Broadway Playbill cover
|Music||Jason Robert Brown|
|Lyrics||Jason Robert Brown|
|Basis||Historical events in Atlanta in 1913|
2007 West End
2009 Los Angeles
2011 West End
2017 UK Promenade Production
|Awards||Tony Award for Best Score
Tony Award for Best Book
Parade is a musical with a book by Alfred Uhry and music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown. The musical premiered on Broadway in 1998 and won Tony Awards for Best Book and Best Original Score (out of nine nominations) and six Drama Desk Awards. The show has had a U.S. national tour and numerous professional and amateur productions in both the U.S. and abroad.
- 1 Historical background
- 2 History of the musical
- 3 Plot
- 4 Musical numbers
- 5 Characters and original cast
- 6 Response
- 7 Productions
- 8 Awards and nominations
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The musical dramatizes the 1913 trial of Jewish factory manager Leo Frank, who was accused and convicted of raping and murdering a thirteen-year-old employee, Mary Phagan. The trial, sensationalized by the media, aroused antisemitic tensions in Atlanta and the U.S. state of Georgia. When Frank's death sentence was commuted to life in prison by the departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton due to his detailed review of over 10,000 pages of testimony and possible problems with the trial, Leo Frank was transferred to a prison in Milledgeville, Georgia, where a lynching party seized and kidnapped him. Frank was taken to Phagan's hometown of Marietta, Georgia, and he was hanged from an oak tree. The events surrounding the investigation and trial led to two groups emerging: the revival of the defunct KKK and the birth of the Jewish Civil Rights organization, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL).
History of the musical
Harold Prince turned to Brown to write the score after Stephen Sondheim turned the project down. Prince's daughter, Daisy, had brought Brown to her father's attention. Uhry, who grew up in Atlanta, had personal knowledge of the Frank story, as his great-uncle owned the pencil factory run by Leo Frank.
In dramatizing the story, Prince and Uhry have emphasized the evolving relationship between Leo and his wife Lucille. Their relationship shifts from cold to warm in songs like "Leo at Work/What am I Waiting For?," "You Don't Know This Man," "Do it Alone," and "All the Wasted Time". The poignancy of the couple, who fall in love in the midst of adversity, is the core of the work. It makes the tragic outcome – the miscarriage of justice – even more disturbing.
The show was Brown's first Broadway production. His music, according to critic Charles Isherwood, has "subtle and appealing melodies that draw on a variety of influences, from pop-rock to folk to rhythm and blues and gospel."
The plot of the musical dramatizes the historical story and does not shy away from the conclusion of some that the likely killer was the factory janitor Jim Conley, the key witness against Frank at the trial. The true villains of the piece are portrayed as the ambitious and corrupt prosecutor Hugh Dorsey (later the governor of Georgia and then a judge) and the rabid, anti-semitic publisher Tom Watson (later elected a U.S. senator).
The musical opens in Marietta, Georgia, in the time of the American Civil War. The sounds of drums herald the appearance of a young Confederate soldier, bidding farewell to his sweetheart as he goes to fight for his homeland. The years pass and suddenly it is 1913. The young soldier has become an old one-legged veteran who is preparing to march in the annual Confederate Memorial Day parade ("The Old Red Hills of Home"). As the Parade begins ("The Dream of Atlanta"), Leo Frank, a Yankee Jew from Brooklyn, NYC, is deeply uncomfortable in the town in which he works and lives, feeling out of place due to his Judaism and his college education ("How Can I Call This Home?"). His discomfort is present even in his relationship with his wife, Lucille, who has planned an outdoor meal spoiled by Leo’s decision to go into work on a holiday. Meanwhile, two local teens, Frankie Epps and Mary Phagan, ride a trolley car and flirt. Frankie wants Mary to go to the picture show with him, but Mary playfully resists, insisting her mother will not let her ("The Picture Show"). Mary leaves to collect her pay from the pencil factory managed by Frank.
While Frank is at work, Lucille bemoans the state of their marriage, believing herself unappreciated by a man so wrapped up in himself. She reflects on her unfulfilled life and wonders whether or not Leo was the right match for her ("Leo at Work" / "What Am I Waiting For?"). Mary Phagan arrives in Leo's office to collect her paycheck. That night, two policeman, Detective Starnes and Officer Ivey, rouse Frank from his sleep, and without telling him why, demand he accompany them to the factory, where the body of Mary Phagan has been found raped and murdered in the basement. The Police immediately suspects Newt Lee, the African-American night watchman who discovered the body ("Interrogation"). Throughout his interrogation, he maintains his innocence, but inadvertently directs Starnes' suspicion upon Frank, who did not answer his telephone when Lee called him to report the incident. Leo is arrested, but not charged, and Mrs. Phagan, Mary's mother, becomes aware of Mary's death.
Across town, a reporter named Britt Craig is informed about Mary's murder and sees the possibility of a career-making story ("Big News"). Craig attends Mary's funeral, where the townspeople of Marietta are angry, mournful, and baffled by the tragedy that has so unexpectedly shattered the community. ("There is a Fountain" / "It Don't Make Sense"). Frankie Epps swears revenge on Mary's killer, as does Tom Watson, a writer for The Jeffersonian, an extremist right-wing newspaper ("Tom Watson's Lullaby") who has taken a special interest in the case. In the meantime, Governor Slaton pressures the local prosecutor Hugh Dorsey to get to the bottom of the whole affair. Dorsey, an ambitious politician with a "lousy conviction record", resolves to find the murderer.
Dorsey, along with Starnes and Ivey interrogate Newt Lee, but they get no information. Dorsey releases Newt, reasoning that "hanging another Nigra ain't enough this time. We gotta do better." He then attaches the blame to Leo Frank, and sends Starnes and a reluctant Ivey out to find eyewitnesses ("Something Ain't Right"). Craig exalts in his opportunity to cover a "real" story and begins an effective campaign vilifying Leo Frank. ("Real Big News").
Leo meets with his lawyer, Luther Z. Rosser, who vows to "win this case, and send him home". Meanwhile, Dorsey makes a deal with factory janitor and ex-convict Jim Conley to testify against Frank in exchange for immunity for a previous escape from prison. Lucille, hounded by reporters, collapses from the strain and privately rebukes Craig when he attempts to get an interview ("You Don't Know This Man"). She tells her husband that she cannot bear to see his trial, but he begs her to stay in the courtroom, as her not appearing would make him look guilty.
The trial of Leo Frank begins, presided over by Judge Roan. A hysterical crowd gathers outside the courtroom, as Tom Watson spews invective ("Hammer of Justice") and Hugh Dorsey begins the case for the prosecution ("Twenty Miles from Marietta"). The prosecution produces a series of witnesses, most of whom give trumped evidence which was clearly fed to them by Dorsey. Frankie Epps testifies, falsely, that Mary mentioned that Frank "looks at her funny" when they last spoke, a sentiment echoed verbatim by three of Mary’s teenage co-workers, Iola, Essie, and Monteen ("The Factory Girls"). In a fantasy sequence, Frank becomes the lecherous seducer of their testimony ("Come Up to My Office"). Testimony is heard from Mary's mother ("My Child Will Forgive Me") and Minnie McKnight before the prosecution's star witness, Jim Conley, takes the stand, claiming that he witnessed the murder and helped Frank cover up the crime ("That's What He Said").
Leo is desperate. As prosecutor Hugh Dorsey whips the observers and jurors at the trial into a frenzy, Leo is given the opportunity to deliver a statement. Leo offers a heartfelt speech, pleading to be believed ("It's Hard to Speak My Heart"), but it is not enough. He is found guilty and sentenced to hang. The crowd breaks out into a jubilant cakewalk as Lucille and Leo embrace, terrified ("Summation and Cakewalk").
Leo has begun his process of appeal. The trial has been noted by the press in the north, and the reaction is strongly disapproving of the way in which it was conducted, but the African-American domestics wonder if the reaction would have been as strong if the victim had been black ("A Rumblin' and a Rollin'"). Lucille tries to help Leo with his appeal, but reveals crucial information to Craig, provoking a fight between Leo and Lucille ("Do it Alone"). Lucille then finds Governor Slaton at a party ("Pretty Music") and attempts to advocate for Leo. She accuses him of either being a fool or a coward if he accepts the outcome of the trial as is. Meanwhile, Tom Watson approaches Hugh Dorsey and tells him that he will support his bid for governor should he choose to make it.
Dorsey and Judge Roan go on a fishing trip, where they discuss the political climate and the upcoming election ("The Glory").
The governor agrees to re-open the case, and Leo and Lucille rejoice ("This is Not Over Yet"). Slaton visits the factory girls, who admit to their exaggeration, and Minnie, who claims that Dorsey intimidated her and made her sign a statement. Slaton also visits Jim Conley, who is back in jail as an accessory to the murder, who refuses to change his story despite the noticeable inconsistencies with the evidence, and along with his Chain Gang, does not give any information, much to the chagrin of Slaton ("Blues: Feel the Rain Fall").
After much consideration, he agrees to commute Frank's sentence to life in prison in Milledgeville, Georgia, a move that effectively ends his political career. The citizens of Marietta, led by Dorsey and Watson, are enraged and riot ("Where Will You Stand When the Flood Comes?"). Leo has been transferred to a prison work-farm. Lucille visits and he realizes his deep love for his wife and how much he has underestimated her ("All the Wasted Time"). After Lucille departs from the prison, a party of masked men (Starnes, Ivey, Frankie Epps, the Fulton Tower guard and the Old Confederate Soldier) arrives and kidnaps Leo. They take him to Marietta and demand he confess to the murder on pain of death. Leo refuses, and although Ivey is convinced of his innocence, the rest of group is determined to kill him. As his last request, Leo has a sack tied around his waist, since he is wearing only his nightshirt, and gives his wedding ring to Ivey to be given to Lucille. The group hangs him from an oak tree ("Sh'ma").
Some time later, a remorseful Britt Craig gives Leo's ring, which has been delivered to him anonymously, to Lucille. He is surprised to discover that she has no plans to leave Georgia, which is now governed by Dorsey, but she refuses to let Leo's ordeal be for nothing. Alone, she gives into her grief, but she takes comfort in believing that Leo is with God and free from his ordeal. The Confederate Memorial Day Parade begins again ("Finale").
- A ^ Cut for the Donmar Warehouse production.
- B ^ Replaced with "Hammer of Justice" in the Donmar Warehouse production.
- C ^ Cut for the Donmar Warehouse production, replaced with "Minnie McKnight's Testimony".
- D ^ Replaced with "The Glory" in the Donmar Warehouse production.
- E ^ Used in Donmar Warehouse production in place of "Letter to the Governor".
Characters and original cast
|First U.S. National Tour
|Avery Fisher Hall
|Lucille Frank||Carolee Carmello||Andréa Burns||Lara Pulver||Laura Benanti|
|Leo Frank||Brent Carver||David Pittu||Bertie Carvel||T.R. Knight||Jeremy Jordan|
|Frankie Epps||Kirk McDonald||Daniel Frank Kelley||Stuart Matthew Price||Curt Hansen||Charlie Franklin|
|Young Confederate Soldier||Jeff Edgerton|
|Mary Phagan||Christy Carlson Romano||Kristen Bowden||Jayne Wisener||Rose Hemingway||Emerson Steele|
|Hugh Dorsey||Herndon Lackey||Peter Samuel||Mark Bonnar||Christian Hoff||John Ellison Conlee|
|Governor John Slaton||John Hickok||Rick Hilsabeck||Gary Milner||Michael Berresse||Alan Campbell|
|Britt Craig||Evan Pappas||Randy Redd||Andy Mientus|
|Mr. Peavy||Don Stephenson||Peter Flynn||Mark Bonnar||John Jellison|
|Luther Rosser||J.B. Adams||David Vosburgh||Stephen Webb||Brad Anderson|
|Officer Ivey||Tad Ingram||Tim Salamandyk||Eric Leviton|
|Prison Guard||Randy Redd||David Coolidge||N/A|
|Jim Conley||Rufus Bonds, Jr.||Keith Byron Kirk||Shaun Escoffery||David St. Louis||Joshua Henry|
|Newt Lee||Ray Aranha||Alvin Crawford|
|Riley||J.C. Montgomery||C. Mingo Long||N/A|
|Tom Watson||John Leslie Wolfe||Norman Bowman||P.J. Griffith||Ramin Karimloo|
|J. N. Starnes||Peter Samuel||Tim Howard||Eric Anderson|
|Iola Stover||Brooke Sunny Moriber||Siri Howard||Joanna Kirkland||Hayley Podschun||Caitlin Houlahan|
|Essie||Emily Klein||Celia Mei Rubin||Phoebe Strole||Allie Trimm|
|Monteen||Abbi Hutcherson||Sandra DeNise||Zoe Rainey||Lisa Livesay||Ephie Aardema|
|Angela||Angela Lockett||Carla J. Hargrove||Malinda Parris||Deidrie Henry||Andrea Jones-Sojola|
|Judge Roan||Don Chastain||Donald Grody||Steven Page||Davis Gaines|
|Old Confederate Soldier|
|Mrs. Frances Phagan||Jessica Molaskey||Adinah Alexander||Helen Anker||Charlotte d'Amboise||Katie Rose Clarke|
|Sally Slaton||Anne Torsiglieri||Elizabeth Brownlee||Rachel deBenedet|
|Fiddlin’ John||Jeff Edgerton||N/A|
|Aide||Don Stephenson||Peter Flynn||N/A|
|Assistant||Melanie Vaughan||Mimi Bessette||N/A|
|Lizzie Phagan||Robin Skye||Raissa Katona||N/A|
|Floyd MacDaniel||J.B. Adams||David Vosburgh||N/A|
|Nurse||Adinah Alexander||Anne Allgood||N/A|
Most critics praised the show, especially the score. However, the public and some critics received the show coolly. A number felt the show took too many liberties in the use of racial slurs. When the show closed, Livent had filed for bankruptcy protection (Chapter 11). Lincoln Center was the other producer solely responsible for covering the weekly running costs.
The musical premiered on Broadway at the Vivian Beaumont Theater on December 17, 1998 and closed February 28, 1999, after 39 previews and 84 regular performances. Directed by Harold Prince, it starred Brent Carver as Leo Frank, Carolee Carmello as Lucille Frank, and Christy Carlson Romano as Mary Phagan.
U.S. National tour
A U. S. national tour, directed by Prince, started at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta in June 2000, with Jason Robert Brown conducting at some venues. It starred David Pittu as Leo, Andrea Burns as Lucille, Keith Byron Kirk as Jim Conley and Kristen Bowden as Mary Phagan. The Full Cast List was (including replacements): Randy Redd, Rick Hilsabeck, Carla Hargrove, John Paul Almon, Donald Grody, Daniel Frank Kelley, David Vosburgh, Elizabeth Brownlee, Siri Howard, Tim Salamandyk, Tim Howard, C. Mingo Long, Raissa Katona, Sandra DeNise, David Coolidge, Anne Allgood, Mimi Bessette, Jamie Sorrentini, Justin Bohon, Laura Marie Crosta, Sandra DeNise, David Dannehl, Jeff Edgerton, Jamie Johnsson, Corey Reynolds, Greg Roderick, Natasha Yvette Williams and Swings: Joe Duffy (Dance Captain) and Laura Shutter
The Los Angeles premiere, directed by Brady Schwind and choreographed by Imara Quinonez opened July 10, 2008 at the Neighborhood Playhouse of Palos Verdes with Craig D'Amico as Leo Frank, Emily Olson as Lucille Frank and Alissa Anderegg as Mary Phagan.
Donmar Warehouse/Los Angeles
The first major production in the United Kingdom played at the Donmar Warehouse from September 24 to November 24, 2007. It was directed by Rob Ashford and starred Lara Pulver as Lucille Frank, Bertie Carvel as Leo and Jayne Wisener as Mary Phagan. Pulver was nominated for the 2008 Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Musical and Carvel was nominated for Best Actor in a Musical. A double-CD cast recording of this production has been released by First Night Records. The recording includes new material written by Brown for the production and contains all songs and dialogue from the Donmar production. In addition, the large orchestra used in the original Broadway production was reduced by David Cullen and Brown to a nine piece ensemble consisting of: Piano 1 (Musical Director), Piano 2/Accordion, Percussion, Bass, Clarinet (Bass, A, Bb), Horn, Violin, Viola and Cello.
The Donmar production transferred to the Mark Taper Forum, Los Angeles, California, in September 2009, for a run through November 15, 2009. Lara Pulver reprised her role as Lucille opposite T.R. Knight as Leo Frank. The cast also included, in alphabetical order, Brad Anderson, Michael Berresse, Will Collyer, Charlotte d’Amboise, Karole Foreman, Davis Gaines, Laura Griffith, P.J. Griffith, Curt Hansen, Deidrie Henry, Christian Hoff, Sarah Jayne Jensen, Lisa Livesay, Hayley Podschun, David St. Louis, Rose Sezniak (now Hemingway), Phoebe Strole, Josh Tower and Robert Yacko.
Avery Fisher Hall Concert
On February 16, 2015, a concert production of Parade was staged at Avery Fisher Hall in Lincoln Center by Manhattan Concert Productions, directed by Gary Griffin and conducted by composer Jason Robert Brown. Jeremy Jordan and Laura Benanti starred as Leo and Lucille Frank, with Ramin Karimloo as Tom Watson, Joshua Henry as Jim Conley, Andy Mientus as Britt Craig, Emerson Steele as Mary Phagan, Katie Rose Clarke as Mrs. Phagan, John Ellison Conlee as Hugh Dorsey, Davis Gaines as Judge Roan/Old Soldier and Alan Campbell as Governor Slaton.
Promenade Production, Frogmore Paper Mill
Parade was professionally staged at the world’s oldest working paper factory in September 2017. Staged at the Frogmore Papermill in Apsley, Hertfordshire, the production will be directed as a promenade production where audiences will follow the actors through the 19th-century building. 
Awards and nominations
Original Broadway production
Original London production
|2008||Laurence Olivier Award||Best New Musical||Nominated|
|Best Actor in a Musical||Bertie Carvel||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Musical||Lara Pulver||Nominated|
|Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical||Shaun Escoffery||Nominated|
|Best Director||Rob Ashford||Nominated|
|Best Theatre Choreographer||Nominated|
|Best Sound Design||Terry Jardine and Nick Lidster||Nominated|
- Anti-Defamation League information
- New York Times, "Songwriting Challenge of Historic Proportions", Robin Pogrebin, E1, December 22, 1998
- Variety, Legit Reviews, Charles Isherwood, December 21, 1998 – January 3, 1999, p85
- Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA), "Poignant 'Parade' probes America's heart", Iris Fanger, p. 19, December 18, 1998
- Links to numerous reviews
- New York Times, Jesse McKinley, interview with Bernard Gersten, 2/3/99, p. B2
- Jones, Kenneth. Playbill News: Parade Will March Into GA, TN, PA, WI, CO, WA in 2000 Tour" Playbill, November 10, 1999
- Jones, Kenneth and Hetrick, Adam. "D'Amico and Olson Are the Franks in L.A. Run of 'Parade', Starting July 11" Playbill, May 22, 2008
- "Parade Comes to London Autumn 2007". 22 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- London casting information officiallondontheatre.co.uk, 20 July 2007
- London "Parade" to Release Cast Recording (Playbill, 10/24/07)
- BWW News Desk. broadwayworld.com, June 23, 2009
- "Full Cast Revealed For 'Parade' in Concert Starring Jeremy Jordan and Laura Benanti" Playbill, 2015
- Extensive website about the show
- Cast and other information from the Geocities Jason Robert Brown website
- All the Wasted Time – Parade
- Parade at the Music Theatre International website
- Profile of the show at the NODA website indicating which characters sing which numbers