Antimony pentachloride

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Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride in an ampoule.jpg
IUPAC names
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony(V) chloride
Other names
Antimonic chloride
Antimony quintachloride
Antimony perchloride
7647-18-9 YesY
ChemSpider 10613049 YesY
EC Number 231-601-8
Jmol interactive 3D Image
PubChem 24294
RTECS number CC5075000
Molar mass 299.01 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless or reddish-yellow (fuming) liquid, oily
Odor pungent, offensive
Density 2.336 g/cm3 (20 °C)[1]
2.36 g/cm3 (25 °C)[2]
Melting point 2.8 °C (37.0 °F; 275.9 K)
Boiling point 140 °C (284 °F; 413 K)
decomposes from 106 °C[3]
79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)
at 22 mmHg[1]
92 °C (198 °F; 365 K)
at 30 mmHg[2]
Solubility soluble in alcohol, HCl, tartaric acid, CHCl3, CS2, CCl4
Solubility in selenium(IV) oxychloride 62.97 g/100 g (25 °C)
Vapor pressure 0.16 kPa (25 °C)
4 kPa (40 °C)
7.7 kPa (100 °C)[4]
Viscosity 2.034 cP (29.4 °C)[1]
1.91 cP (35 °C)
Trigonal bipyramidal
0 D
120.9 J/mol·K (gas)[3]
295 J/mol·K[3]
-437.2 kJ/mol[3]
-345.35 kJ/mol[3]
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[2]
GHS signal word Danger
H314, H411[2]
P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310[2]
Corrosive C Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R34, R51/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S45, S61
Inhalation hazard Toxic
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 77 °C (171 °F; 350 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1115 mg/kg, (rat, oral)[3]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)[5]
TWA 0.5 mg/m3 (as Sb)[5]
Related compounds
Other anions
Antimony pentafluoride
Other cations
Phosphorus pentachloride
Related compounds
Antimony trichloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to impurities. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance and carbonizes non-fluorinated plastics.

Preparation and structure[edit]

Antimony pentachloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:

SbCl3 + Cl2 → SbCl5

Gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal prismatic structure.[6]


Antimony pentachloride hydrolyses readily to give hydrochloric acid:

2 SbCl5 + 5 H2O → Sb2O5 + 10 HCl

This reaction is suppressed in the presence of a large excess of chloride, owing to the formation of the hexachloroantimonate complex ion:

SbCl5 + Cl → [SbCl6]

The mono- and tetrahydrates are known, SbCl5·H2O SbCl5·4 H2O.

This compound forms adducts with many Lewis bases. It is used as the standard Lewis acid in the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity.[7]

It is also a strong oxidizing agent.[8]


Antimony pentachloride is used as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds.


Antimony pentachloride is a highly corrosive substance that should be stored away from heat and moisture. It is a chlorinating agent and, in the presence of moisture, it releases hydrogen chloride gas. Because of this, it may etch even stainless-steel tools (such as needles), if handled in a moist atmosphere. It should not be handled with non-fluorinated plastics (such as plastic syringes, plastic septa, or needles with plastic fittings), since it melts and carbonizes plastic materials.


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ a b c d e Sigma-Aldrich Co., Antimony(V) chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f
  4. ^ Antimony pentachloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. (retrieved 2014-05-29)
  5. ^ a b "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0036". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  6. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  7. ^ V. Gutmann (1976). "Solvent effects on the reactivities of organometallic compounds". Coord. Chem. Rev. 18 (2): 225. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)82045-7. 
  8. ^ Connelly, N. G. and Geiger, W. E. (1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chem. Rev. 96: 877–922. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 

External links[edit]