Antimony pentachloride

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Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride in an ampoule.jpg
IUPAC names
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony(V) chloride
Other names
Antimonic chloride
Antimony perchloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.729
EC Number 231-601-8
RTECS number CC5075000
Molar mass 299.01 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless or reddish-yellow (fuming) liquid, oily
Odor pungent, offensive
Density 2.336 g/cm3 (20 °C)[1]
2.36 g/cm3 (25 °C)[2]
Melting point 2.8 °C (37.0 °F; 275.9 K)
Boiling point 140 °C (284 °F; 413 K)
decomposes from 106 °C[3]
79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)
at 22 mmHg[1]
92 °C (198 °F; 365 K)
at 30 mmHg[2]
Solubility soluble in alcohol, HCl, tartaric acid, CHCl3, CS2, CCl4
Solubility in selenium(IV) oxychloride 62.97 g/100 g (25 °C)
Vapor pressure 0.16 kPa (25 °C)
4 kPa (40 °C)
7.7 kPa (100 °C)[4]
-120.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 2.034 cP (29.4 °C)[1]
1.91 cP (35 °C)
Trigonal bipyramidal
0 D
120.9 J/mol·K (gas)[3]
295 J/mol·K[3]
-437.2 kJ/mol[3]
-345.35 kJ/mol[3]
GHS pictograms GHS05: CorrosiveGHS09: Environmental hazard[2]
GHS signal word Danger
H314, H411[2]
P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310[2]
Inhalation hazard Toxic
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calciumSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 77 °C (171 °F; 350 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1115 mg/kg, (rat, oral)[3]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)[5]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)[5]
Related compounds
Other anions
Antimony pentafluoride
Other cations
Phosphorus pentachloride
Related compounds
Antimony trichloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to impurities. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and carbonizes non-fluorinated plastics.

Preparation and structure[edit]

Antimony pentachloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:

SbCl3 + Cl2 → SbCl5

Gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal structure.[6]


Antimony pentachloride hydrolyses to give hydrochloric acid and antimony oxychlorides. This reaction is suppressed in the presence of a large excess of chloride, owing to the formation of the hexachloroantimonate complex ion:

SbCl5 + Cl → [SbCl6]

The mono- and tetrahydrates are known, SbCl5·H2O SbCl5·4 H2O.

This compound forms adducts with many Lewis bases. It is used as the standard Lewis acid in the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity.[7]

It is also a strong oxidizing agent.[8]


Antimony pentachloride is used as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds.


Antimony pentachloride is a highly corrosive substance that should be stored away from heat and moisture. It is a chlorinating agent and, in the presence of moisture, it releases hydrogen chloride gas. Because of this, it may etch even stainless-steel tools (such as needles), if handled in a moist atmosphere. It should not be handled with non-fluorinated plastics (such as plastic syringes, plastic septa, or needles with plastic fittings), since it melts and carbonizes plastic materials.[9]


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ a b c d e Sigma-Aldrich Co., Antimony(V) chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f
  4. ^ Antimony pentachloride in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (MD), (retrieved 2014-05-29)
  5. ^ a b NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0036". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  6. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  7. ^ V. Gutmann (1976). "Solvent effects on the reactivities of organometallic compounds". Coord. Chem. Rev. 18 (2): 225. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)82045-7.
  8. ^ Connelly, N. G.; Geiger, W. E. (1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chem. Rev. 96: 877–922. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774.
  9. ^ Shekarchi, M.; Behbahani, F. K Catal. Lett. 2017 147 2950. doi:10.1007/s10562-017-2194-2

External links[edit]