC 3010, December 2000; last revised in RFC 7530, March 2015), influenced by AFS and CIFS, includes performance improvements, mandates strong security, and introduces a stateful protocol. Version 4 became the first version developed with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) after Sun Microsystems handed over the development of the NFS protocols.
NFS version 4.1 (RFC 5661, January 2010) aims to provide protocol support to take advantage of clustered server deployments including the ability to provide scalable parallel access to files distributed among multiple servers (pNFS extension). NFS version 4.2 is currently being developed.
WebNFS, an extension to Version 2 and Version 3, allows NFS to integrate more easily into Web-browsers and to enable operation through firewalls. In 2007, Sun Microsystems open-sourced their client-side WebNFS implementation.
Various side-band protocols have become associated with NFS, including:
- The byte-range advisory Network Lock Manager (NLM) protocol (added to support UNIX System V file locking APIs).
- The remote quota reporting (RQUOTAD) protocol (to allow NFS users to view their data-storage quotas on NFS servers).
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NFS is often used with Unix operating systems (such as Solaris, AIX and HP-UX) and Unix-like operating systems (such as Linux and FreeBSD). It is also available to operating systems such as the classic Mac OS, OpenVMS, IBM i, certain editions of Microsoft Windows, and Novell NetWare. Alternative remote file access protocols include the Server Message Block (SMB, also known as CIFS), Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), NetWare Core Protocol (NCP), and OS/400 File Server file system (QFileSvr.400).
SMB and NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) are more common than NFS on systems running Microsoft Windows, AFP is more common than NFS on Macintosh systems, and QFileSvr.400 was once more common on IBM i systems. Haiku recently added NFSv4 support as part of a Google Summer of Code project.
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- The server implements NFS daemon processes (running by default as
nfsd) in order to make its data generically available to clients.
- The server administrator determines what to make available, exporting the names and parameters of directories (typically using the
/etc/exportsconfiguration file and the
- The server security-administration ensures that it can recognize and approve validated clients.
- The server network configuration ensures that appropriate clients can negotiate with it through any firewall system.
- The client machine requests access to exported data, typically by issuing a
mountcommand. (The client asks the server (rpcbind) which port the NFS server is using, the client connects to the NFS server (nfsd), nfsd passes the request to mountd)
- If all goes well, users on the client machine can then view and interact with mounted filesystems on the server within the parameters permitted.
Note that automation of the NFS mounting process may take place, perhaps by using
/etc/fstab or automounting facilities.
NFS and ONC figured prominently in the network-computing war between Sun Microsystems and Apollo Computer, and later the UNIX wars (ca 1987-1996) between AT&T Corporation and Sun on one side, and Digital Equipment, HP, and IBM on the other.
During the development of the ONC protocol (called SunRPC at the time), only Apollo's Network Computing System (NCS) offered comparable functionality. Two competing groups developed over fundamental differences in the two remote procedure call systems. Arguments focused on the method for data-encoding – ONC's External Data Representation (XDR) always rendered integers in big-endian order, even if both peers of the connection had little-endian machine-architectures, whereas NCS's method attempted to avoid byte-swap whenever two peers shared a common endianness in their machine-architectures. An industry-group called the Network Computing Forum formed (March 1987) in an (ultimately unsuccessful) attempt to reconcile the two network-computing environments.
Later,[when?] Sun and AT&T announced they would jointly develop AT&T's UNIX System V Release 4. This caused many of AT&T's other licensees of UNIX System V to become concerned that this would put Sun in an advantaged position, and it ultimately led to Digital Equipment, HP, IBM, and others forming the Open Software Foundation (OSF) in 1988. Ironically, Sun and AT&T had previously competed over Sun's NFS versus AT&T's Remote File System (RFS), and the quick adoption of NFS over RFS by Digital Equipment, HP, IBM, and many other computer vendors tipped the majority of users in favor of NFS. NFS interoperability was aided by events called "Connectathons" starting in 1986 that allowed vendor-neutral testing of implementations with each other. OSF adopted the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and the Distributed File System (DFS) over Sun/ONC RPC and NFS. DFS used DCE as the RPC, and DFS derived from the Andrew File System (AFS); DCE itself derived from a suite of technologies, including Apollo's NCS and Kerberos.
Sun Microsystems and the Internet Society (ISOC) reached an agreement to cede "change control" of ONC RPC so that the ISOC's engineering-standards body, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), could publish standards documents (RFCs) related to ONC RPC protocols and could extend ONC RPC. OSF attempted to make DCE RPC an IETF standard, but ultimately proved unwilling to give up change control. Later, the IETF chose to extend ONC RPC by adding a new authentication flavor based on GSSAPI, RPCSEC GSS, in order to meet IETF's requirements that protocol standards have adequate security.
Later, Sun and ISOC reached a similar agreement to give ISOC change control over NFS, although writing the contract carefully to exclude NFS version 2 and version 3. Instead, ISOC gained the right to add new versions to the NFS protocol, which resulted in IETF specifying NFS version 4 in 2003.
By the 21st century, neither DFS nor AFS had achieved any major commercial success as compared to CIFS or NFS. IBM, which had previously acquired the primary commercial vendor of DFS and AFS, Transarc, donated most of the AFS source code to the free-software community in 2000. The OpenAFS project lives on. In early 2005, IBM announced end-of-sale for AFS and DFS.
In January 2010 Panasas proposed an NFSv4.1 based on their Parallel NFS (pNFS) technology; they claimed it improved data-access parallelism capability. The NFSv4.1 protocol defines a method of separating the file system metadata from file data location; it goes beyond the simple name/data separation by striping the data amongst a set of data servers. This differs from the traditional NFS server which holds the names of files and their data under the single umbrella of the server. Some products provide multi-node NFS servers, but the participation of the client in separation of meta-data and data is limited.
The NFSv4.1 pNFS server is a collection of server resources or components; these are assumed to be controlled by the meta-data server.
The pNFS client still accesses a single meta-data server for traversal or interaction with the namespace; when the client moves data to and from the server it may directly interact with the set of data servers belonging to the pNFS server collection. The NFSv4.1 client can be enabled as a direct participant in the exact location of file data and to avoid solitary interaction with a single NFS server when moving data.
In addition to pNFS, NFSv4.1 provides:
- directory delegation and notifications
- multi-server namespace
- access control lists and discretionary access control
- retention attributions
- Root squash
- Shared resource
- TCP Wrapper
- Network Information Service
- Remote File System
- Server Message Block
- Andrew File System
- SSHFS - Secure Shell Filesystem - mounts a remote directory using only a ssh login on the remote computer.
- 9P - Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol
- CacheFS - a caching mechanism for Linux NFS clients
- HDFS - Hadoop Distributed File System
- Russel Sandberg, David Goldberg, Steve Kleiman, Dan Walsh, Bob Lyon (1985). "Design and Implementation of the Sun Network Filesystem". USENIX.
- NFS Illustrated (2000) by Brent Callaghan - ISBN 0-201-32570-5
- "Solaris Operating System (Unix)". Operating System Documentation Project. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
- Russel Sandberg. "The Sun Network Filesystem: Design, Implementation and Experience" (PDF). Technical Report (Sun Microsystems).
- "NFS Version 4". USENIX. 2005-04-14.
- Haynes, Thomas (2013-03-14). "NFS Version 4 Minor Version 2".
- "openbsd user - misc - nfsv4?". Openbsd.7691.n7.nabble.com. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- Tom Talpey (February 28, 2006). "NFS/RDMA Implementation(s) Update" (PDF). Network Appliance, Inc.
- Brent Callaghan (January 28, 2002). "NFS over RDMA" (PDF). Sun Microsystems.
- "What is Connectathon?". Original Connectathon.Org web site. Archived from the original on January 28, 1999.
- "pNFS". Panasas. Retrieved August 4, 2013.