|Molar mass||208.22 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||166.8 °C (332.2 °F; 439.9 K)|
|Boiling point||160.5 °C (320.9 °F; 433.6 K) sublimation|
|Solubility||soluble in CS2, chlorocarbons, benzene|
|Vapor pressure||1.11 kPa (80 °C)
4.58 kPa (100 °C)
|D3h (trigonal bipyramidal)|
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 0544|
|GHS signal word||Danger|
|H302, H314, H330, H373|
|P260, P280, P284, P305+351+338, P310|
|R-phrases||R14, R22, R26, R34, R48/20|
|S-phrases||(S1/2), S7/8, S26, S36/37/39, S45|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|660 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
LC50 (Median concentration)
|205 mg/m3 (rat)|
LCLo (Lowest published)
|1020 mg/m3 (mouse, 10 min)|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 1 mg/m3|
|TWA 1 mg/m3|
IDLH (Immediate danger
Related phosphorus pentahalides
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3. PCl5 finds use as a chlorinating reagent. It is a colourless, water- and moisture-sensitive solid, although commercial samples can be yellowish and contaminated with hydrogen chloride.
The structures for the phosphorus chlorides are invariably consistent with VSEPR theory. The structure of PCl5 depends on its environment. Gaseous and molten PCl5 is a neutral molecule with trigonal bipyramidal (D3h) symmetry. The hypervalent nature of this species (as well as for PCl−
6, see below) can be explained with the inclusion of non-bonding MOs (Molecular orbital theory) or resonance (Valence bond theory). This trigonal bipyramidal structure persists in non-polar solvents, such as CS2 and CCl4. In the solid state PCl5 is ionic, formulated PCl+
In solutions of polar solvents, PCl5 undergoes "autoionization". Dilute solutions dissociate according to the following equilibrium:
- PCl5 [PCl+
At higher concentrations, a second equilibrium becomes more important:
- 2 PCl5 [PCl+
The cation PCl+
4 and the anion PCl−
6 are tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively. At one time, PCl5 in solution was thought to form a dimeric structure, P2Cl10, but this suggestion is not supported by Raman spectroscopic measurements.
AsCl5 and SbCl5 also adopt trigonal bipyramidal structures. The relevant bond distances are 211 (As-Cleq), 221 (As-Clax), 227 (Sb-Cleq), and 233.3 pm (Sb-Clax ). At low temperatures, SbCl5 converts to the dimer, bioctahedral Sb2Cl10, structurally related to niobium pentachloride.
- PCl3 + Cl2 PCl5 (ΔH = −124 kJ/mol)
PCl5 exists in equilibrium with PCl3 and chlorine, and at 180 °C the degree of dissociation is ca. 40%. Because of this equilibrium, samples of PCl5 often contain chlorine, which imparts a greenish colouration.
- PCl5 + H2O → POCl3 + 2 HCl
In hot water, hydrolysis proceeds completely to ortho-phosphoric acid:
- PCl5 + 4 H2O → H3PO4 + 5 HCl
Chlorination of organic compounds
In synthetic chemistry, two classes of chlorination are usually of interest: oxidative chlorinations and substitutive chlorinations. Oxidative chlorinations entail the transfer of Cl2 from the reagent to the substrate. Substitutive chlorinations entail replacement of O or OH groups with chloride. PCl5 can be used for both processes.
PCl5 and PCl3 bear some resemblance to SO2Cl2, as both serve often as sources of Cl2. Again for oxidative chlorinations on the laboratory scale, SO2Cl2 is often preferred over PCl5 since the gaseous SO2 by-product is readily separated.
PCl5 reacts with a tertiary amides, such as DMF, to give dimethylchloromethyleneammonium chloride, which is called the Vilsmeier reagent, [(CH3)2NCClH]Cl. More typically, a related salt is generated from the reaction of DMF and POCl3. Such reagents are useful in the preparation of derivatives of benzaldehyde by formylation and for the conversion of C-OH groups into C-Cl groups.
In contrast to PCl3, the pentachloride replaces allylic and benzylic CH bonds and is especially renowned for the conversion of C=O groups to CCl2 groups.
Chlorination of inorganic compounds
- 6 PCl5 + P4O10 → 10 POCl3
- PCl5 + 2 NO2 → PCl3 + 2 NO2Cl
PCl5 is a precursor for lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF6, an electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. LiPF
6 is produced by the reaction of PCl
5 with lithium fluoride, with lithium chloride as a side-product:
- PCl5 + 6 LiF → LiPF6 + 5 LiCl
PCl5 is a dangerous substance as it reacts violently with water.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0509". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Phosphorus pentachloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-15)
- Phosphorus pentachloride
- "Phosphorus pentachloride". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- D. E. C. Corbridge (1995). Phosphorus: an outline of its chemistry, biochemistry, and uses. Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN 0-444-89307-5.
- Arnold F. Holleman; Egon Wiber; Nils Wiberg (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
- Suter, R. W.; Knachel, H. C.; Petro, V. P.; Howatson, J. H.; S. G. Shore, S. G. (1978). "Nature of Phosphorus(V) Chloride in Ionizing and Nonionizing Solvents". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95 (5): 1474–1479. doi:10.1021/ja00786a021.
- Haupt, S.; Seppelt, K. (2002). "Solid State Structures of AsCl5 and SbCl5". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 628 (4): 729–734. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200205)628:4<729::AID-ZAAC729>3.0.CO;2-E.
- Adams, R.; Jenkins, R. L. (1941). "p-Nitrobenzoyl chloride". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 1, p. 394
- Clayden, Jonathan (2005). Organic chemistry (Reprinted (with corrections). ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850346-0.
- Burks, Jr., J. E. "Phosphorus(V) Chloride" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. doi:10.1002/047084289.
- Gross, H.; Rieche, A.; Höft, E.; Beyer, E. (1973). "Dichloromethyl Methyl Ether". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 5, p. 365
- Schmutzler, R. (1973). "Styrylphosphonic dichloride". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 5, p. 1005
- Frank Albert Cotton (1999). Advanced inorganic chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0-471-19957-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phosphorus pentachloride.|
- The period 3 chlorides
- International Chemical Safety Card 0544
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards