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Finnic peoples, Slavic peoples and Khazars in c. 9th century; Permians marked with red

The Permians [1] are a branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples[2] and include Komis and Udmurts, speakers of Permic languages. Formerly the name Bjarmians[3] was also used to describe these peoples. The recent research on the Finno-Ugric substrate in northern Russian dialects, however, suggests that in Bjarmaland there also lived several other Finno-Ugric groups besides the Permians.[4]

The ancestors of the Permians originally inhabited the land called Permia covering the middle and upper Kama River. Permians split into two groups, probably during the 9th century.[5]

The Komis came under the rule of the Novgorod Republic in the 13th century and were converted to Orthodox Christianity in the 1360-1370s. In 1471-1478, their lands were conquered by the Grand Duchy of Moscow that later became the Tsardom of Russia. In the 18th century the Russian authorities opened the southern parts of the land to colonization and the northern parts became a place to which criminal and political prisoners were exiled.[1]

The Udmurts came under the rule of the Tatars, the Golden Horde and the Khanate of Kazan until their land was ceded to Russia, and the people were Christianized at the beginning of the 18th century.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Minahan, James (2000-01-01). One Europe, Many Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313309847. 
  2. ^ [[Khrunin AV, Khokhrin DV, Filippova IN, Esko T, Nelis M, Bebyakova NA, et al. (2013) A Genome-Wide Analysis of Populations from European Russia Reveals a New Pole of Genetic Diversity in Northern Europe. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58552. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058552]]
  3. ^ Tooke, William (1799). View of the Russian Empire. During the Reign of Catharine the Second, and to the close of the Present Century. London: T. N. Longman, O. Rees, and J. Debrett. pp. 527–532. 
  4. ^ Saarikivi, Janne: Substrata Uralica. Studies in Finno-Ugric substrate in northern Russian dialects. Doctoral dissertation. Tartu 2006: 294-295.
  5. ^ Leskov, Nikolaĭ (1992). On the Edge of the World. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-118-8. 
  6. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1999). The Finno-Ugric republics and the Russian state. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91977-7.