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The Mastiff by Philip Reinagle, 1805

Mastiff-type means a large molosser dog. The term "mastiff-type" has been used synonymously with the term "molosser".[1] For example, the bulldog breeds, the Great Dane, mountain dogs, pit bulls and even smaller dogs, such as the Boston Terrier, may be considered "mastiff-types" in this broad sense.[2] The descriptive term, mastiff-type, should not be confused with breed names such as Bullmastif, Argentine Mastiff or English Mastiff, that may be commonly referred to as simply "Mastiff".[3]

List of mastiff breeds[edit]

List of extant breeds[edit]

Breed Alternate name(s) Country of origin Use Image
Aksaray Malaklisi Turkish Mastiff and
Central Anatolian Shepherd
Turkey Guard dog and
livestock guardian
Aksaray malaklisi beto.jpg
Alano Español Spanish Alano and
Spanish Bulldog
Spain Bull-baiting and
big game hunting
Alano espanol.jpg
Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog Otto The United States Guard dog Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog.jpg
American Mastiff - The United States Guard dog AM.Suma.jpg
Bandog Bandogge England Guard dog
Bandog Picture.jpg
Boerboel South African Mastiff South Africa Guard dog HuntHillBoerboelsGunston1.jpeg
Boxer German Boxer and
Deutscher Boxer
Germany Big game hunting,
bull-baiting and
Male fawn Boxer undocked.jpg
Broholmer Danish Broholmer and
Danish Mastiff
Denmark Guard dog Ivarr03.JPG
Bulldog English Bulldog and
British Bulldog
England Bull-baiting Whitebulldog.jpg
Bullmastiff - England Guard dog Bullmastiff edited.JPG
Campeiro Bulldog Brazilian Bulldog,
Countryside Bulldog and
Pampas Bulldog
Brazil Catch dog used in slaughterhouses Buldogue Campeiro.jpg
Cane Corso Italian Mastiff,
Italian Corso Dog,
Italian Corso and
Cane Corso Italiano
Italy Catch dog and
guard dog
Cane da Presa Meridionale - Italy -
Cão Fila de São Miguel São Miguel Cattle Dog,
Chien Fila de San Miguel,
Saint Miguel Cattle Dog,
Azores Cattle Dog and
Azores Cow Dog
Portugal Herding dog Rzeszów Cão Fila de São Miguel 3pl.jpg
Caucasian Shepherd dog Caucasian Mastiff,
Caucasian Ovcharka
USSR Guardian dog Owczarek kaukaski 65.jpg
Central Asian Shepherd dog Alabai
Central Asian Mastiff
Central Asia Guardian dog and
livestock guardian dog
Cimarrón Uruguayo Cimarron,
Uruguayan Cimarron,
Cimarron Creole,
Maroon Dog,
Cerro Largo Dog,
Perro Cimarron and
Cimarron Dog
Uruguay Guard dog PERRO CIMARRON.jpg
Dogo Argentino Argentine Dogo and
Argentine Mastiff
Argentina Big game hunting and
Dogo Guatemalteco Guatemalan Dogo,
Guatemalan Bull Terrier and
Bullterrier Guatemalteco
Guatemala Guard dog Dogo1.jpg
Dogo Sardesco Dogo Sardo,
Sardinian Dogo and
Sardinian Mastiff
Italy Livestock guardian -
Dogue Brasileiro Brazilian Dogo and
Brazilian Dogge
Brazil Guard dog Doguebrasileiro.jpg
Dogue de Bordeaux French Mastiff,
Bordeaux Mastiff and
France Guard dog DJT 0086.jpg
English Mastiff Old English Mastiff and
England Guard dog Westgort Anticipation 17 months.JPG
Fila Brasileiro Brazilian Mastiff and
Cão de Fila Brasileiro
Brazil Guard dog,
livestock guardian and
tracking dog
Yacare De El Siledin.JPG
French Bulldog Bouledogue Francais France Lap dog Mi Gran Amigo El General.jpg
Gaddi Kutta Indian Leopard Hound,
Indian Panther Hound and
Mahidant Mastiff
India Big game hunting and
livestock guardian
Gran Mastín de Borínquen Puerto Rican Mastiff,
Mastín Borincano,
Becerillo de Borinquen and
Perro Barsino de Hacienda
Puerto Rico Guard dog and
hunting dog
Great Dane Deutsche Dogge,
German Mastiff and
German Boarhound
Germany Big game hunting Great Dane K02.jpg
Korean Mastiff - Korea - -
Miniature Shar-Pei Mini Shar-Pei and
Mini Pei
China Companion dog XBlack.JPG
Neapolitan Mastiff Mastino,
Mastino Napoletano,
Italian Molosso and
Can'e presa
Italy Guard dog Mastino Napoletano Rüde clp.JPG
Olde English Bulldogge - The United States A re-creation of the extinct
Old English Bulldog
UKC Olde English Bulldogge Male.jpg
Perro de Presa Canario Canary Mastiff,
Canary Catch Dog,
Canarian Molosser,
Presa Canario and
Dogo Canario
The Canary Islands Guard dog,
catch dog and
dog fighting
Canario 0720.jpg
Perro de Presa Mallorquin Ca de Bou,
Majorcan Mastiff,
Mallorquin Mastiff,
Perro Dogo,
Presa Canario Mallorquin,
Dogo Mallorquin,
Majorcan Bulldog,
Mallorquin Bulldog and
Silverback Mastiff
Spain Bull-baiting Ca de bou dog.jpg
Rottweiler - Germany Guard dog,
herding dog,
draft dog and
police dog
Rottweiler standing facing left.jpg
Serrano Bulldog Brazilian Mountain Bulldog and
Mountaineer Bulldog
Brazil Herding dog used in slaugterhouses Anuke.jpg
Shar-Pei Cantonese Shar-Pei China Big game hunting and
dog fighting
Adult sharpei.jpg
Tibetan Mastiff - Tibet Guard dog A Tibetan Mastiff.jpg
Tosa Tosa Inu,
Tosa Ken,
Tosa Tōken,
Japanese Fighting Dog,
Tosa Fighting Dog,
Japanese Mastiff and
Japanese Tosa
Japan Dog fighting BUKADAI 2.jpg

List of extinct breeds[edit]

Breed Alternate name(s) Country or region of origin Era Use Image
Alaunt Alaunt de Boucherie Europe and Central Asia Classical antiquity and
the Middle Ages
guarding and
dog fighting
Jacopo del Sallaio.jpg
Alpine Mastiff Barry Dog and
Saint Dog
The Swiss Alps Classical antiquity to 19th century Guarding 1815 Alpine Mastiff.jpg
Bullenbeisser Barenbeisser and
German Bulldog
Germany Extinct by World War II Bull-baiting and
Cordoba Dog - Argentina Extinct after the 1920s Dog fighting Patan.jpg
Dogo Cubano Cuban Mastiff,
Cuban Dogo and
Cuban Dogge
Cuba 16th to late 19th century Recapturing runaway slaves DogoCubano2.jpg
Fila da Terceira Cao de Fila da Terceira and
Terceira Mastiff
Portugal 17th to 19th century Catch dogs (being re-created) Fila de Terceira.jpg
Molossus - Southern Europe Classical antiquity War dogs,
guarding and
dog fighting
Molossian Hound, British Museum.jpg
Old English Bulldog - Great Britain and Ireland 17th to 19th century Bull-baiting and
dog fighting
Toy Bulldog Miniature Bulldog and
English Toy Bulldog
England 18th to early 20th century Lap dogs Toy Bulldog Little Knot 1903.jpg

Genetic relationship[edit]

The dog genome indicates that the mastiff-type dogs are genetically closely related.[4]

Semantic overlap with other terms[edit]

As to the extent that foreign loanwords from the English word "dog" (such as "Dogo" or "Dogge") may be translated as "Mastiffs", molosser breeds such as the Dogo Argentino, Dogo Tyson and Dogo Canario may also be considered "Mastiffs". However, these terms may refer not only to breeds called "Mastiffs" in English, but also to Bulldogs and pit bulls. In addition, historical records of the development of these breeds shows that they have not only Mastiff and other molosser ancestry, but also dogs from several other branches, including sighthounds, terriers and scenthounds.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "Definition of MASTIFF". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Full List of Mastiff Dog Breeds". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Mastiff". People's Dispensary for Sick Animals. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication". Nature. Retrieved December 12, 2018.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Molosser at Wikimedia Commons