William A. Wheeler

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William A. Wheeler
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler.jpg
19th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
President Rutherford B. Hayes
Preceded by Henry Wilson
Succeeded by Chester A. Arthur
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 16th district
In office
March 4, 1861 – March 3, 1863
Preceded by George W. Palmer
Succeeded by Orlando Kellogg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 17th district
In office
March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1873
Preceded by Calvin T. Hulburd
Succeeded by Robert S. Hale
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 18th district
In office
March 4, 1873 – March 3, 1875
Preceded by John M. Carroll
Succeeded by Andrew Williams
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 19th district
In office
March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1877
Preceded by Henry H. Hathorn
Succeeded by Amaziah B. James
Personal details
Born William Almon Wheeler
(1819-06-30)June 30, 1819
Malone, New York
Died June 4, 1887(1887-06-04) (aged 67)
Malone, New York
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Mary King Wheeler (1830 – March 3, 1876)
Alma mater University of Vermont
Signature Cursive signature in ink

William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the 19th Vice President of the United States (1877–1881).

Early life and career[edit]

Wheeler was born in Malone, New York, and attended Franklin Academy and the University of Vermont, although monetary concerns forced him to drop out without graduating.[1] (Wheeler received the honorary degrees of master of arts from Dartmouth College in 1865 and LL.D. from the University of Vermont (1867) and Union College (1877). In 1876 he received his bachelor of arts degree from the University of Vermont "as in course", making him a graduate of the class of 1842.)[2]

He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1845, and practiced in Malone. Wheeler was District Attorney of Franklin County from 1846 to 1849. He was a member of the New York State Assembly (Franklin Co.) in 1850 and 1851; and of the New York State Senate (17th D.) in 1858 and 1859.

He was elected as a Republican to the 37th United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1861, to March 4, 1863. He was President of the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1867–68. He was elected to the 41st, 42nd, 43rd and 44th United States Congresses, holding office from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1877.

William A. Wheeler

Wheeler was also President of the New York Northern Railroad.[3]

When Congress voted a pay raise in 1873 and made it retroactive for five years, Wheeler not only voted against the raise, but returned his salary adjustment to the Treasury department.[1]

Wheeler's reputation for honesty was celebrated by Allan Nevins in his introduction to John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage. Roscoe Conkling, a Senator and a political boss offered "Wheeler, if you will act with us, there is nothing in the gift of the State of New York to which you may not reasonably aspire." Wheeler declined with "Mr. Conkling, there is nothing in the gift of the State of New York which will compensate me for the forfeiture of my self-respect." (John F. Kennedy, Profiles in Courage (New York, 1956), p. xiv.)

Wheeler was President of the New York State Constitutional Convention which met from June 1867 to February 1868. His acceptance speech gave a ringing endorsement for racial equality:

"[W]e owe it to the cause of universal civil liberty, we owe it to the struggling liberalism of the old world,...that every man within [New York], of whatever race or color, or however poor, helpless, or lowly he may be, in virtue of his manhood, is entitled to the full employment of every right appertaining to the most exalted citizenship."[4]

Election of 1876[edit]

Wheeler was a delegate to the 1876 Republican National Convention, which had nominated Rutherford B. Hayes for President on the seventh ballot.

Hayes/Wheeler campaign poster

With his reputation for honesty reasonableness bolstered by his refusal to join Conkling and work to broker the Wheeler Compromise, Wheeler was a likely possibility for the vice presidential nomination, though Conkling supported Stewart L. Woodford. When convention chairman called for nominations for vice president, Luke P. Poland nominated Wheeler, who immediately surged to the lead over Woodford and several other candidates. By the time the roll call reached New York, the result was apparent, and Woodford withdrew, enabling New York to cast all its votes for Wheeler.[5] Wheeler won the nomination with 366 votes to the 89 for his nearest rival Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, who later served on the Electoral Commission which decided the 1876 election in favor of Hayes and Wheeler.

Governor Hayes, when he heard of Wheeler's nomination, wrote to his wife Lucy: "I am ashamed to say: Who is Wheeler?" Hayes and Wheeler never served in the House of Representatives at the same time, so Hayes was unfamiliar with his running mate.[6]

Vice Presidency (1877–1881)[edit]

He was inaugurated in March 4, 1877 and served until March 4, 1881.

Since Wheeler was a recent widower, his wife having died three months before he took the oath of office,[1] he was a frequent guest at the White House's alcohol-free luncheons. As Vice President, Wheeler presided over the Senate. According to Hayes, Wheeler "was one of the few Vice Presidents who were on cordial terms, intimate and friendly, with the President. Our family were heartily fond of him."[1]

Hayes had announced at the start of his administration that he would not run for a second term. Wheeler did not run for the 1880 Republican presidential nomination, and retired at the end of his term.

Retirement (1881–1887)[edit]

When his term was over, he retired from public life and active business pursuits because of ill health. On June 4, 1887, he died in his Malone, New York home. He was 67 years old. He was interred next to his wife in Malone's Morningside Cemetery.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Tally, Steve (1992). Bland Ambition: From Adams to Quayle-The Cranks, Criminals, Tax Cheats, and Golfers Who Made It to Vice President. New York: HBJ. pp. 152–157. ISBN 0156131404. 
  2. ^ University of Vermont Associate Alumni (1895). University of Vermont Obituary Record. Volume 1. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. p. 79. 
  3. ^ Quigley, Second Founding, p.53
  4. ^ Quigly, Second Founding, p. 53
  5. ^ Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. York, PA: Maple Press. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-0-8160-7707-6. 
  6. ^ Trefousse, Hans L. (2002). The American Presidents Series: Rutherford B. Hayes; The 19th President. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8050-6908-2. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


New York Assembly
Preceded by
George B. R. Gove
New York State Assembly
Franklin County

1850–1851
Succeeded by
Darius W. Lawrence
New York State Senate
Preceded by
Joseph H. Ramsey
New York State Senate
17th District

1858–1859
Succeeded by
Charles C. Montgomery
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
George W. Palmer
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 16th congressional district

1861–1863
Succeeded by
Orlando Kellogg
Preceded by
Calvin T. Hulburd
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 17th congressional district

1869–1873
Succeeded by
Robert S. Hale
Preceded by
John M. Carroll
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 18th congressional district

1873–1875
Succeeded by
Andrew Williams
Preceded by
Henry H. Hathorn
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 19th congressional district

1875–1877
Succeeded by
Amaziah B. James
Party political offices
Preceded by
Henry Wilson
Republican vice presidential nominee
1876
Succeeded by
Chester A. Arthur
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Wilson
Vice President of the United States
1877–1881
Succeeded by
Chester A. Arthur