Dog food refers to food specifically intended for consumption by dogs. Like all carnivores, dogs have sharp, pointed teeth, and have short gastrointestinal tracts better suited for the consumption of meat. In spite of this natural carnivorous design, dogs have still managed to adapt over thousands of years to survive on the meat and non-meat scraps and leftovers of human existence and thrive on a variety of foods.
In the United States alone, dog owners spent over $8.6 billion on commercially manufactured dog food in 2007. Some people make their own dog food, feed their dogs meals made from ingredients purchased in grocery or health-food stores or give their dogs a raw food diet.
- 1 History
- 2 Foods dangerous to dogs
- 3 Food allergies in dogs
- 4 Grain free/low carbohydrate
- 5 Contamination issues
- 6 Commercial dog food
- 7 Raw dog food
- 8 Labeling
- 9 Recalls
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
In 37 BCE Virgil talks about the feeding of dogs in his Bucolics:
Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postrema; sed una Veloces Spartae catulos, acremque Molossum, Pasce sero pingui:
"Do not let the care of dogs be last; but the swift Spartan hounds, and fierce Mastiff, Feed the whey"
Around 70 CE, Columella wrote his book On Agriculture in which he addresses the feeding of dogs:
Cibaria fere eadem sunt utrique generi praebenda. Nam si tam laxa rura sunt, ut sustineant pecorum greges, omnis sine discrimine hordeacea farina cum sero commode pascit. Sin autem surculo consitus ager sine pascuo est, farreo vel triticeo pane satiandi sunt, admixto tamen liquore coctae fabae, sed tepido, nam fervens rabiem creat. 
"Provisions of victuals are almost the same for both [types of dog]. If the fields are so large as to sustain herds of animals, barley meal mixed with whey is a convenient food. But if it is an orchard without grain, spelt or wheat bread is fed mixed with the liquid from cooked beans, but warm, for boiling creates rabies."
In the Avesta, written from 224 to 651 CE, Azura Mazda advises:
Bring ye unto him milk and fat with meat; this is the right food for the dog.
In France, the word pâtée began to appear in the 18th century and referred to a paste originally given to poultry. In 1756, a dictionary indicates it was made of a mixture of bread crumbs and little pieces of meat given to pets.
In 1781, an encyclopedia mentioned an earlier practice of removing the liver, heart, and blood of a downed stag and mixing it with milk, cheese, and bread; and then giving it to dogs.
In 1844, the French writer, Nicolas Boyard, warned against even giving tallow graves (the dregs of the tallow pot) to dogs, though the English favored them (see below), and suggested a meat-flavored soup:
By a misguided economy dogs are given meat scraps and tallow graves; one must avoid this, because these foods make them heavy and sick; give them twice a day a soup of coarse bread made with water, fat and the bottom of the stew pot; put a half-kilogram of bread at least in each soup.
In England, care to give dogs particular food dates at least from the late eighteenth century, when The Sportsman's dictionary (1785) described the best diet for a dog's health in its article "Dog":
A dog is of a very hot nature: he should therefore never be without clean water by him, that he may drink when he is thirsty. In regard to their food, carrion is by no means proper for them. It must hurt their sense of smelling, on which the excellence of these dogs greatly depends.
Barley meal, the dross of wheatflour, or both mixed together, with broth or skim'd milk, is very proper food. For change, a small quantity of greaves from which the tallow is pressed by the chandlers, mixed with their flour ; or sheep's feet well baked or boiled, are a very good diet, and when you indulge them with flesh it should always be boiled. In the season of hunting your dogs, it is proper to feed them in the evening before, and give them nothing in the morning you take them out, except a little milk. If you stop for your own refreshment in the day, you should also refresh your dogs with a little milk and bread.
In 1833, The Complete Farrier gave similar but far more extensive advice on feeding dogs:
The dog is neither wholly carnivorous nor wholly herbivorous, but of a mixed kind, and can receive nourishment from either flesh or vegetables. A mixture of both is therefore his proper food, but of the former he requires a greater portion, and this portion should be always determined by his bodily exertions.
It was not until the mid-1800s that the world saw its first food made specifically for dogs. An American electrician, James Spratt, concocted the first dog treat. Living in London at the time, he witnessed dogs around a shipyard eating scraps of discarded biscuits. Shortly thereafter he introduced his dog food, made up of wheat meals, vegetables and meat. By 1890 production had begun in the United States and became known as "Spratt’s Patent Limited".
In later years, dog biscuit was sometimes treated as synonymous with dog food:
The first three prize winners at the late coursing meeting at Great Bend were trained on Spratt's Patent Dog Biscuit. This same dog food won no less than three awards, including a gold medal, at the Exposition in Paris which has just closed. It would seem that the decision of the judges is more than backed up by the result in the kennel. Another good dog food is that manufactured by Austin & Graves, of Boston. They, too, seem to be meeting with great success in their line.
Canned horse meat was introduced in the United States under the Ken-L Ration brand after World War I as a means to dispose of deceased horses. The 1930s saw the introduction of canned cat food and dry meat-meal dog food by the Gaines Food Co. By the time World War II ended, pet food sales had reached $200 million. In the 1950s Spratt's became part of General Mills. For companies such as Nabisco, Quaker Oats, and General Foods, pet food represented an opportunity to market by-products as a profitable source of income.
Foods dangerous to dogs
A number of common human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids (theobromine poisoning), onion and garlic (thiosulfate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning), grapes and raisins (cause kidney failure in dogs), milk (lactose intolerance, causes diarrhea in dogs), nutmeg (neurotoxic to dogs), macadamia nuts, as well as various plants and other potentially ingested materials.
Food allergies in dogs
Certain ingredients in dog food are known to be a key cause of allergies. A popular belief among pet owners is that wheat and soybeans are a leading cause of dog allergies, however many studies backed by veterinarians have failed to show wheat and soybeans as major sources of allergies, and in fact blame the meat protein for most allergies: beef, chicken, lamb, etc. A number of "grain free" dog foods are available that claim to alleviate such allergies in dogs, however given the current research that true wheat/grain allergy is rare in dogs, these diets are seen as controversial, gimmicky, or unnecessary by veterinarians.
Diets for those dogs allergic to food are made from limited ingredients or hypoallergenic recipes.[unreliable source?] Limited ingredients make it easier to identify the suspected allergens. In hypoallergenic recipes, manufacturers use those ingredients which are less likely to cause alleries to the dogs such as chicken, lamb, fish, and corn. Food allergies account for about 10% of all the allergies seen in dogs, being the most common cause after flea bite allergies and atopy (inhalant allergies). Food allergies generally account for 20% of the causes of itching and scratching in dogs.
Grain free/low carbohydrate
Some dog food products differentiate themselves as grain- or carbohydrate-free to offer the consumer an alternative, claiming carbohydrates in pet foods to be fillers with little or no nutritional value. Carbohydrates in dog food contribute to approximately 3.5 cals of energy per gram, the same as protein per the modified Atwater method of calculating metabolizable energy. The grain-free diets have created a trend toward avoiding commercial pet food. However, a recent study published in Nature suggests that domestic dogs are able to metabolize carbohydrates.
In 2007, following a series of reports of renal failure in pets, there was a widespread recall of pet foods due to contamination found in ingredients produced in China. The contaminant was identified as melamine which had been added as an adulterant to simulate a higher protein content.
Salmonella and other concerns
Recently, the FDA has released a video focusing on another major threat in commercial pet food: Salmonella bacterial contamination. They also cite other major toxins of concern. The video references the case of a specific commercial pet food plant that was also the subject of a March 2014 study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. It details how at least 53 known human illnesses were linked to commercial pet foods made at that plant in 2012. A class action lawsuit linked to this outbreak was recently settled.
The video also cites the dangers of over supplementation of nutrients in pet food. A study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association in February 2013 suggested a correlation between liver disease and the amount of copper supplementation in AAFCO diets.
In addition "taurine deficiency" has been found in dogs and cats fed commercial diets intended to be "complete and balanced". Not usually considered an essential nutrient in dogs, taurine is plentiful in most whole meats whether raw or cooked, but is reduced in extruded diets. Cats require more taurine in their diets due to their increased rate of protein metabolism; taurine is usually synthesized in the body from methionine and cysteine, but cats' increased use of these amino acids in normal bodily functions mean that taurine itself must also be provided in the diet.
The above observations could also be explained by the rendered, highly processed source of meat being less rich in taurine and by the fact that some of the taurine is denatured during extrusion. Cats are obligate carnivores and their natural diet would consist of high amounts of whole meat - thus what has been termed "taurine deficiency" causing dilated cardiomyopathy in cats, is more likely to be a deficiency in the production of commercial feed diets. Taurine is now artificially supplemented back into the diet after processing in the production of most commercial pet food. A similar dynamic occurred in the first half of the twentieth century with an epidemic of Pellagra in humans living in the Southern United States. The cause was determined to be a deficiency of the essential vitamin niacin (B3), which was being destroyed in the mass processing of corn. Niacin was supplemented back into Southern diets and the disease was eradicated.
In April 2014, aflatoxin B1, a known carcinogenic toxin, melamine, and cyanuric acid were all found in various brands of USA pet food imported into Hong Kong. Since 1993, the FDA has confirmed concerns of toxins in feed grade (animal grade) ingredients, yet to date no comprehensive federal regulation exists on mycotoxin testing in feed grade (animal grade) ingredients used to make pet food.
In 1997, the journal of Food Additives and Contaminants established that low levels of various mycotoxins could cause health concerns in pets, and was found in feed grade ingredients.
A study published in the Journal of Food Protection in 2001 cited concerns regarding fungi (the source of mycotoxins) in commercial pet foods and warned about the "risk for animal health".
In 2006, a study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry confirmed mycotoxins in pet foods around the world and concluded that contamination of mycotoxins in pet foods can lead to chronic effects on the health of pets.
In 2007, the International Journal of Food Microbiology published a study that claimed "mycotoxin contamination in pet food poses a serious health threat to pets", and listed them: aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and fusaric acid.
A 2008 study published in the Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition found high levels of mycotoxins in the raw ingredients used for pet food in Brazil.
A 2010 study in the journal of Mycotoxin Research tested 26 commercial dog foods and found mycotoxins at concerning sub-lethal levels. It was determined that long-term exposure to low levels of confirmed mycotoxins could pose chronic health risks.
A 2012 study published in the journal of Toxins found concerning levels of multiple mycotoxins in pet food in Europe, which has some of the strictest guidelines.
For all the above reasons, a current trend away from feed ingredients, and toward USDA certified ingredients fit for human consumption has developed.
Commercial dog food
Most store-bought dog food is made with feed grade (animal grade) ingredients and comes in either a dry form (also known in the US as kibble) or a wet, canned form. Dry food contains 6–10% moisture by volume, as compared to 60–90% in canned food. Semi-moist foods have a moisture content of 25–35%. Pet owners often prefer dry food for reasons of convenience and price, spending over $8 billion on dry dog food in 2010 – a 50% increase in the amount spent just seven years earlier.
Wet dog food
Wet or canned dog food is significantly higher in moisture than dry or semi-moist food. Canned food is commercially sterile (cooked during canning); other wet foods may not be sterile. A given wet food will often be higher in protein or fat compared to a similar kibble on a dry matter basis (a measure which ignores moisture); given the canned food's high moisture content, however, a larger amount of canned food must be fed. Grain gluten and other protein gels may be used in wet dog food to create artificial meaty chunks, which look like real meat.
Alternative dog food
In recent years, alternatives to traditional commercial pet food are being sold. Many companies have been successful in targeting niche markets, each with unique characteristics. Some popular alternative dog food labels are:
- Frozen, also called Fresh-Prepared, comes in raw or cooked (not processed) form, some of which is made with ingredients that are inspected, approved, and certified by the USDA for human consumption, but formulated for pets. Part of this growing trend is the commercialization of home-made dog food for pet owners who want the same quality, but do not have the time or expertise to make it themselves. The idea is to skip the processing stage traditional dog food goes through. This causes less destruction of its nutritional integrity.
- Dehydrated or freeze-dried comes in raw and cooked form. Products are usually air dried or frozen, then dehydrated (freeze-dried) to reduce moisture to the level where bacterial growths are inhibited. The appearance is very similar to dry kibbles. The typical feeding methods include adding warm water before serving. There is some concern of nutrients, such as vitamins, being lost during the dehydration process.
- Fresh or refrigerated, produced through pasteurization of fresh ingredients. Products are lightly cooked and then quickly sealed in a vacuum package. Then they are refrigerated until served. This type of dog food is extremely vulnerable to spoiling if not kept at a cool temperature and has a shelf life of 2–4 months, unopened.
- Homemade Diet often comes in a bucket or Tupperware-like package. In the past this was thought to be a diet that owners create themselves. These diets generally consist of some form of cooked meat or raw meat, ground bone, pureed vegetables, taurine supplements, and other multivitamin supplements. Some pet owners use human vitamin supplements, and others use vitamin supplements specifically engineered for dogs. Recently, small companies have begun to home-cook dog dishes and then sell them through specialty stores or over the Internet.
- Vegetarian dog foods are manufactured by several companies. They are usually balanced and contain ingredients such as oatmeal, pea protein, and potatoes instead of meat to supply protein. A dog owner may choose to feed a vegetarian food for ethical and/or health reasons, or in cases of extreme food allergies.
Many commercial dog foods are made from materials considered by some authorities and dog owners to be unusable or undesirable. These may include:
- Meat and bone meal
- Offal (wild canines, however, do eat offal as a vital part of their diets)
- Animal digest
- Sugar-based sweeteners
- Animal by-products
Less expensive dog foods generally include less meat, and more animal by-products and grain fillers. Proponents of a natural diet criticize the use of such ingredients, and point out that regulations allow for packaging that might lead a consumer to believe that they are buying natural food, when, in reality, the food might be composed mostly of ingredients such as those listed above. More expensive dog foods may be made of ingredients suitable for organic products or free range meats. Lamb meal is a popular ingredient. Ingredients must be listed by amount in descending order.
According to the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), animal by-products in pet food may include parts obtained from any animals which have died from sickness or disease provided they are rendered in accordance to law. As well, cow brains and spinal cords, not allowed for human consumption under federal regulation 21CFR589.2000 due to the possibility of transmission of BSE, are allowed to be included in pet food intended for non-ruminant animals. In 2003, the AVMA speculated changes might be made to animal feed regulations to ban materials from "4-D" animals – those who enter the food chain as dead, dying, diseased or disabled.
One emerging differentiation between pet food qualities in the United States is the use of standard feed grade (animal grade) ingredients versus the use of USDA-inspected, approved, and certified ingredients fit for human consumption.[unreliable source?][unreliable source?] The USDA certification and approval process is among the best quality control programs in food production in the world. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently commented that the ingredients defined as feed in pet food (feed grade or animal grade) are not classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Examples of potential toxins include melamine, Salmonella, and mycotoxins. Only the language "USDA certified" or "USDA approved" is legally meaningful. Some companies will say "Made with ingredients from a USDA facility", or "USA Meat", which is misleading as it can include dead or dying animals or carcasses rejected from the human food chain and is not the same as USDA inspected, approved, or certified, which are FDA approved for human consumption.
Dry dog food (kibbles) is most often packed in multi-wall paper bags, sometimes with a plastic film layer; similar bag styles with film laminates or coextrusions are also used. Wet dog food is often packed in aluminum cans or steel cans. Packaging regulations for dog food are often very similar to corresponding regulations for human foods.
Raw dog food
Supporters of raw feeding believe that the natural diet of an animal in the wild is its most ideal diet and try to mimic a similar diet for their domestic companion. They are commonly opposed to commercial pet foods, which they consider poor substitutes for raw feed. Opponents believe that the risk of food-borne illnesses posed by the handling and feeding of raw meats would outweigh the purported benefits and that no scientific studies have been done to support the numerous beneficial claims. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States states that they do not advocate a raw diet but recommends owners who insist on feeding raw to follow basic hygienic guidelines for handling raw meat to minimize risk to animal and human health.
Many commercial raw pet food manufacturers now utilize a process called High Pressure Pascalization (HPP) that is a unique process that kills pathogenic bacteria through high-pressure, water-based technology. High Pressure Pascalization is a USDA-approved, and is allowed for use on organic and natural products.
Commercial frozen raw dog food is distributed by various independent pet specialty retailers.
In the United States, dog foods labelled as "complete and balanced" must meet standards established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) either by meeting a nutrient profile or by passing a feeding trial. The Dog Food Nutrient Profiles were last updated in 1995 by the AAFCO's Canine Nutrition Expert Subcommittee.
Critics argue that due to the limitations of the trial and the gaps in knowledge within animal nutrition science, the term "complete and balanced" is inaccurate and even deceptive. An AAFCO panel expert has stated that "although the AAFCO profiles are better than nothing, they provide false securities."
Certain manufacturers label their products with terms such as premium, ultra premium, natural and holistic. Such terms currently have no legal definitions. There are also varieties of dog food labeled as "human-grade food". Although no official definition of this term exists, the assumption is that other brands use foods that would not pass US Food and Drug Administration inspection according to the Pure Food and Drug Act or the Meat Inspection Act.
The ingredients on the label must be listed in descending order by weight before cooking. This means before all of the moisture is removed from the meat, fruits, vegetables and other ingredients used.
The 2007 pet food recalls involved the massive recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007. The recalls came in response to reports of renal failure in pets consuming mostly wet pet foods made with wheat gluten from a single Chinese company, beginning in February 2007. After more than three weeks of complaints from consumers, the recall began voluntarily with the Canadian company Menu Foods on March 16, 2007, when a company test showed sickness and death in some of the test animals.
Overall, several major companies have recalled more than 100 brands of pet foods, with most of the recalled product coming from Menu Foods. Although there are several theories of the source of the agent causing sickness in affected animals, with extensive government and private testing and forensic research, to date, no definitive cause has been isolated. As of April 10, the most likely cause, according to the FDA, though not yet proven, is indicated by the presence of melamine in wheat gluten in the affected foods.
In the United States, there has been extensive media coverage of the recall. There has been widespread public outrage and calls for government regulation of pet foods, which had previously been self-regulated by pet food manufacturers. The economic impact on the pet food market has been extensive, with Menu Foods losing roughly $30 Million alone from the recall. The events have caused distrust of most processed pet foods in some consumers.
In 1999, another fungal toxin triggered the recall of dry dog food made by Doane Pet Care at one of its plants, including Ol' Roy, Wal-Mart's brand, as well as 53 other brands. This time the toxin killed 25 dogs.
A 2005 consumer alert was released for contaminated Diamond Pet Foods for dogs and cats. Over 100 canine deaths and at least one feline fatality have been linked to Diamond Pet Foods contaminated by the potentially deadly toxin, Aflatoxin, according to Cornell University veterinarians.
In recent years, recalls of traditional and raw commercial pet foods have become frequent due to increased awareness and testing by the FDA. Every few months a new large scale recall is announced and a dynamic list of recall alerts is being continually updated by the FDA
- Ward, Ernest (2010). Chow hounds: Why our dogs are getting fatter. Health Communications. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7573-1366-0.
- Virgil, Bucolica, Georgica, et Aeneis: accedunt clavis metrica, notulae Anglicae, et ... 1829 book III, 404–406, with the note
- Columella, On Agriculture, Book 7.
- The Zend-Avesta: The Vendîdâd, translated by James Darmesteter. 1880.
- Nouveau dictionnaire universel des arts et des sciencies: françois, latin et, edited by Fr Girard ((Viuda de))
- Denis Diderot, Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences ..., Volume 35, Part 1
- Nicolas Jean Baptiste Boyard, Manuel du bouvier et zoophile: ou l'art d'élever de soigner les animaux 1844, 327
- The Sportsman's Dictionary
- "Greaves", Webster's 1913 dictionary
- The complete farrier, and British sportsman, by Richard Lawrence, p. 429
- "The Best Dog Food for Small Dogs". allsmalldogs.org. December 21, 2013. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
- Outing: sport, adventure, travel, fiction, Volume 15, January 1890, p. 42
- "History of Pet Food". sojos.com. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
- Sources vary on which of these are considered the most significant toxic item.
- , Toxic Food Guide for Pets
- "Toxic Foods and Plants for Dogs". entirelypets.com. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- Drs. Foster & Smith. "Foods to Avoid Feeding Your Dog". peteducation.com. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Pet Food Ingredient Glossary". petfoodratings.org. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- "4 Dog Food Allergy Myths | Care2 Healthy Living". Care2.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- Jean Jadhon (2013-01-18). "Is Grain Free Dog Food Any Better? - WDBJ7". WDBJ-TV. Articles.wdbj7.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Best Treats For Dogs With Allergies". petsworld.in. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Food Allergies and Food Intolerance". peteducation.com. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- The Business of Pet Food. "The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) > Calorie Content". Petfood.aafco.org. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- Mestel, Rosie (2013-01-23). "Carbs were key in wolves' evolution into dogs". Los Angeles Times.
- Cianciolo RE, Bischoff K, Ebel JG, Van Winkle TJ, Goldstein RE, Serfilippi LM (September 2008). "Clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in 70 cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 233 (5): 729–37. doi:10.2460/javma.233.5.729. PMID 18764706.
- Thompson ME, Lewin-Smith MR, Kalasinsky VF, et al. (May 2008). "Characterization of melamine-containing and calcium oxalate crystals in three dogs with suspected pet food-induced nephrotoxicosis". Veterinary Pathology. 45 (3): 417–26. doi:10.1354/vp.45-3-417. PMID 18487505.
- Dobson RL, Motlagh S, Quijano M, et al. (November 2008). "Identification and characterization of toxicity of contaminants in pet food leading to an outbreak of renal toxicity in cats and dogs". Toxicological Sciences. 106 (1): 251–62. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn160. PMID 18689873.
- Rumbeiha WK, Agnew D, Maxie G, et al. (June 2010). "Analysis of a survey database of pet food-induced poisoning in North America". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 6 (2): 172–184. doi:10.1007/s13181-010-0022-9. PMC . PMID 20393823.
- Cocchi M, Vascellari M, Gallina A, Agnoletti F, Angeletti R, Mutinelli F (January 2010). "Canine nephrotoxicosis induced by melamine-contaminated pet food in Italy". The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 72 (1): 103–7. doi:10.1292/jvms.09-0278. PMID 19915330.
- "FDA Video Pet Food Safety". February 2014.
- Imanishi M, Rotstein DS, Reimschuessel R, et al. (March 2014). "Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection in humans linked to dry dog food in the United States and Canada, 2012". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 244 (5): 545–53. doi:10.2460/javma.244.5.545. PMID 24548229.
- "Diamond Pet Foods Agrees to Class Action Settlement".
- Johnston, Andrea (February 1, 2013). "DVM". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 242 (3): 372–380. doi:10.2460/javma.242.3.372.
- Fascetti, Andrea (October 2003). "Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 223 (8): 1137–1141. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.223.1137.
- Fascetti, Andrea (October 2003). "Taurine deficiency in dogs with cilated cardiomyopathy". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 223 (8): 1137–1141. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.223.1137.
- Pion, Paul (1992). "Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with taurine deficiency in the domestic cat: relationship to diet and mycardial taurine content". Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 315: 63–73. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-3436-5_8.
- Spitze, AR (2003). "Taurine concentrations in animla feed ingredients; cooking influences taurine content" (PDF). Journal Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 87: 251–262. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0396.2003.00434.x. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Debra L. Zoran, C. A. Tony Buffington. (2011) Effects of nutrition choices and lifestyle changes on the well-being of cats, a carnivore that has moved indoors. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 239:5, 596-606
- Hegyi, J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Hegyi, V. (2004). "Pellagra: Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea". International Journal of Dermatology 43 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.01959.x. PMID 14693013
- Price WD, Lovell RA, McChesney DG (September 1993). "Naturally occurring toxins in feedstuffs: Center for Veterinary Medicine Perspective". Journal of Animal Science. 71 (9): 2556–62. PMID 8407668.
- Scudamore KA, Hetmanski MT, Nawaz S, Naylor J, Rainbird S (1997). "Determination of mycotoxins in pet foods sold for domestic pets and wild birds using linked-column immunoassay clean-up and HPLC". Food Additives and Contaminants. 14 (2): 175–86. doi:10.1080/02652039709374512. PMID 9102350.
- Bueno DJ, Silva JO, Oliver G (May 2001). "Mycoflora in commercial pet foods". Journal of Food Protection. 64 (5): 741–3. PMID 11348013.
- Leung MC, Díaz-Llano G, Smith TK (December 2006). "Mycotoxins in pet food: a review on worldwide prevalence and preventative strategies". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54 (26): 9623–35. doi:10.1021/jf062363+. PMID 17177480.
- Boermans HJ, Leung MC (October 2007). "Mycotoxins and the pet food industry: toxicological evidence and risk assessment". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 119 (1-2): 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.07.063. PMID 17889389.
- Campos SG, Cavaglieri LR, Fernández Juri MG, et al. (June 2008). "Mycobiota and aflatoxins in raw materials and pet food in Brazil". Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 92 (3): 377–83. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0396.2008.00809.x. PMID 18477320.
- Böhm J, Koinig L, Razzazi-Fazeli E, et al. (August 2010). "Survey and risk assessment of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, and aflatoxins in commercial dry dog food". Mycotoxin Research. 26 (3): 147–53. doi:10.1007/s12550-010-0049-4. PMID 23605379.
- Streit E, Schatzmayr G, Tassis P, et al. (October 2012). "Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe". Toxins. 4 (10): 788–809. doi:10.3390/toxins4100788. PMC . PMID 23162698.
- DELL, MARYANNE (October 27, 2013). "Worried about tainted jerky treats? Here's how to keep your pets safe". Orange County Register.
- "Dog Food Reviews: Dog Food's Finest Hour". petfoodtalk.com.
- Messonnier, S. (2001) Natural Health Bible for Dogs & Cats. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-7615-2673-0
- "Worried about tainted jerky treats?". Orange County Register. 28 October 2013.
- Taylor, Jessica (2013-09-26). "Just Food for thought". Petfoodindustry.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- Taylor, Jessica (2013-09-26). "How to: Apply human food trends to petfood". Petfoodindustry.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Making Homemade dog food recipes".
- Dog Food Project: Ingredients to Avoid
- The Pet Food Ingredient Game
- An excerpt from the book "Food Pets Die For"
- the Association of American Feed Control Officials Archived January 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Canada Wraps Up BSE Investigation Archived November 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Trixston, Susan. "Is it Feed or Food?". Truth About Pet Food.
- Chavez, Oscar. "Food not Feed: Are the Ingredients in Pet "Food" Safe?". Blog Post. JustFoodForDogs LLC. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Food Safety Around the World" (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved 2005. Check date values in:
- "AFIA seeks comment from member companies on ingredient approvals". Petfood Industry. Retrieved February 2014. Check date values in:
- "Just Food for Dogs Visits BHSAH". Beverly Hills Small Animal Hospital.
- "FDA, "FDA TIPS for Preventing Foodborne Illness Associated with Pet Food and Pet Treats"". Food and Drug Administration.
- "Alternative Feeding Practices". World Small Animal Veterinary Association. 2001. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
- "FDA Animal Safety Recalls".
- "Animal Protection Institute (API)".
- "The Cornell Vet College".
- "Recalls & Withdrawals". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dog food.|