Ulch people

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Alternative names:
Ulch, Ul'chi, Ulchi
Total population
(2,913 (est. 2002))
Regions with significant populations
 Russia 2,765[1]
 Ukraine 76[2]
Ulch language, Russian
Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Related ethnic groups
Ainu, Orok, Itelmen, Evenki, Negidals, Nanai, Udege

The Ulch (Russian: ульчи, obsolete ольчи; self designation: нани, nani) are an indigenous paleo-asian people of the Russian Far East who speak now a Tungusic language, Ulch. Over 90% of Ulchis live in Ulchsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. According to the 2002 Census, there were 2,913 Ulchs living in Russia — down from 3,173 recorded in the 1989 Census, but up from 2,494 recorded in the 1979 Census, and 2,410 recorded in the 1970 Census. According to the 2010 Census there were 2,765 Ulchs in Russia.

Anthropologically, no clear racial groups exist. Some of them belong to the so-called Sakhalin-Amur group, like the Nivkhs.

Among modern populations Ulchi people have the strongest genetic continuity with 7700 years old ancestors of East Asians from Devil's Gate Chertovy Vorota Cave and are also genetically similar to East Asian genetic component of the Native Americans who are a hybrid of the Ulchi-like strain of East Asians and Ancient North Eurasians(ANE) but different to other Siberian groups(Mongolians/Turkic groups).[3][4]

Interior of a Mangun House, drawing by Richard Maack ca. 1854-1860
History of the Priamurye region
(also including Heilongjiang,
Amur Oblast and southern part of Khabarovsk Krai)
Mohe • Shiwei
Liao dynasty • Daurs
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) • Nivkh
Eastern Jin (1215–1234)
Yuan dynasty • Evenks
Yeren Jurchens • Solon Khanate
Qing dynasty • Nanais • Ulchs
Russian Exploration • Negidals
Manchus–Cossacks wars (1652–1689)
Government-General of Eastern Siberia
Li–Lobanov Treaty
Siberian Regional Government
Far Eastern Republic
Far Eastern Oblast
Soviet invasion of Manchuria (1945)
Sino-Soviet border conflict
Far Eastern Federal District


  1. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (in Russian)
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Siska, V; Jones, ER; Jeon, S; Bhak, Y; Kim, HM; Cho, YS; Kim, H; Lee, K; Veselovskaya, E; Balueva, T; Gallego-Llorente, M; Hofreiter, M; Bradley, DG; Eriksson, A; Pinhasi, R; Bhak, J; Manica, A. "Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago". Sci Adv. 3: e1601877. PMC 5287702Freely accessible. PMID 28164156. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1601877. 
  4. ^ http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601877.full