Oregon Republican Party

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Oregon Republican Party
Chairperson Bill Currier[1]
Senate leader Minority Leader Ted Ferrioli
House leader Minority Leader Mike McLane
Founded 1857
Headquarters 25375 SW Parkway Ave, Suite 200; Wilsonville, OR 97070[2]
Ideology Conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Social conservatism
National affiliation Republican Party
Seats in the Upper House
12 / 30
Seats in the Lower House
25 / 60
Website
oregon.gop

The Oregon Republican Party is the state affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Oregon, headquartered in Wilsonville. The party was established in the Oregon Territory in February 1857 as the "Free State Republican Party of Oregon" and held its first state convention after Oregon's admission to the union on April 1, 1859.

The Republican Party was the dominant political organization in the state of Oregon from the time of the American Civil War through the decade of the 1960s, before moving to a position of approximate parity with the rival Democratic Party of Oregon for the next four decades. During the 21st Century the Oregon Republican Party has generally assumed the role of minority party in state government, with majorities of Congressional delegations, elected statewide officials, and legislative majorities generally controlled by the Democrats.

The Oregon Republican Party's conservative platform calls for limited government, lower taxes, defense of individual rights, and indicates a belief that human life begins from the moment of conception. The platform opposes abortion, physician-assisted suicide, and same-sex marriage.

History[edit]

Abolitionist origins[edit]

The politics of the Oregon Territory were largely dominated by the generally pro-slavery and States' rights Democratic Party, with only weak opposition offered by the Whigs and their nativist Know Nothing cousins.[3] A serious opposition first began to emerge in the aftermath of the bitter and costly Rogue River Wars of 1855 to 1856, centered around the growing national movement for the abolition of slavery in the United States and was centered around the fledgling Republican Party that was intent upon slavery's limitation and elimination.[3]

A first convention of Republicans in Oregon was held in May 1856 at the Lindley schoolhouse in Jackson County, with the gathering called for the nomination of candidates to appear on the June 1856 territorial ballot.[3] The convention also adopted a resolution declaring that while Congress had no power over the existence of slavery in states in which it already existed, outside of such state jurisdictions federal power should be exerted to prevent its introduction.[4]

Throughout 1856, abolitionist sentiment continue to grow in Oregon, with Republican clubs springing up around the state.[5] Republican county conventions were held in Clackamas, Washington, Marion, Linn, and possibly one or two other locales around the state.[6] Representatives of these county gatherings were then assembled at a territorial organizing convention held in Albany on February 11, 1857, which adopted the official name "Free State Republican Party of Oregon" for the organization.[7] A platform for the new political party was announced, emphasizing the indissoluble nature of the United States, opposition of the expansion of slavery to free territory, prohibition of polygamy, construction of a Pacific railroad to link Oregon with California, government effort to improve the navigability of rivers and harbors, and admission of Oregon to the United States only as a free state.[7]

The year 1857 was marked by preparations for future Oregon statehood, including the holding of a constitutional convention, and the ruling Democratic Party found itself divided over the question of slavery, attempting to sidestep the issue by passing in state convention a resolution binding Democratic delegates to such a gathering to the position that the matter of slavery in Oregon be settled later by a vote of the people.[8]

The Republicans did not nominate a candidate for Representative to Congress in the June 1857 election, instead pooling their support for G.W. Lawson, a Free Soil Democrat who was running as an independent.[9] While pro-slavery Democrat Joseph Lane was ultimately returned as the Territorial delegate to Congress, voting further down the ticket showed a Republican advance, with Republicans joining with so-called "soft" (free state) Democrats[10] to elect about a third of the delegates to the constitutional convention and 10 of the 30 members to the Oregon Territorial Legislature.[11]

The constitutional convention held in the summer of 1857 ultimately steamrolled Republican sentiment and again sidestepped the slavery question by deciding to leave the slavery question to a vote of the people, while declaring that "no negro, Chinaman, or mulatto should have the right to vote."[12] The bill of rights adopted by the Democratic-dominated constitutional convention gave the future state legislature the right to exclude African-Americans from immigrating to the state altogether, thereby setting the stage for restrictive racial laws in spite of Oregon's free state status.[13]

Three propositions were ultimately put to territorial voters, with the Democratic-authored Oregon Constitution gaining approval by a vote of about 7,200 to 3,100, a measure allowing slavery falling to defeat by a majority of nearly 5,100 votes, and a proposal allowing "Free Negroes" to settle in Oregon overwhelmingly defeated by a vote of 8,640 to 1,081.[14] Oregon would be neither a slave state nor one open to black immigration — a law remaining on the books (albeit not in actual effect) into the 20th Century.[15]

Civil War years[edit]

Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), first Oregon Republican elected to the U.S. Senate, was an early casualty fighting for the Union in the American Civil War.

On April 1, 1859, just two weeks after Oregon was admitted to the Union, the Republican Party held a convention in Salem at which it nominated David Logan as the party's choice for the state's first fully fledged Congressional representative.[16] Logan would narrowly fall to defeat both in 1859 and again when nominated again for a full term in the election of 1860, but national political events would soon change the tide for the new political party.[16] The Democratic Party found itself divided with the coming of the American Civil War between pro- and anti-Union elements.[17] With the nation embroiled in war, pro-Union Democrats and Republicans put aside their differences at a fusion convention in April 1862, establishing themselves as the Union Party.[17] This joint political organization would continue in Oregon through four elections under the Union Party banner, terminating only in 1868.[17]

As the united political organization for a preserved United States of America in contradistinction to defeatists and Confederate sympathizers, the Union Party and, after 1868, the rechristened Republican Party experienced dramatic political gains in Oregon, buoyed by the defection and disenfranchisement of the Democratic South. The party, as one historian colorfully noted, began to "grow like the plant that sprang up from the mustard seed."[16] An alliance of Republicans and pro-Union Democrats in the Oregon State Legislature came together in 1860 to elect Edward Dickinson Baker as the first Republican U.S. Senator from Oregon.[18] An era of Republican dominance in Oregon was begun.

Senator Baker's fate did not prove to be a happy one, however. When the Civil War began in 1861, Baker raised his own militia, in which he served as commanding officer. On October 21, 1861, with Congress out of session, Colonel Baker and his men met Confederate forces on a hill called Ball's Bluff just outside Washington, D.C. Shortly after the battle started Baker was killed along with nearly 1,000 others.[19]

Despite the untimely death of Oregon's first Senator, E.D. Baker would hardly be the last. Over the next 30 years a steady stream of Republicans were sent to the U.S. Senate by the Oregon legislature, including Benjamin F. Harding (1862), George H. Williams (1864), Henry W. Corbett (1866), John H. Mitchell (1872, reappointed 1885, re-elected 1887 and 1891), Joseph N. Dolph (1882, re-elected 1889), and George W. McBride (1895).[20]

Realignment[edit]

Oregon Republican Charles L. McNary (1874-1944) sat in the halls of the U.S. Senate for 25 years during the first half of the 20th Century.

By the 1890s, the ideology of the two major parties had begun to switch, with the Republican Party emerging as the party of sound money, industry and commerce, protective tariffs, and expansionist foreign policy.

Governor and U.S. Senator Mark O. Hatfield (1922-2011) was the face of the Oregon Republican Party for a generation.

Platform[edit]

Logo used from 2009–2016

Abortion[edit]

The party believes that every person has a fundamental right to life, beginning at conception. The party also opposes taxpayer funding for abortion.[21]

Crime[edit]

The party believes in prioritizing the funding of public safety, mandatory minimum sentencing for violent offenders, truth in sentencing, enforcement as a means of deterring crime, the death penalty, judicial restraint in interpreting constitutions and statutes, a right to privacy in regards to personal possessions and electronic records, and opposition to mass surveillance, searches, or seizures that violate the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[21]

Economy[edit]

The party believes in lower taxes, free market, sound monetary policy and non government involvement."[21]

Education[edit]

The party believes that all children should have a right to have access to a quality education, parents have the responsibility to educate their children, and that basic skills and fluency in English should be emphasised.[21]

Environment[edit]

The party believes in minimal government intervention and that all regulation should strive to cause the least harm to human resource and business pursuits.[21]

Family[edit]

The party believes that legal recognition of marriage should be restricted to those between one man and one woman, that government involvement in family matters should be kept at a minimum, and that local governments have the right to intervene when parents are deemed unfit. The party opposes abortion, assisted suicide and human trafficking.[21]

Foreign policy[edit]

The party believes that foreign relations should be based on the security of the United States.[21]

Government spending[edit]

The party believes that the government should exercise fiscal responsibility and there should be no unfunded mandates or bailouts. They support a balanced budget.[21]

Health care[edit]

The party supports health care reforms that lower costs, eliminate government barriers and allow citizens to make their own health care decisions. They support the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[21]

Immigration[edit]

The party recognizes the benefits of legal immigration, opposes amnesty, supports English as the official language, supports a simplified guest worker program. It believes the right to vote should only be earned through naturalization, and that citizenship for children should be granted if one or more of their parents are a U.S. citizen.[21]

Individual liberty through limited government[edit]

The party stands for the protection of individual rights.[21]

Seniors[edit]

The party opposes age-based discrimination and taxation of Social Security income. It supports permanent separation of Social Security funds from the general fund, and believes that all pensions except Social Security should be taxed equally.[21]

Regulation[edit]

The party supports only those regulations that support free enterprise and personal freedoms.[21]

Self-Protection[edit]

The party supports the individual's right to keep and bear arms.[21]

Voter integrity and Election Reform[edit]

The party supports voter identification at the polls, transparency in elections, the Electoral College, and severe and enforced penalties for election law violations.[21]

Past elections[edit]

Presidents[edit]

Republican nominees have won 25 of Oregon's 38 Presidential popular votes.[22]

Party leaders[edit]

Greg Walden (born 1957), was elected to Congress in 1998 in the conservative 4th District and is the top elected official of the Oregon Republican Party.

Chairman: Bill Currier

Vice Chairman: Chris Barreto

Secretary: Anne Marie Gurney

Treasurer: John Lee

National Committeeman: Solomon Yue, Jr.

National Committeewoman: Marilyn Shannon

Current elected officials[edit]

Members of Congress[edit]

The Oregon Republican Party holds one of the state's five U.S. House seats but neither of the two U.S. Senate seats.

U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Statewide offices[edit]

Dennis Richardson - Secretary of State

State Legislators[edit]

The Oregon Republican Party holds 25 of 60 seats in the Oregon House of Representatives and 12 of the 30 Oregon Senate seats.

Conventions[edit]

Convention Location Date Notes and references
First Oregon Republican Convention Albany Feb. 11, 1857 Attended by 24 delegates from 8 counties. Adopted platform, elected territorial executive committee.[23]
1858 Republican Territorial Convention Salem April 2, 1858 Nominated slate for national and state offices.[24]
1859 National Republican State Convention Salem April 1, 1859 Attended by 52 delegates from 14 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress.[25]
1860 Republican State Convention Eugene City April 19, 1860 Attended by delegates from 17 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and elected 3 member State Central Committee.[26]
1862 Union State Convention Eugene City April 9, 1862 Attended by delegates from 18 counties. Fusion gathering of Republicans and Pro-Union Democrats. Nominated candidate for Congress, Presidential electors, and slate for statewide offices. Elected Central Committee.[27]
1864 Union State Convention Albany March 30, 1864 Attended by delegates from 17 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and Presidential electors. Elected delegates to Republican National Convention.[28]
1866 Union State Convention Corvallis March 29, 1866 Attended by delegates from 20 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and elected State Central Committee.[29]
1868 Union State Convention Salem March 24, 1868 Attended by delegates from 22 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and Presidential electors. Elected State Central Committee and elected delegates to National Convention.[30]
1870 Republican State Convention Portland April 7, 1870 Attended by delegates from 22 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and slate for state offices. Elected State Central Committee.[31]
1872 Republican State Convention Portland March 20, 1872 Attended by delegates from 21 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and Presidential electors. Elected State Central Committee and delegates to National Convention.[32]
1874 Republican State Convention Salem April 8, 1874 Attended by delegates from 22 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and full state ticket. Elected State Central Committee.[33]
1876 Republican State Convention Portland May 3, 1876 Attended by delegates from 21 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and Presidential electors. Elected State Central Committee and delegates to National Convention.[34]
1878 Republican State Convention Salem April 17, 1878 Attended by delegates from 23 counties. Nominated candidate for Congress and Presidential electors. Elected State Central Committee and delegates to National Convention.[35]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Party Chairman, Bill Currier". Oregon Republican Party. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  2. ^ "Headquarters Address."
  3. ^ a b c Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Oregon: Volume 2: 1848-1883. San Francisco, CA: The History Company, 1888.
  4. ^ Oregon Argus [Oregon City], June 7, 1856; cited in Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 416, fn. 6.
  5. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 417-418.
  6. ^ See: Republican League Register, a Record of the Republican Party in the State of Oregon. Portland, OR: Register Publishing Co., 1896; pg. 24.
  7. ^ a b Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 418.
  8. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 419-420.
  9. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 420.
  10. ^ The name was a pejorative assigned to dissidents by the pro-slavery majority faction of the Democratic Party. See: Republican League Register, pg. 25.
  11. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 421. Only one of these was elected on a straight Republican ticket, however, that being John R. McBride of Yamhill County. See: Republican League Register, pg. 23.
  12. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 424.
  13. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 424-425.
  14. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 25.
  15. ^ Oregon's Black Exclusion Law was only repealed by voters in 1926. See: Greg Nokes, "Black Exclusion Laws in Oregon," Oregon Encyclopedia, Oregon Historical Society.
  16. ^ a b c Republican League Register, pg. 27.
  17. ^ a b c Republican League Register, pg. 28.
  18. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 27-28.
  19. ^ Edward Baker
  20. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 54.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Oregon Republican Party Platform, 2015". Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  22. ^ Oregon Republican Party, "Short History of the Oregon Republican Party," www.oregon.gop/
  23. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 29.
  24. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 29-30.
  25. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 30-31.
  26. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 31.
  27. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 32.
  28. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 32-33.
  29. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 33-34.
  30. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 34-35.
  31. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 35-37.
  32. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 37-38.
  33. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 38-39.
  34. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 39-40.
  35. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 40-42.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tom McCall with Steve Neal, Tom McCall, Maverick: an Autobiography. Portland, OR; Binford and Mort, 1977.
  • Steve Neal, McNary of Oregon: A Political Biography. Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1985.
  • Brent Walth, Fire at Eden's Gate: Tom McCall & the Oregon Story. Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1994.
  • Republican League Register, a Record of the Republican Party in the State of Oregon. Portland, OR: Register Publishing Co., 1896.

External links[edit]