|Music||Jason Robert Brown|
|Lyrics||Jason Robert Brown|
|Basis||Historical events in Atlanta from 1913 to 1915|
|Premiere||December 17, 1998Vivian Beaumont Theater:|
|Productions||1998 Broadway |
2000 US Tour
2007 Off-West End
2023 Broadway revival
|Awards||Tony Award for Best Score |
Tony Award for Best Book
Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical
Parade is a musical with a book by Alfred Uhry and music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown. The musical is a dramatization of the 1913 trial and imprisonment, and 1915 lynching, of Jewish American Leo Frank in Georgia.
The musical premiered on Broadway in December 1998 and won Tony Awards for Best Book and Best Original Score (out of nine nominations) and six Drama Desk Awards. After closing on Broadway in February 1999, the show has had a US national tour and a few professional productions in the US and UK. Its 2023 Broadway staging won two Tony Awards, including Best Revival of a Musical (out of six nominations).
Background and genesis
The musical dramatizes the 1913 trial of Jewish factory manager Leo Frank, who was accused and convicted of raping and murdering a thirteen-year-old employee, Mary Phagan. The trial, sensationalized by the media, aroused antisemitic tensions in Atlanta and the U.S. state of Georgia. When Frank's death sentence was commuted to life in prison by the departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton, in 1915 due to his detailed review of over 10,000 pages of testimony and possible problems with the trial, Leo Frank was transferred to a prison in Milledgeville, Georgia, where a lynching party seized and kidnapped him. Frank was taken to Phagan's hometown of Marietta, Georgia, and he was hanged from an oak tree. The events surrounding the investigation and trial led to two groups emerging: the revival of the defunct KKK and the birth of the Jewish Civil Rights organization, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL).
Director Harold Prince turned to Jason Robert Brown to write the score after Stephen Sondheim turned the project down. Prince's daughter, Daisy, had brought Brown to her father's attention. Book writer Alfred Uhry, who grew up in Atlanta, had personal knowledge of the Frank story, as his great-uncle owned the pencil factory run by Leo Frank.
The musical's story concludes that the likely killer was the factory janitor Jim Conley, the key witness against Frank at the trial. The villains of the piece are the ambitious and corrupt prosecutor Hugh Dorsey (later the governor of Georgia and then a judge) and the rabidly anti-semitic publisher Tom Watson (later elected a U.S. senator). Prince and Uhry emphasized the evolving relationship between Frank and his wife Lucille. Their relationship shifts from cold to warm in songs like "Leo at Work/What am I Waiting For?," "You Don't Know This Man," "Do it Alone," and "All the Wasted Time". The poignancy of the couple, who fall in love in the midst of adversity, is the core of the work. It makes the tragic outcome – the miscarriage of justice – even more disturbing.
The show was Brown's first Broadway production. His music, according to critic Charles Isherwood, has "subtle and appealing melodies that draw on a variety of influences, from pop-rock to folk to rhythm and blues and gospel."
The musical opens in Marietta, Georgia, in the time of the American Civil War. The sounds of drums herald the appearance of a young Confederate soldier, bidding farewell to his sweetheart as he goes to fight for his homeland. The years pass and suddenly it is 1913. The young soldier has become an old one-legged veteran who is preparing to march in the annual Confederate Memorial Day parade ("The Old Red Hills of Home"). As the Parade begins ("The Dream of Atlanta"), Leo Frank, a Yankee Jew from Brooklyn, New York, is deeply uncomfortable in the town in which he works and resides, feeling out of place due to his Judaism and his college education ("How Can I Call This Home?"). His discomfort is present even in his relationship with his wife Lucille, who has planned an outdoor meal spoiled by Leo's decision to go into work on a holiday. Meanwhile, two local teens, Frankie Epps and Mary Phagan, ride a trolley car and flirt. Frankie wants Mary to go to the picture show with him, but Mary playfully resists, insisting her mother will not let her ("The Picture Show"). Mary leaves to collect her pay from the pencil factory managed by Leo.
While Leo is at work, Lucille bemoans the state of their marriage, believing herself unappreciated by a man so wrapped up in himself. She reflects on her unfulfilled life and wonders whether or not Leo was the right match for her ("Leo at Work" / "What Am I Waiting For?"). Mary Phagan arrives in Leo's office to collect her paycheck. That night, police Detective Starnes and Officer Ivey rouse Leo from his sleep, and without telling him why, demand he accompany them to the factory, where Mary's body has been found raped and murdered in the basement. The police immediately suspect Newt Lee, the African-American night watchman who discovered the body ("Interrogation"). Throughout his interrogation, Lee maintains his innocence, but he inadvertently directs Starnes' suspicion upon Leo, who did not answer his telephone when Lee called him to report the incident. Leo is arrested, but not charged, and Mrs. Phagan, Mary's mother, becomes aware of Mary's death.
Across town, reporter Britt Craig is informed about Mary's murder and sees the possibility of a career-making story ("Big News"). Craig attends Mary's funeral, where the townspeople of Marietta are angry, mournful, and baffled by the tragedy that has so unexpectedly shattered the community. ("There is a Fountain" / "It Don't Make Sense"). Frankie Epps swears revenge on Mary's killer, as does Tom Watson, a writer for The Jeffersonian, an extremist right-wing newspaper ("Tom Watson's Lullaby") who has taken a special interest in the case. Governor John Slaton pressures the local prosecutor Hugh Dorsey to get to the bottom of the whole affair. Dorsey, an ambitious politician with a "lousy conviction record", resolves to find the murderer. Dorsey, Starnes and Ivey interrogate Newt Lee, but they receive no information. Dorsey releases Newt, reasoning that "hanging another Nigra ain't enough this time. We gotta do better." He then attaches the blame to Leo Frank and sends Starnes and a reluctant Ivey out to find eyewitnesses ("Something Ain't Right"). Craig exalts in his opportunity to cover a "real" story and begins an effective campaign vilifying Leo. ("Real Big News").
Leo meets with his lawyer Luther Z. Rosser, who vows to "win this case, and send him home". Meanwhile, Dorsey makes a deal with factory janitor and ex-convict Jim Conley to testify against Leo in exchange for immunity for a previous escape from prison. Lucille, hounded by reporters, collapses from the strain and privately rebukes Craig when he attempts to obtain an interview ("You Don't Know This Man"). She tells her husband that she cannot bear to see his trial, but he begs her to stay in the courtroom, as her not appearing would make him look guilty.
The trial of Leo Frank begins, presided over by Judge Roan. A hysterical crowd gathers outside the courtroom, as Watson spews invective ("Hammer of Justice") and Dorsey begins the case for the prosecution ("Twenty Miles from Marietta"). The prosecution produces a series of witnesses, most of whom give trumped evidence which was clearly fed to them by Dorsey. Frankie Epps testifies, falsely, that Mary mentioned that Leo "looks at her funny" when they last spoke, a sentiment echoed verbatim by three of Mary's teenage co-workers, Iola, Essie and Monteen ("The Factory Girls"). In a fantasy sequence, Leo becomes the lecherous seducer from their testimony ("Come Up to My Office"). Testimony is heard from Mary's mother ("My Child Will Forgive Me") and Minnie McKnight before the prosecution's star witness, Jim Conley, takes the stand. He claims that he witnessed the murder and helped Leo conceal the crime ("That's What He Said"). Leo is desperate. As Dorsey whips the observers and jurors at the trial into a frenzy, Leo is given the opportunity to deliver a statement. Leo offers a heartfelt speech, pleading to be believed ("It's Hard to Speak My Heart"), but it is not enough. He is found guilty and sentenced to hang. The crowd breaks out into a jubilant cakewalk as Lucille and Leo watch, terrified ("Summation and Cakewalk").
It's now 1915 and Leo is in his process of appeal. The trial has been noted by the press in the north, and the reaction is strongly disapproving of the way in which it was conducted, but the African-American domestics wonder if the reaction would have been as strong if the victim had been Black ("A Rumblin' and a Rollin'"). Lucille tries to help Leo with his appeal, but reveals crucial information to Craig, provoking an argument between Leo and Lucille ("Do it Alone"). Lucille finds Governor Slaton at a party ("Pretty Music") and attempts to advocate for Leo. She accuses him of either being a fool or a coward if he accepts the outcome of the trial as is. Meanwhile, Watson approaches Dorsey and tells him that he will support his bid for governor should he choose to make it. Dorsey and Judge Roan go on a fishing trip, where they discuss the political climate and the upcoming election ("The Glory").
The governor agrees to re-open the case, and Leo and Lucille rejoice ("This Is Not Over Yet"). Slaton visits the factory girls, who admit to their exaggeration (“Factory Girls" (reprise)), and Minnie, who claims that Dorsey intimidated her and made her sign a statement (“Minnie McKnight's Reprise”). Slaton also visits Jim Conley, who is back in jail as an accessory to the murder. Conley refuses to change his story despite the noticeable inconsistencies with the evidence, and along with his Chain Gang, does not give any information, much to the chagrin of Slaton ("Blues: Feel the Rain Fall"). A year later, after much consideration, he agrees to commute Leo's sentence to life in prison in Milledgeville, Georgia, a move that effectively ends his political career. The citizens of Marietta, led by Dorsey and Watson, are enraged and riot ("Where Will You Stand When the Flood Comes?").
Leo has been transferred to a prison work-farm. Lucille visits, and he realizes his deep love for his wife and how much he has underestimated her ("All the Wasted Time"). After Lucille departs from the prison, a party of masked men (including Starnes, Ivey, Frankie Epps, and the Old Confederate Soldier) arrives and kidnaps Leo. They take him to Marietta and demand he confess to the murder on pain of death. Leo refuses, and although Ivey is convinced of his innocence, the rest of group is determined to kill him. As his last request, Leo has a sack tied around his waist, since he is wearing only his nightshirt, and gives his wedding ring to Ivey to be given to Lucille. The group hangs him from an oak tree ("Sh'ma"). In 1916, a remorseful Britt Craig gives Leo's ring, which has been delivered to him anonymously, to Lucille. He is surprised to discover that she has no plans to leave Georgia, which is now governed by Dorsey, but she refuses to let Leo's ordeal be for nothing. Alone, she gives in to her grief, but she takes comfort in believing that Leo is with God and free from his ordeal. The Confederate Memorial Day Parade begins again ("Finale").
- Note: In the 2023 Broadway revival, an epilogue is projected on the stage stating that Frank's case was reopened in 2019 and is still ongoing.
- A ^ Cut for the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
- B ^ Replaced with "Hammer of Justice" in the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
- C ^ Replaced with "Minnie McKnight's Testimony" in the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
- D ^ Cut for the 2000 U.S. Tour, the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
- E ^ Replaced with "The Glory" in the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
- F ^ Replaced with "Minnie McKnight's Reprise" in the Donmar Warehouse production and the 2023 Broadway revival.
Characters and original cast
|Character||Broadway||First U.S. National Tour||London||First Broadway Revival|
|Leo Frank||Brent Carver||David Pittu||Bertie Carvel||Ben Platt|
|Lucille Frank||Carolee Carmello||Andréa Burns||Lara Pulver||Micaela Diamond|
|Frankie Epps||Kirk McDonald||Daniel Frank Kelley||Stuart Matthew Price||Jake Pedersen|
|Young Confederate Soldier||Jeff Edgerton||Charlie Webb|
|Mary Phagan||Christy Carlson Romano||Kristen Bowden||Jayne Wisener||Erin Rose Doyle|
|Hugh Dorsey||Herndon Lackey||Peter Samuel||Mark Bonnar||Paul Alexander Nolan|
|Governor John Slaton||John Hickok||Rick Hilsabeck||Gary Milner||Sean Allan Krill|
|Britt Craig||Evan Pappas||Randy Redd||Jay Armstrong Johnson|
|Mr. Peavy||Don Stephenson||Peter Flynn||Mark Bonnar||Christopher Gurr|
|Luther Rosser||J. B. Adams||David Vosburgh||Stephen Webb|
|Officer Ivey||Tad Ingram||Tim Salamandyk||Jackson Teeley|
|Prison Guard (Mr. Turner)||Randy Redd||David Coolidge||—||Max Chernin|
|Jim Conley||Rufus Bonds, Jr.||Keith Byron Kirk||Shaun Escoffery||Alex Joseph Grayson|
|Newt Lee||Ray Aranha||Eddie Cooper|
|Riley||J. C. Montgomery||C. Mingo Long||—||Douglas Lyons|
|Tom Watson||John Leslie Wolfe||Norman Bowman||Manoel Felciano|
|J. N. Starnes||Peter Samuel||Tim Howard||William Michals|
|Iola Stover||Brooke Sunny Moriber||Siri Howard||Joanna Kirkland||Sophia Manicone|
|Essie||Emily Klein||Celia Mei Rubin||Emily Rose DeMartino|
|Monteen||Abbi Hutcherson||Sandra DeNise||Zoe Rainey||Ashlyn Maddox|
|Angela||Angela Lockett||Carla J. Hargrove||Malinda Parris||Courtnee Carter|
|Judge Leonard Roan||Don Chastain||Donald Grody||Steven Page||Howard McGillin|
|Old Confederate Soldier|
|Mrs. Frances Phagan||Jessica Molaskey||Adinah Alexander||Helen Anker||Kelli Barrett|
|Sally Slaton||Anne Torsiglieri||Elizabeth Brownlee||Stacie Bono|
The musical premiered on Broadway at the Vivian Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center on December 17, 1998, and ended its limited run on February 28, 1999, after 39 previews and 85 regular performances. Directed by Harold Prince, it starred Brent Carver as Leo Frank, Carolee Carmello as Lucille Frank, and Christy Carlson Romano as Mary Phagan. Judith Dolan designed costumes for the production.
Most critics praised the show, especially the score. However, the public and some critics received the show coolly. When the show closed, co-producer Livent had filed for bankruptcy protection (Chapter 11). Lincoln Center was the other producer solely responsible for covering the weekly running costs.
US national tour
A US national tour, directed by Prince, started at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia. It ran from June to October 2000, with Jason Robert Brown conducting at some venues. It starred David Pittu as Leo, Andrea Burns as Lucille, Keith Byron Kirk as Jim and Kristen Bowden as Mary.
The first major production in the United Kingdom played at the Donmar Warehouse from September 24 to November 24, 2007. It was directed by Rob Ashford and starred Lara Pulver as Lucille, Bertie Carvel as Leo, Jayne Wisener as Mary and Stuart Matthew Price as Young Soldier/Frankie. Pulver was nominated for the 2008 Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Musical and Carvel was nominated for Best Actor in a Musical. A double-CD cast recording of this production has been released by First Night Records. The recording includes new material written by Brown for the production and contains all songs and dialogue from the Donmar production. The large Broadway orchestration was reduced by David Cullen and Brown to a nine piece ensemble consisting of two pianos, accordion, percussion, clarinet, horn and strings.
Another off-West End production opened on August 10, 2011 for a 6-week engagement ending September 17, at the Southwark Playhouse's Vault Theatre. It was directed by Thom Southerland, with musical staging by Tim Jackson. Alastair Brookshaw played Leo, Laura Pitt-Pulford was Lucille, Simon Bailey was Tom and Mark Inscoe was Hugh.
Parade was staged in May 2003 at the Orange County School of the Arts in Santa Ana, California, in a production directed by Ryan Mekenian and produced by Susan Egan. It was mounted at the Neighborhood Playhouse in Palos Verdes Estates, California, from July 9, 2008. The production was directed by Brady Schwind. The production starred Craig D'Amico as Leo, Emily Olson as Lucille and Alissa Anderegg as Mary.
The Donmar production transferred to the Mark Taper Forum, Los Angeles, California, in September 2009, for a run through November 15, 2009. Pulver reprised her role as Lucille opposite T. R. Knight as Leo. The cast also included Michael Berresse, Christian Hoff, Hayley Podschun, Rose Sezniak and Phoebe Strole.
New York concerts
On February 16, 2015, a concert production of Parade was staged at Avery Fisher Hall in Lincoln Center by Manhattan Concert Productions, directed by Gary Griffin and conducted by composer Jason Robert Brown. Jeremy Jordan and Laura Benanti starred as Leo and Lucille, with Ramin Karimloo as Tom, Joshua Henry as Jim, Andy Mientus as Britt, Emerson Steele as Mary, Katie Rose Clarke as Mrs. Phagan, John Ellison Conlee as Hugh, Davis Gaines as Judge Roan/Old Soldier and Alan Campbell as Governor Slaton.
New York City Center staged Parade as the gala concert presentation of its 2022/2023 season, with a benefit performance on November 1 and a run continuing through November 6, 2022. Ben Platt and Micaela Diamond played Leo and Lucille Frank. Michael Arden directed and incorporated projections and photography of the real-life trial in the production. Other notable cast members included John Dossett as Old Soldier/Judge Roan, Manoel Felciano as Tom Watson, Jay Armstrong Johnson as Britt Craig, Sean Allan Krill as Governor Slaton, Jennifer Laura Thompson as Sally Slaton, Erin Mackey as Mrs. Phagan, Gaten Matarazzo as Frankie Epps, Erin Rose Doyle as Mary Phagan, Howard McGillin as Luther Rosser and Paul Alexander Nolan as Hugh Dorsey. Jason Robert Brown conducted the onstage orchestra. Script and score changes from the 2007 Donmar production were retained. Reviews for the run were strongly favorable, with Steven Suskin giving it 5 out of 5 stars and writing in New York Stage Review: "Rather than leaving its audience suitably impressed but emotionally unmoved as in prior viewings, Michael Arden’s spare but meticulous production unleashes the gripping theatricality of the writing that has heretofore been trapped within." Juan A. Ramírez wrote in The New York Times that Platt and Diamond's rendition of "This is Not Over Yet" was a "powerhouse for the ages. Their commanding vocals are matched by a confident production that revives the best of the original while pointing at the possibility of growth, and hope."
2023 Broadway revival
The City Center production started previews at Broadway's Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre on February 21, 2023 and opened on March 16. Platt and Diamond reprise their roles as Leo and Lucille Frank. The revival completed its limited run on August 6, 2023. Platt and Diamond appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe to announce the transfer. Reprising their City Center roles are Krill, Nolan, Johnson, Feliciano and Doyle. Joining them are Kelli Barrett as Mrs. Phagan, Howard McGillin, who played Luther Rosser at City Center, as Old Soldier/Judge Roan, and Jake Pedersen as Frankie Epps. A cast album for the production was released by Interscope Records on March 23, 2023.
The revival received mostly positive reviews, including those published by The New York Times ("well-judged and timely"), Time Out New York ("cause for celebration"), The Guardian ("dynamic and moving"), Entertainment Weekly ("more poignant and powerful than ever"), The New York Post ("Brown's finest music, and Platt's most heart-wrenching work ... Diamond, whose combination of fragility and power is thrilling for an actress so young, brings an electricity to her duets with Platt"), Variety ("theatrically thrilling"), New York Stage Review ("beautifully executed"), New York Theatre Guide ("uniformly terrific cast ... [Platt and Diamond] deliver"); a dissent was filed by Charles Isherwood in The Wall Street Journal ("Even a first-rate Parade cannot disguise the conceptual problems"). The production was nominated for six Tony Awards, winning two for Best Musical Revival and Best Direction of a Musical.
The musical is being produced in a German language translation by Wolfgang Adenberg at the Theater Regensburg in Regensburg, Germany, playing for a dozen performances from April to July 2023. It was directed and choreographed by Simon Eichenberger and stars Alejandro Nicolás Firlei Fernández as Leo and Fabiana Locke as Lucille.
Awards and nominations
Original Broadway production
Original London production
|2008||Laurence Olivier Award||Best New Musical||Nominated|
|Best Actor in a Musical||Bertie Carvel||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Musical||Lara Pulver||Nominated|
|Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical||Shaun Escoffery||Nominated|
|Best Director||Rob Ashford||Nominated|
|Best Theatre Choreographer||Nominated|
|Best Sound Design||Terry Jardine and Nick Lidster||Nominated|
2023 Broadway revival
|2023||Tony Awards||Best Revival of a Musical||Won|
|Best Direction of a Musical||Michael Arden||Won|
|Best Leading Actor in a Musical||Ben Platt||Nominated|
|Best Leading Actress in a Musical||Micaela Diamond||Nominated|
|Best Costume Design of a Musical||Susan Hilferty||Nominated|
|Best Lighting Design of a Musical||Heather Gilbert||Nominated|
|Drama Desk Awards||Outstanding Revival of a Musical||Won|
|Outstanding Lead Performance in a Musical||Micaela Diamond||Nominated|
|Outstanding Lighting Design for a Musical||Heather Gilbert||Nominated|
|Outstanding Sound Design in a Musical||Jon Weston||Nominated|
|Drama League Awards||Distinguished Performance Award||Micaela Diamond||Nominated|
|Outstanding Revival of a Musical||Nominated|
|New York Drama Critics' Circle Awards||Special Citation||Honoree|
|Outer Critics Circle Award||Outstanding Revival of a Musical||Won|
|Outstanding Director of a Musical||Michael Arden||Won|
|Outstanding Lead Performer in a Broadway Musical||Micaela Diamond||Nominated|
|Outstanding Video or Projection Design||Sven Ortel||Nominated|
- "Anti-Defamation League information". Archived from the original on April 14, 2008.
- Pogrebin, Robin. "Songwriting Challenge of Historic Proportions", The New York Times, December 22, 1998, p. E1
- Variety, Legit Reviews, Charles Isherwood, December 21, 1998 – January 3, 1999, p. 85
- Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA), "Poignant Parade probes America's heart", Iris Fanger, p. 19, December 18, 1998
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- McKinley, Jesse (February 3, 1999). "interview with Bernard Gersten". The New York Times. p. B2.
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- Jones, Kenneth. "Parade Tour, with Pittu and Burns, Begins June 13–18 in Atlanta", Playbill, May 12, 2000
- Jones, Chris. "Reviews. Parade", Variety, August 14, 2000
- "Parade Comes to London Autumn 2007". jasonrobertbrown.com. February 22, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
- "Full casting announced for Parade". OfficialLondonTheatre.com. April 18, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
- "London "Parade" to Release Cast Recording". jasonrobertbrown.com. October 24, 2007. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008.
- Blank, Matthew. "Jason Robert Brown's Parade at London's Vault Theatre", Playbill, August 24, 2011, accessed June 10, 2020
- Boehm, Mike (September 22, 2002). "Actress and Juggler". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
- Farber, Jim. "Controversial musical Parade finally marches into PVE", Los Angeles Daily News, July 9, 2008, accessed August 8, 2020
- Varley, Eddie (June 23, 2009). "Pulver, Berresse, Hoff, d'Amboise and More Join Knight in CTG's Parade, Previews Begin 9/24 (Updated)". broadwayworld.com. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
- Hetrick, Adam. "Full Cast Revealed For 'Parade' in Concert Starring Jeremy Jordan and Laura Benanti", Playbill, January 19, 2015
- Rosky, Nicole. "Ben Platt, Micaela Diamond to Star in Parade at New York City Center", Playbill, May 17, 2022
- Rosky, Nicole. "Gaten Matarazzo, Jay Armstrong Johnson, Paul Alexander Nolan, Erin Mackey & More Join New York City Center's Parade, BroadwayWorld.com, October 4, 2022
- Culwell-Block, Logan. "Jason Robert Brown to Conduct City Center Parade", Playbill, October 14, 2022
- Suskin, Steven. "Parade: Triumphant Return of the Jason Robert Brown-Alfred Uhry Musical", New York Stage Review, November 2, 2022
- "Review Roundup: Parade Opens at New York City Center", BroadwayWorld, November 2, 2022
- Ramirez, Juan A. "Parade Review: The Trial and Tragedy of Leo Frank", The New York Times, November 11, 2022
- Wild, Stephi. "New York City Center's Parade Will Transfer to Broadway Starring Ben Platt and Micaela Diamond". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- "Hit show 'Parade' is headed to Broadway". MSNBC.com.
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- Extensive website about the show
- Cast and other information from the GeoCities Jason Robert Brown website
- All the Wasted Time – Parade
- Parade at the Music Theatre International website
- Profile of the show at the NODA website indicating which characters sing which numbers