Pentagon UFO videos
The Pentagon UFO videos are selected visual recordings of cockpit instrumentation displays from United States Navy fighter jets based aboard aircraft carriers USS Nimitz and USS Theodore Roosevelt in 2004, 2014 and 2015 with additional footage taken by other Navy personnel in 2019. The four grainy, monochromic videos, widely characterized as officially documenting UFOs, were the subject of extensive coverage in the media since 2017. The Pentagon later addressed and officially released the first three videos in 2020, and confirmed the provenance of the leaked 2019 videos in two statements made in 2021.
Publicity surrounding the videos has prompted a number of explanations, including drones or unidentified terrestrial aircraft, anomalous or artefactual instrument readings, physical observational phenomena (e.g., parallax), human observational and interpretive error, and, as is typical in the context of such incidents, extraordinary speculations of alien spacecraft.
On November 14, 2004, fighter pilot Commander David Fravor of the USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Group claims to have investigated radar indications of a possible target off the coast of southern California. Fravor said the operator had told him that the USS Princeton (CG-59), part of the strike group, had been tracking unusual aircraft for two weeks prior to the incident. The aircraft would appear at 80,000 feet before descending rapidly toward the sea, and stopping at 20,000 feet and hovering. Fravor reported that he saw an object, white and oval, hovering above an ocean disturbance. He estimated that the object was about forty feet long. Fravor and another pilot, Alex Dietrich, said in an interview that a total of four people (two pilots and two weapons systems officers in the back seats of the two airplanes) witnessed the object for about 5 minutes. Fravor says that as he spiraled down to get closer to the object, the object ascended, mirroring the trajectory of his airplane, until the object disappeared. A second wave of fighters, including pilot Lieutenant Commander Chad Underwood, took off from Nimitz to investigate. Unlike Fravor, Underwood's fighter was equipped with an advanced infrared camera (FLIR). Underwood recorded the FLIR video, and coined the description "Tic Tac" to describe the infrared image, but did not himself see any unusual object.
During 2014–2015, fighter pilots associated with the USS Theodore Roosevelt carrier strike group were operating off the East Coast when they recorded the GIMBAL and GOFAST videos while reporting instrument detections of unknown aerial objects which the pilots were unable to identify.
Release of videos
On December 16, 2017, The New York Times reported on the incidents and published three videos, termed “FLIR,” “GIMBAL,” and “GOFAST” purporting to show encounters by jets from Nimitz and Theodore Roosevelt with unusually shaped, fast-moving aircraft. The reports became subject to "fevered speculation by UFO investigators". Those stories have been criticized by journalism professor Keith Kloor as "a curious narrative that appears to be driven by thinly-sourced and slanted reporting". According to Kloor, "Cursory attention has been given to the most likely, prosaic explanations. Instead, the coverage has, for the most part, taken a quizzical, mysterious frame that plays off the catchy 'UFO' tag in the headline."
The videos, featuring cockpit display data and infrared imagery along with audio of communications between the pursuing pilots, were initially provided to the press by Luis Elizondo, the former head of Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program, the Department of Defense's investigation. Elizondo had resigned from the Pentagon in October 2017 to protest government secrecy and opposition to the investigation, stating in a resignation letter to Defense Secretary James Mattis that the program was not being taken seriously. According to Wired magazine, a copy of one of the videos had been online in a UFO forum since at least 2007. In September 2019, a Pentagon spokeswoman confirmed that the released videos were made by naval aviators and that they are "part of a larger issue of an increased number of training range incursions by unidentified aerial phenomena in recent years". On April 27, 2020, the Pentagon formally released the three videos.
In February 2020, the United States Navy confirmed that, in response to inquiries, intelligence briefings presented by naval intelligence officials have been provided to members of Congress.
In April 2021, Pentagon spokesperson Sue Gough confirmed that publicly-available footage of what appeared to be an unidentified triangular object in the sky had been taken by Navy personnel aboard USS Russell in 2019. Skeptic Mick West suggested the image was the result of an optical effect called a bokeh which can make out of focus light sources appear triangular or pyramidal due to the shape of the aperture of some lenses. The Pentagon also confirmed photos of objects described as "sphere", "acorn" and "metallic blimp".
The following month, Gough further confirmed a second video had been recorded by Navy personnel and is under review by the UAP Task Force. The video, recorded on July 15, 2019 aboard the USS Omaha, purportedly shows a spherical object flying over the ocean as seen through an infrared camera at night, moving rapidly across the screen before stopping and easing down into the water.
As of 2020, the aerial phenomena recorded from the Nimitz and Roosevelt events are characterized by the Department of Defense as "unidentified". Widespread media attention to these events has motivated theories and speculations from private individuals and groups about the underlying explanation(s), including those focused upon pseudoscientific topics such as ufology. Regarding the pseudoscientific explanations, writer Matthew Gault stated that these events "reflect the same pattern that's played out dozens of times before. Someone sees something strange in the sky ... and the public jumps to an illogical conclusion." Writing in The New York Times, author and astrophysicist Adam Frank stated that with respect to claims of "evidence of extraterrestrial technology that can defy the laws of physics," the pilot's reports and cockpit instrumentation videos "doesn't amount to much".
Mundane, skeptical explanations include instrument or software malfunction, anomaly or artifact, human observational illusion (e.g., parallax) or interpretive error, or common aircraft (e.g., a passenger airliner) or aerial device (e.g., weather balloon). Science writer Mick West argued "Any time something unidentified shows up in restricted airspace, then that’s a real problem," but cautioned that believers in "alien disclosure" are "encroaching on these real issues of UAPs". West cautioned that "the report suggests the majority of cases, if solved, would turn out to be a variety of things like airborne clutter or natural atmospheric phenomenon. A lack of data does not mean aliens are the likely answer."
Physicist Adam Frank speculated that it was possible the UFOs in the videos are "drones deployed by rivals like Russia and China to examine our defenses — luring our pilots into turning on their radar and other detectors, thus revealing our electronic intelligence capabilities". Astronomer Thomas Bania speculated that they could be some form of electronic warfare fielded by China or Russia "trying to get intelligence of exactly what our weapons systems are capable of doing".
Following the congressional intelligence briefings and in order to encourage pilots to flag disturbances that "have been occurring regularly since 2014", the US Navy announced it had updated the way pilots were to formally report unexplained aerial observations. Commenting on these updated guidelines, a spokesman for the deputy Chief of Naval Operations said, "The intent of the message to the fleet is to provide updated guidance on reporting procedures for suspected intrusions into our airspace." Regarding the new guidelines, the spokesman said that one possible explanation for the increase in reported intrusions could be the rise in availability of unmanned aerial systems such as quadrocopters.
United States Senator Marco Rubio, who was chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee at the time, said that he feared the UFOs in the videos may be Chinese or Russian technology. Retired Admiral Gary Roughead, who commanded both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets before serving as Chief of Naval Operations from 2007 to 2011, said in 2020 that in his time, "most of the assessments were inconclusive" as to what these videos showed. In the context of a lecture on China's 21st century military strategy, Roughead commented that development of unmanned autonomous aircraft that had the capability to be used as submersible military assets was a priority of the US, as well as other nations such as China and Russia.
Adam Dodd and security expert Jack Weinstein say that both these countries don't presently have the capability to produce aircraft with such extraordinary capabilities, and noted that they would normally keep any such high level technology from being observed and documented by a rival country such as the US.
Media commentary has also noted that if China or Russia had the level of technology allowed for extreme speeds and manouverability exhibited by the UAPs, then the US would be aware of it  However, in response to this, Weinstein said, "I won’t go that far. China has developed some good technology much faster than we thought they were going to".
According to New York Magazine writer for the Digital Intelligencer, Jeff Wise, UAP may not represent actual aircraft speeds and maneuverability, since advancements in Electronic Warfare (EW) techniques, similar to early "radar spoofing" used by the US military, could deceive sensors to give false velocity and position information and result in reports of “unusual UAP movement patterns or flight characteristics". Wise writes that this might be “the crucial, missing context for what military pilots might actually be seeing” and speculates that US adversaries may have developed EW capabilities that exploit weaknesses of US systems and "gaps in its electronic warfare capabilities" that allow sensor information to be missed or erroneous tracking data to be created.
June 2021 UFO report
On June 25, 2021, the US Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) released a preliminary report on UAPs largely centering on evidence gathered in the last 20 years from US Navy reports. The report came to no conclusion about what the UAPs were, based on a lack of evidence, though in a limited number of incidents, UAP reportedly appeared to exhibit unusual flight characteristics, including high velocity, breaking the sound barrier without producing a sonic boom high maneuverability not able to be replicated, otherwise  long duration flight, and an ability to submerge into the water. Some of the UAPs appeared to move with no discernable means of propulsion, and it was noted that the alleged high speeds and maneuvers would normally destroy any craft These observations could be the result of sensor errors, spoofing, or observer misperception and require additional rigorous analysis.
The report indicated that in some cases, the UAP recordings were of physical objects, and not false readings, as individual instances had been detected by different sensor mechanisms, including visual observation. The report also stated that "UAP probably lack a single explanation" and the report proposed five possible categories of explanation for the UAPs: Airborne clutter, Natural Atmospheric phenomena, US Government or industry development technology, Foreign Craft and an "Other" category.
The report raised concerns that the UAPs could be a safety issue, in regards to a possible collision with US aircraft, and that they could pose a security issue if they were foreign craft gathering information about the US. It indicated investigation of the topic would continue, including development of reporting protocols. It also indicated that of the sightings reported, all except one (confirmed as a weather balloon) lack sufficient information to attribute a specific explanation(s).
In popular culture
- The videos were featured in the 2019 History Channel series Unidentified: Inside America's UFO Investigation.
- On October 5, 2019, episode 1361 of The Joe Rogan Experience featured the videos and interviewed Fravor.
- The videos were featured in the Showtime Networks series UFO.
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