|Assembly||Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door coupé
|Layout||Rear-engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Related||Porsche Carrera GT
Porsche 911 GT1
Porsche 911 GT2
Porsche 911 GT3
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or German: Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance and one of the most powerful sports cars made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a rear-mounted six cylinder boxer engine and all round independent suspension. It has undergone continuous development, though the basic concept has remained little changed. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with Porsche's "993" series, produced in model years 1994–1998, being the last of the air-cooled Porsches.
The 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing, rallying, and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars. In the mid-1970s, naturally aspirated 911 Carrera RSRs won major world championship sports car races, such as Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona, even against prototypes. The 911-derived 935 turbo also won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979 and Porsche won World Championship for Makes titles in 1976, 1977, 1978 and 1979 with 911-derived models.
In the 1999 international poll for the award of Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth. It is one of two in the top five that had remained continuously in production (the original Beetle remained in production until 2003), and was until 1998 a successful surviving application of the air- (now water-) cooled opposed rear-engine layout pioneered by its ancestor, the Volkswagen Beetle. It is one of the oldest sports coupé nameplates still in production, and 820,000 had been sold by the car's 50th anniversary in 2013. "Around 150,000 911 cars from the model years 1964 to 1989 are still on the road today." Dilip Chhabria of DC Design (Dilip Chhabria Design Center Pvt Ltd) said that the most difficult car to customise "has to be the Porsche 911. It hasn’t dated since it was designed. It is a very desirable car. I have attempted to redraw, reskin, redesign it but could not do anything with it. I realised that it is difficult to alter the perfect design".
- 1 911 nomenclature
- 2 Air-cooled engines (1963–1997)
- 2.1 Porsche 911 classic (1963–1989)
- 2.1.1 911 Carrera RS (1973 and 1974)
- 2.1.2 911 and 911S 2.7 (1973–1977)
- 2.1.3 Carrera 2.7 MFI and CIS (1974–1976)
- 2.1.4 912E (1976)
- 2.1.5 Carrera 3.0 (1976–1977)
- 2.1.6 930 Turbo and Turbo Carrera 3.0-litre (1975–1977)
- 2.1.7 930 Turbo 3.3-litre (1978–1989)
- 2.1.8 911SC (1978–1983)
- 2.1.9 Carrera 3.2 (1984–1989)
- 2.2 964 Series (1989–1993)
- 2.3 993 Series (1994–mid 1998)
- 2.1 Porsche 911 classic (1963–1989)
- 3 Water-cooled engines (1998–present)
- 4 911 GT1
- 5 Electric concept
- 6 Awards
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Although Porsche changes the internal codes for its models, all 911 models were and are currently sold as a "911". The headings below use Porsche's internal classifications:
- Porsche 911 (1963–1989)
- Porsche 964 (1989–1994)
- Porsche 993 (1995-1998)
- Porsche 996 (1999-2004) all-new body and water-cooled engines
- Porsche 997 (2005-2011)
- Porsche 991 (2012-2016)
- Porsche 991.2 (2017-)
The series letter (A, B, C, etc.) is used by Porsche to indicate the revision for production cars. It often changes annually to reflect changes for the new model year. The first 911 models are the "A series", the first 993 cars are the "R series".
Not all of the Porsche 911 models ever produced are mentioned here. The listed models are notable for their role in the advancements in technology and their influence on other vehicles from Porsche.
- Carrera: Also offered in upgrades of S and GTS. All models have cabriolet options.
- Carrera 4,4S: Also offered in upgrades of S and GTS. All models have cabriolet options.
- Targa 4,4S: Also offered in upgrades of S and GTS.
- Turbo, turbo S: Also offered in upgrades of S. All models have cabriolet options.
- GT3/GT3-RS : Track dedicated version of the 911. No cabriolet available with this variant.
Air-cooled engines (1963–1997)
Porsche 911 classic (1963–1989)
The 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche in 1959. The Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful, larger, more comfortable replacement for the Porsche 356, the company's first model. The new car made its public debut at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show (German: Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung). The car was developed with the proof-of-concept twin-fan Type 745 engine, and the car presented at the auto show had a non-operational mockup of the production single-fan 901 engine, receiving a working one in February 1964.
It originally was designated as the "Porsche 901" (901 being its internal project number). 82 cars were built as 901s. However, Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in the middle. So, instead of selling the new model with another name in France, Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars' part numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years. Production began in September 1964, the first 911s reached the US in February 1965 with a price tag of US$6,500.
The earliest edition of the 911 had a 130 metric horsepower (96 kW; 128 hp) Type 901/01 flat-6 engine, in the "boxer" configuration like the 356, air-cooled and rear-mounted, displaced 1991 cc compared with the 356's four-cylinder, 1582 cc unit. The car had four seats although the rear seats were small, thus the car is usually called a 2+2 rather than a four-seater (the 356 was also a 2+2). It was mated to a four or five-speed manual "Type 901" transmission. The styling was largely by Ferdinand "Butzi" Porsche, son of Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche. Erwin Komenda, the leader of the Porsche car body construction department, initially objected but later was also involved in the design.
The 356 came to the end of its production life in 1965, but there was still a market for a 4-cylinder car, particularly in the USA. The Porsche 912, introduced the same year, served as a direct replacement, offering the de-tuned version of 356 SC's 4-cylinder, 1582 cc, 90 hp (67 kW) boxer four Type 616/36 engine inside the 911 bodywork with Type 901 four speed transmission (5 speed was optional).
In 1966, Porsche introduced the more powerful 911S with Type 901/02 engine, the power raised to 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp). Forged aluminum alloy wheels from Fuchs, in a distinctive 5-spoke design, were offered for the first time. In motor sport at the same time, the engine was developed into Type 901/20 installed in the mid-engined Porsche 904 and Porsche 906 with 210 PS (154 kW), as well as fuel injected Type 901/21 installed in 906 and 910 with 220 PS (160 kW).
In Aug. 1967, the A series went into production with dual brake circuits and widened (5.5J-15) wheels still fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 165HR15 CA67 tyres., and the previously standard gasoline-burning heater became optional. The Targa (meaning "plate" in Italian) version was introduced. The Targa had a stainless steel-clad roll bar, as Porsche had, at one point, thought that the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) would outlaw fully open convertibles in the US, an important market for the 911. The name "Targa" came from the Targa Florio sports car road race in Sicily, Italy in which Porsche had several victories until 1973. The last win in the subsequently discontinued event was scored with a 911 Carrera RS against prototypes entered by Ferrari and Alfa Romeo. The road going Targa was equipped with a removable roof panel and a removable plastic rear window (although a fixed glass version was offered from 1968).
The 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) 911T was also launched in 1967 with Type 901/03 engine. The 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) model was renamed the 911L with Type 901/06 engine and ventilated front disc brakes. The brakes had been introduced on the previous 911S. The 911R with 901/22 engine had a limited production (20 in all), as this was a lightweight racing version with thin fiberglass reinforced plastic doors, a magnesium crankcase, twin overhead camshafts, and a power output of 210 PS (154 kW).
The B series went into production in Aug. 1968 that replaced the 911L model with 911E with fuel injection, and remained in production until July 1969. 911E gained 185/70VR15 Pirelli Cinturato CN36. and 6J-15 wheels.
The C series was introduced in Aug. 1969 with enlarged 2.2 L engine (84 mm bore x 66 mm stroke). The wheelbase for all 911 and 912 models was increased from 2211 to 2268 mm (87 to 89¼ in), to help remedy to the cars' nervous handling at the limit. The overall length of the car did not change, but the rear wheels were relocated further back. Fuel injection arrived for the 911S (901/10 engine) and for a new middle model, 911E (901/09 engine). A semi-automatic Sportomatic model, composed of a torque converter, an automatic clutch, and the four-speed transmission was added. It was canceled after the 1980 model year partly because of the elimination of a forward gear to make it a three-speed.
The D series was produced from Aug. 1970 to July 1971. The 2.2 L 911E (C and D series) had lower power output of the 911/01 engine (155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp) at 6200 rpm) compared to the 911S's Type 911/02 (180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) at 6500 rpm), but 911E was quicker in acceleration up to 160 km/h (100 mph).
The E series for 1972–1973 model years (Aug. 1971 to July 1972 production) consisted of the same models, but with a new, larger 2341 cc (142 in³) engine. This is universally known as the "2.4 L" engine, despite its displacement being closer to 2.3 litres. The 911E (Type 911/52 engine) and 911S (Type 911/53) used Bosch (Kugelfischer) mechanical fuel injection (MFI) in all markets. For 1972 the 911T (Type 911/57) was carbureted, except in the U.S. and some Asian markets where the 911T also came with (MFI) mechanical fuel injection (Type 911/51 engine) with power increase over European models (130HP) to 140 HP, commonly known as a 911T/E.
With the power and torque increases, the 2.4 L cars also got a newer, stronger transmission, identified by its Porsche type number 915. Derived from the transmission in the Porsche 908 race car, the 915 did away with the 901 transmission's "dog-leg" style first gear arrangement, opting for a traditional H pattern with first gear up to the left, second gear underneath first, etc. The E series had the unusual oil filler behind the right side door, with the dry sump oil tank relocated from behind the right rear wheel to the front of it in an attempt to move the center of gravity slightly forward for better handling. An extra oil filler/inspection flap was located on the rear wing, for this reason it became known as an "Oil Klapper", "Ölklappe" or "Vierte Tür (4th door)". This rare 1972 911 is considered highly collectable due to the small run of 1 year only cars produced.
The F series (Aug. 1972 to July 1973 production) moved the oil tank back to the original behind-the-wheel location. This change was in response to complaints that gas-station attendants often filled gasoline into the oil tank. In January, 1973, US 911Ts were switched to the new K-Jetronic CIS (Continuous Fuel Injection) system from Bosch on Type 911/91 engine.
911S models also gained a small spoiler under the front bumper to improve high-speed stability. The cars weighed 1050 kg (2315 lb). The 911 ST was produced in small numbers for racing (the production run for the ST lasted from 1970 to 1971). The cars were available with engines of either 3987 cc or 3494 cc, producing 870 PS (640 kW; 858 hp) at 8000 rpm. Weight was down to 960 kg (2166 lb). The cars had success at the Daytona 6 Hours, the Sebring 12 Hours, the 1000 km Nürburgring, and the Targa Florio.
911 Carrera RS (1973 and 1974)
RS stands for Rennsport in German, meaning race sport. The Carrera name was reintroduced from the 356 Carrera which had itself been named after Porsche's class victories in the Carrera Panamericana races in Mexico in the 1950s. The RS was built to meet motorsport homologation requirements. Compared to a standard 911S, the Carrera 2.7 RS had a larger engine (2687 cc) developing 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp) with Bosch (Kugelfischer) mechanical fuel injection, revised and stiffened suspension, a "ducktail" rear spoiler, larger brakes, wider rear wheels and rear fenders. In RS Touring form it weighed 1075 kg (2370 lb), in Sport Lightweight form it was about 100 kg (220 lb) lighter, the saving coming from thin gauge steel used for parts of the body shell and also the use of thinner glass. In total, 1,580 were made, and qualified for the FIA Group 4 class. 49 Carrera RS cars were built with 2808 cc engines producing 300 PS (221 kW).
For the 1974 IROC Championship (which started in Dec. 1973), 1973 Carrera RSR models were fitted with the 3.0 engine and a flat "whale tail" in place of the ducktail spoiler.
In 1974, Porsche created the Carrera RS 3.0 with mechanical fuel injection producing 230 PS (169 kW). Its price was almost twice that of the 2.7 RS, but it offered racing capability. The chassis was largely similar to that of the 1973 Carrera RSR and the brake system was from the Porsche 917. The use of thinner metal plate panels and a spartan interior enabled its weight to be reduced to around 900 kg (1984 lb).
The Carrera RSR 3.0 was sold to racing teams and scored wins in several major sports car races of the mid-1970s. Also, a prototype Carrera RSR Turbo (with 2.1 L engine due to a 1.4x equivalency formula) came second at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1974 and won several major races, a significant event in that its engine would form the basis of many future Porsche attempts in sports car racing. This, and the earlier Porsche 917, was Porsche's commitment to turbocharger applications in its cars.
911 and 911S 2.7 (1973–1977)
Model year 1974 (G Series. Aug. 1973 to July 1974 production) saw three significant changes. First, the engine size was increased to 2687 cc achieving higher torque. Second, new impact bumpers conformed with low-speed protection requirements of US regulations. Thirdly, the use of K-Jetronic CIS Bosch fuel injection in two of the three models in the line up— the 911 and 911S models, retaining the narrow rear arches of the old 2.4, now had a 2.7-litre engine producing 150 PS (110 kW; 150 hp) and 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp), respectively.The standard 911 version, received an increase to 165 PS for Manufacturing Year 1976, which meant that starting from MY 1976, there was only a difference in power of 10 HP between the 911 and the 911S. The engine remained a K-Jetronic 2.7 litres. The 911S 2.7 engine was rated during the entire lifespan at 175 HP.
Carrera 2.7 MFI and CIS (1974–1976)
The Carrera 2.7 model built for all markets, except for the United States, used the 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp) RS 911/83 engine with Bosch mechanical fuel injection pump from the 1973 Carrera RS. These Carrera 2.7 MFI models were built from 1974 until 1976 and were mechanically identical to the 1973 Carrera RS. The Carrera 2.7 model produced for the North American markets, often referred to as the Carrera 2.7 CIS, was powered by the same 2.7 litre engine as the 911S which produced 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp). The initial Carrera 2.7 models had the same welded-on rear RS flares, before switching to the SC stamped style rear flares during the middle of the 1974 production year. The Carrera 2.7 coupés weighed in at 1075 kg, the same weight as the 1973 Carrera RS Touring.
For the 1974 model year, the Carrera 2.7 was available with the "ducktail "rear spoiler first introduced with the 1973 Carrera RS. In the North American markets the ducktail was standard equipment for the Carrera. All other markets the ducktail was optional, except or the home German market where the ducktail had been outlawed by the TÜV road homologation department. This led to the introduction of the whale tail rear spoiler, available as an option on the 1974-75 Carrera 2.7 models, as well as the newly introduced Porsche 930 Turbo.
The Carrera 2.7 was replaced by the Carrera 3.0 for the 1976 model, except for a special run of 113 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI coupés were built for the German market featuring the 911/83 RS engine, with an additional 20 narrow-bodied 1976 Carrera MFI 2.7 Targas being supplied to the Belgian Gendarmerie. The 1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI Sondermodells were the last mechanically fuel injected 911 produced by Porsche, and still featured the 1973 RS engine.
For the 1976 model year, the 912E was produced for the U.S. market. This was 4-cylinder version of the 911 in the same manner as the 912 that had last been produced in 1969. It used the I-series chassis powered by the Volkswagen 2.0 engine also used in the Porsche 914 for 1973 through 1975 model years. 2,099 units were produced. The 912E was replaced by the front-engine Porsche 924 for the 1977 model year.
Carrera 3.0 (1976–1977)
For the 1976 model year, Porsche introduced the Carrera 3.0 with wide rear flares, optional whaletail, and a variety of other luxury options. It was available in all markets except North America. The Carrera 3.0 was fitted with a variation of the 930 Turbo's 2994 cc engine (minus the turbocharger). The engine (dubbed the 930/02) featured K-Jetronic CIS. It developed 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) in contrast to the older Carrera 2.7 MFI model's 210 PS (150 kW; 210 hp). The crankcase and gearbox housing were made of aluminium rather than magnesium for improved reliability. Magnesium cases were renown for thermal expansion/contraction issues as engines grew in displacement and heat generation also increased.
The new engine, which featured bigger intake and exhaust valves, produced greater torque allowing the Carrera 3.0 to achieve the same performance as the previous Carrera 2.7, 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 6.1 seconds and 0–200 km/h in 27 seconds. Both versions boasted a top speed of approximately 236 km/h (147 mph).
Weight increased marginally by 45 kg to 1120 kg.
The 911 Carrera 3.0 was produced in both targa (1,125 examples produced) and coupé (2,566) versions. The Carrera 3.0 was available with manual gearbox (type 915) with 4 or 5 speeds as well as 3-speed automatic transmission (called the Sportomatic). Production totals were 3,691 manual cars and 58 Sportomatics.
930 Turbo and Turbo Carrera 3.0-litre (1975–1977)
For the 1975 model year, Porsche introduced the first production turbocharged 911. Although called the 930 Turbo (930 being its internal type number) in Europe, it was marketed as the 930 Turbo Carrera in North America. The body shape incorporated wide wheel-arches to accommodate the wide tires, and a large rear spoiler often known as a "whale tail" on the early cars (modified from the original 1974 IROC design). They were initially fitted with a 3.0-litre engine 260 PS (190 kW; 260 hp) and four-speed gearbox.
Production of the first 400 units qualified the 930 for FIA Group 4 competition, with the racing version called the Porsche 934 of 1976. They participated at Le Mans and other races including battles with the BMW 3.0 CSL "Batmobile". The FIA Group 5 version called Porsche 935 evolved from the 934. Fitted with a slope nose, the 500+ PS car was campaigned in 1976 by the factory, winning the world championship title. Private teams went on to win many races, like Le Mans in 1979, and continued to compete successfully with the car well into the 1980s until the FIA and IMSA rules were changed.
930 Turbo 3.3-litre (1978–1989)
For the 1978 model year, Porsche revised the 930 with a larger 3.3-litre turbocharged engine with intercooler that produced 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp). To fit the intercooler a newly designed "tea-tray" tail replaced the earlier whale tail. Porsche dropped the "Carrera" nomenclature for the North American markets and simply call it the Porsche Turbo worldwide. The larger engine helped reduce some of the turbo lag inherent in the earlier version.
Only in 1989, its last year of production, was the 930 equipped with a five-speed gearbox. The 930 was replaced in 1990 with a 964 version featuring the same 3.3 L engine. There have been turbocharged variants of each subsequent generation of 911.
In 1978, Porsche introduced the new version of the 911, called the '911SC'. Porsche reintroduced the SC designation for the first time since the 356SC (as distinguished from the race engined 356 Carrera). There was no Carrera version of the 911SC. The "SC" stands for "Super Carrera". It featured a 3.0-litre aluminum engine with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and a 5-speed 915 transmission. Originally power output was 180 bhp, later 188 bhp and then in 1981 it was increased to 204 bhp. The move to an aluminum engine was to regain case reliability, something missing for many years with magnesium. In 1981 a Cabriolet concept car was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show. The convertible body design also featured four-wheel drive, although this was dropped in the production version. The first 911 Cabriolet debuted in late 1982, as a 1983 model. This was Porsche's first cabriolet since the 356 of the mid-1960s. A total of 4,214 were sold in its introductory year, despite its premium price relative to the open-top targa. Cabriolet versions of the 911 have been offered ever since.
In 1979, Porsche had made plans to replace the 911 with their new 928. Sales of the 911 remained so strong however, that Porsche revised its strategy and decided to inject new life into the 911 editions. 911 SC sales totaled 58,914 cars.
Peter W. Schutz (CEO Porsche AG 1981–1987) wrote:
The decision to keep the 911 in the product line occurred one afternoon in the office of Dr. Helmuth Bott de:Helmuth Bott, the Porsche operating board member responsible for all engineering and development. I noticed a chart on the wall of Professor Bott's office. It depicted the ongoing development schedules for the three primary Porsche product lines: 944, 928 and 911. Two of them stretched far into the future, but the 911 program stopped at the end of 1981. I remember rising from my chair, walking over to the chart, taking a black marker pen, and extending the 911 program bar clean off the chart. I am sure I heard a silent cheer from Professor Bott, and I knew I had done the right thing. The Porsche 911, the company icon, had been saved, and I believe the company was saved with it.
Carrera 3.2 (1984–1989)
The replacement for the SC series came in 1984 named 911 3.2 Carrera, reviving the Carrera name for the first time since 1977. This was the last iteration in the original 911 series, with all subsequent models featuring new body styling with new brake, electronic and suspension technologies.
A new higher-displacement motor, a 3.2-litre horizontally opposed flat 6-cylinder, was utilized. At the time Porsche claimed it was 80% new. The new swept volume of 3164 cc was achieved using the 95 mm (3.7 in) bore (from the previous SC model) combined with the 1978 Turbo 3.3 crankshaft's 74.4 mm (2.9 in) stroke. In addition, higher domed pistons increased the compression ratio from 9.8 to 10.3:1 (9.5:1 for the US market). New inlet manifold and exhaust systems were fitted. The 915 transmission was carried over from the SC series for the first three model years. In 1987, the Carrera got a new five-speed gearbox sourced from Getrag, model number G50 with proven BorgWarner synchronizers. This slightly heavier version also featured a hydraulically operated clutch.
With the new engine, power was increased to 207 bhp (154 kW; 210 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for North American-delivered cars and to 231 bhp (172 kW; 234 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for most other markets. This version of the 911 accelerated 0–60 mph (100 km/h) in 5.4 seconds and had a top speed of 150 mph (242 km/h) as measured by Autocar. Factory times were more modest: 0–60 mph time of 6.3 seconds for the US version and 6.1 seconds for cars outside the American market.
The brake discs were increased in size to aid in more effective heat dissipation and improved oil-fed chain tensioners were fitted to the engine. To improve oil cooling, a finned cooler replaced the serpentine lines in the front passenger fender well. This was further improved in 1987, with the addition of a thermostatically controlled fan.
Driving refinement and motor reliability were improved with an upgrade of the fuel and ignition control components to an L-Jetronic with Bosch Motronics 2 DME (Digital Motor Electronics system). An improvement in fuel-efficiency was due to the DME providing a petrol cut-off on the overrun. Changes in the fuel map and chip programming from October 1986 further improved the power to 217 bhp (162 kW; 220 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for North American delivered cars as well as for other markets mandating low emissions, like Germany.
Three basic models were available – coupé, targa and cabriolet. The Carrera is almost indistinguishable from the SC with the external clue being the front fog lights that were integrated into the front valance. Only cosmetic changes were made during the production of the Carrera, with a redesigned dash featuring larger air conditioning vents appearing in 1986.
In 1984, Porsche also introduced the M491 option. Officially called the Supersport in the UK, it was commonly known as the "Turbo-look". It was a style that resembled the Porsche 930 Turbo with wide wheel arches and the distinctive "tea tray" tail. It featured the stiffer turbo suspension and the superior turbo braking system as well as the wider turbo wheels. Sales of the Supersport were high for its first two years in the United States because the desirable 930 was not available.
The 911 Carrera Club Sport (CS) (option M637), 340 of which were produced from August 1987 to September 1989, is a reduced weight version of the standard Carrera that, with engine and suspension modifications, was purpose built for club racing. The CS had a blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves and a higher rev limit, deletion of: all power options, sunroof (except one unit), air conditioning (except two unit), radio, rear seat, undercoating, sound insulation, rear wiper, door pocket lids, fog lamps, front hood locking mechanism, engine and luggage compartment lights, lockable wheel nuts and even the rear lid "Carrera" logo, all in order to save an estimated 70 kg (155 lb) in weight. With the exception of CSs delivered to the UK, all are identifiable by the "CS Club Sport" decal on the left front fender and came in a variety of colors, some special ordered. Some U.S. CS's did not have the decal installed by the dealer; however, all CS's have a "SP" stamp on the crankcase and cylinder head. The UK CS's were all "Grand Prix White" with a red "Carrera CS" decal on each side of the car and red wheels. Although the CS was well received by the club racers, because it cost more than the stock 911, but had fewer comfort features. According to Porsche Club of America and Porsche Club Great Britain CS Registers, 21 are documented as delivered to the U.S. in 1988 with 7 in 1989, one to Canada in 1988 and 53 to the United Kingdom from 1987 to 1989.
For 1989, Porsche produced the 25th Anniversary Special Edition model to mark the 25th year of 911 production. The 1989 Porsche brochure lists production of 500 U.S. market cars, of which 300 were coupés (240 in silver metallic paint and 60 in satin black metallic, and 200 cabriolet models (160 in silver and 40 in black). All had "silk grey" leather with black accent piping and silk grey velour carpeting. Included were body color Fuchs wheels in 6x16 (front) and 8x16 (rear), stitched leather console with an outside temperature gauge and a CD or cassette holder, a limited slip differential, and a short shifting gear lever, as well as small bronze "25th Anniversary Special Edition" badges
According to the manufacturer, around 150,000 911 cars from the model years 1964 to 1989 are still on the road today.
The 911 Speedster (option M503), a low-roof version of the Cabriolet which was evocative of the Porsche 356 Speedster of the 1950s, was produced in limited numbers (2,104) starting in January 1989 until July 1989 as both a narrow body car and a Turbo-look. The narrow version production was 171. The Speedster started as a design under Helmuth Bott in 1983 but was not manufactured until six years later. It was a two-seat convertible that featured a low swept windshield.
Total production of the 911 3.2 Carrera series was 76,473 cars (35,670 coupé, 19,987 cabrio, 18,468 targa).
964 Series (1989–1993)
In late-1989, the 911 underwent a major evolution with the introduction of the Type 964. With technologies from the 959 model, this would be an important car for Porsche, since the world economy was undergoing recession and the company could not rely on its image alone. It was launched as the Carrera 4, the "4" indicating four-wheel-drive, demonstrating the company's commitment to engineering. Drag coefficient was down to 0.32. A rear spoiler deployed at high speed, preserving the purity of line when the vehicle was at rest. The chassis was redesigned overall. Coil springs, ABS brakes and power steering made their debut. The engine was increased in size to 3600 cc and developed 250 PS (184 kW). The rear-wheel-drive version, the Carrera 2, arrived a year later.
The 964 incarnation of the 911 Turbo returned in 1990 after an absence from the price lists. At first it used a refined version of the 3.3 L engine of the previous Turbo, but two years later a turbo engine based on the 3.6 L engine of the other 964 models was introduced.
In 1990, Porsche introduced the ahead-of-its-time Tiptronic automatic transmission in the 964 Carrera 2, featuring adaptive electronic management and full manual control. The 964 was one of the first cars in the world offered with dual airbags standard (from 1991), the first being the Porsche 944 Turbo (from 1987).
In 1992, Porsche re-introduced a limited-edition RS model, inspired by the 1973 Carrera RS and emissions-legal in Europe only. In 1993, appeals from American customers resulted in Porsche developing the RS America of which 701 were built. In 1994, the RS America returned with rear seats. A total of 84 RSA's were made in 1994. However, while European RS was a homologation special, RS America was an option delete variant of the regular model. The RS 3.8 of 1993 had Turbo-style bodywork, a larger fixed whale tail in place of the movable rear spoiler, and a 300 PS (221 kW) 3746 cc engine.
Since the RS/RS America was intended as a no-frills, higher performance version of the 964, there were four factory options available: a limited-slip differential, AM/FM cassette stereo, air conditioning, and a sunroof. The interior was more basic than a standard 911 as well; for example the interior door panels lacked the armrests and door pockets and had a simple pull strap for the opening mechanism. Although the RS America was about $10,000 cheaper than a fully equipped C2 at the time of their production, these models now command a premium price on the used market over a standard 964 (RS Europe was about $20,000 more expensive than a C2).
964 Turbo (1990–1994)
In 1990 Porsche introduced a Turbo version of the 964 series. This car is sometimes mistakenly called 965 (this type number actually referred to a stillborn project that would have been a hi-tech turbocharged car in the vein of the 959). For the 1991 through 1993 model years, Porsche produced the 964 Turbo with the 930's proven 3.3 L engine, improved to produce 320 PS (235 kW). 1994 brought the Carrera 2/4's 3.6 L engine, now in turbo-charged form and sending a staggering 360 PS (265 kW) to the rear wheels. With the 993 on the way, this car was produced through 1994 and remains rather rare.
993 Series (1994–mid 1998)
The 911 was again revised for model year 1994 under the internal name Type 993. This car was significant as it was the final incarnation of the air-cooled 911 first introduced in 1964. Most enthusiasts and collectors consider the 993 to be the best of the air-cooled 911 series. As Car & Driver noted, "Porsche's version of the Goldilocks tale is the 993-generation 911, the one many Porschephiles agree that the company got just right," with an "ideal blend of technology and classic 911 air-cooled heritage."
The exterior featured all-new front and rear ends. The revised bodywork was smoother, having a noticeably more aerodynamic front end somewhat reminiscent of the 959. Styling was by Englishman Tony Hatter under the supervision of design chief Harm Lagaay and completed in 1991.
Along with the revised bodywork, mechanically the 993 also featured an all-new multilink rear suspension that improved the car's ride and handling. This rear suspension was largely derived from the stillborn Porsche 989's rear multilink design, and served to rectify the problems with earlier models' tendency to oversteer if the throttle or brakes were applied mid-corner. These modifications also reduced previous 911's lift-off oversteer problems to a much more moderate degree.
The new suspension, along with chassis refinements, enabled the car to keep up dynamically with the competition. Engine capacity remained at 3.6 L, but power rose to 272 PS (200 kW / 268 BHP) thanks to better engine management and exhaust design, and beginning with model year 1996 to 286 PS (210 kW / 281 BHP). The 993 was the first Porsche to debut variable-length intake runners with the "Variocam" system on 1996 models. This addressed the inherent compromise between high-rpm power production and low-rpm torque production, and was one of the first of its kind to be employed on production vehicles. However, the Varioram version with its ODB II had issues with carbon deposits, resulting in failed smog tests. This caused expensive repairs, and made comparisons with the 1995 car (with OBD I and just 12 hp less) inevitable. Meanwhile, a new four-wheel-drive system was introduced as an option in the form of the Carrera 4, the rear-wheel-drive versions simply being called Carrera or C2. A lightweight RS 993 had a 3.8 L engine with 300 PS (221 kW / 296 BHP), and was only rear-wheel drive.
Non-turbo models appeared that used the Turbo's wide bodyshell and some other components (the Carrera 4S and later the Carrera S) but not the large tack-on Turbo "hibachi" spoiler. "The Carrera S series (C2S) from 1997 thru 1998 is (according to most Porsche enthusiasts) the most highly sought after version of the 993."
The Targa open-topped model also made a return, this time with a large glass roof that slid under the rear window. The expensive air-cooled 993 Targa had a limited release between 1996 and 1998. [Production numbers: 1996: US/Can: 462 ROW: 1980, 1997: US/Can: 567 ROW: 1276, 1998: US/Can: 122 (100 Tiptronic / 22 Manual)]
As an investment, the 1997 and 1998 C2S version has proven the most desirable (apart from even rarer models such as the RS and Turbo S). "Many find that they are the best looking 911 there is and used prices have always seemed to reflect this. They command a hefty premium in today's market and the very best example wide body cars can be priced more than the higher mileage Turbos." Of the widebody 993 series, "The purists will want 2 wheel drive and nothing else will do." Similarly, purists will insist upon the manual transmission over the automatic "Tiptronic" version; this is even more true in the case of the 993 as compared with other models, because Porsche 993s were the first production model (apart from the 959 supercar) to feature a 6-speed manual transmission. The C2S wide-body 993s are in scarce supply, with none built in 1995 or 1996, and just 759 units made for North America in 1997, with a final supply of 993 in 1998, for a total of 1,752 C2S examples overall.
993 Turbo (1995–1997)
A Turbo version of the 993 was launched in 1995 and became the first standard production Porsche with twin turbochargers and the first 911 Turbo to be equipped with permanent all-wheel-drive (the homologated GT2 retained RWD). The similarity in specification and in performance levels inspired several comparison road tests with the Porsche 959. The 3.6 L twin turbo M64/60 engine produced 408 PS (300 kW / 402 BHP).
In 1997, Porsche introduced a limited run of 183 copies of the 993 911 Turbo S with 24 PS (17.7 kW) over the regular Turbo's 400 PS (294 kW). Features include a scoop on the side right behind the doors for engine cooling and vents on the whale tail rear spoiler.
Water-cooled engines (1998–present)
996 Series (1998/9–2004)
The water-cooled Type 996 replaced the air-cooled mechanism used in the 911 for 34 years. This was also the first major re-design to the body shell. The 996 styling shared its front end with Porsche's mid engined Boxster. Pinky Lai's work on exterior won international design awards between 1997 and 2003.
The Carrera model had a 0.30 coefficient of drag. The interior was criticized for its plainness and its lack of relationship to prior 911 interiors, although this came largely from owners of older 911s.
The Type 996 spawned over a dozen variations, including all-wheel-drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S (which had a 'Turbo look') models, the club racing-oriented GT3, and the forced-induction 996 Turbo and GT2. The Turbo, four-wheel-drive and twin-turbo, often made appearances in magazines' lists of the best cars on sale.
The Carrera and Carrera 4 underwent revisions for model year 2002, receiving clear lens front and rear indicator lights which were first seen on the Turbo version two years earlier. This allowed the 911 to be more distinguishable from the Boxster. A mildly revised front fascia was also introduced, though the basic architecture remained.
Engine displacement was 3.4 L and power 300 PS (221 kW) featuring a change to an "integrated dry sump" design and variable valve timing, increased in 2002 to 3.6 L and 320 PS (235 kW).
The roof system on the convertible transformed the car from a coupé to a roadster in 19 seconds. The car is equipped with a rear spoiler that raises at speeds over 120 km/h (75 mph). It can also be raised manually by means of an electric switch.
Starting from the models with water-cooled engines, 911 Carreras do not come with rear limited-slip differential, except the 40th Anniversary 911, GT2, GT3 and Turbo. The exception would be for MY1999 where the limited-slip differential was available as option code 220.
996 GT3 (1999–2004)
Porsche released a road version GT3 version of the 996 series which was derived from the company's racing GT3. Simply called GT3, the car featured lightweight materials including thinner windows. The GT3 was a lighter and more focused design with the emphasis on handling and performance. The suspension ride height was lowered and tuned for responsiveness over compliance and comfort. These revisions improved handling and steering. Of more significance was the engine used in the GT3. Instead of using a version of the water-cooled units found in other 996s, the naturally aspirated engine was derived from the Porsche 911 GT1 '98 sports-prototype racing car and featured lightweight materials which enabled the engine to rotate at high speeds.
The engine was a naturally aspirated 3600 cc flat-six (F6) rather than either engine from the pre-facelift and revised Carrera. It produced 360 bhp (268 kW; 365 PS) at first and later improved to 381 bhp (284 kW; 386 PS) at the end of the 996 series' revision.
The GT3 did not feature rear seats.
996 Turbo (2001–2005)
In 2000, Porsche launched the Turbo version of the Type 996 for MY 2001. Like the GT3, the new Turbo engine derived from the 911 GT1 engine and, like its predecessor, featured twin-turbos and now developed 420 PS (309 kW). Also like its predecessor the new Turbo was only available with all-wheel drive. In 2002, a US$17,000 factory option, the X50 package, was available that boosted the engine output to 450 PS (331 kW) with 620 N·m (457 lb·ftf) of torque across a wide section of the power band. With the X50 package in place the car could make 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 3.91 seconds. Later on toward the end of the 996 life cycle, a 996 Turbo S coupé also returned to the US along with a new debut of the Turbo S Cabriolet boasting even more power— 450 PS (331 kW) and 620 N·m (457 lb·ftf)— than the regular Turbo. The Turbo can reach a top speed of 189 mph (304 km/h).
The styling was more individual than previous Turbos. Along with the traditional wider rear wings, the 996 Turbo had different front lights and bumpers when compared to the Carrera and Carrera 4. The rear bumper had air vents that were reminiscent of those on the Porsche 959 and there were large vents on the front bumper.
997 Series (2005–2012)
In 2005, the 911 was revised and the 996's replacement, the 997, was unveiled. Some 2005 911s are 996 engines. The 997 keeps the basic profile of the 996, bringing the drag coefficient down to 0.28, but draws on the 993 for detailing. In addition, the new headlights revert to the original bug-eye design, drifting from the teardrop scheme of the 996. Its interior is also similarly revised, with strong links to the earlier 911 interiors while at the same time looking fresh and modern. The 997 shares less than a third of its parts with the outgoing 996, but is still technically similar to it.
Initially, two versions of the 997 were introduced— the rear-wheel-drive Carrera and Carrera S. While the base 997 Carrera produced 325 PS (239 kW) from its 3.6 L Flat 6, a more powerful 3.8 L 355 PS (261 kW) Flat 6 powers the Carrera S. Besides a more powerful engine, the Carrera S also comes standard with 19 inch (48 cm) "Lobster Fork" style wheels, more powerful and larger brakes (with red calipers), lowered suspension with PASM (Porsche Active Suspension Management: dynamically adjustable dampers), Xenon headlamps, and sports steering wheel.
In late 2005, Porsche announced the all-wheel-drive versions to the 997 lineup. Carrera 4 models (both Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S) were announced as 2006 models. Both Carrera 4 models are wider than their rear-wheel-drive counterparts by 1.76 inches (32 mm) to cover wider rear tires. 0–60 mph (97 km/h) for a base Carrera 4 with the 325 PS (239 kW; 321 hp) engine was reported at 4.5 seconds according to Edmunds.com. The 0–100 km/h (62 mph) acceleration for the Carrera S with the 355 PS (261 kW; 350 hp) was noted to be as fast as 4.2 seconds in a recent Motor Trend comparison, and Road & Track has timed it at 3.8 seconds. The 997 lineup includes both 2- and 4-wheel-drive variants, named Carrera and Carrera 4 respectively. The Targas (4 and 4S), released in November 2006, are 4-wheel-drive versions that divide the difference between the coupés and the cabriolets with their dual, sliding glass tops.
The change to the 7th generation (991) took place in the middle of the model year 2012. A 2012 Porsche 911 can either be a 997 or a 991, depending on the month of the production.
The 2009 model year 997 received a larger air intake in the front bumper, new headlights, new rear taillights, new clean-sheet design direct fuel injection engines, and the introduction of a dual-clutch gearbox called PDK. They were also equipped with Bluetooth support.
The Turbo version of the 997 series featured the same 3.6 L twin-turbocharged engine as the 996 Turbo, with modifications to produce 480 PS (353 kW; 473 bhp) and 620 N·m (457 lb·ft) of torque. It has VTG (variable turbine geometry), that combines the low-rev boost and quick responses of a small turbocharger with the high-rev power of a larger turbocharger. It also offers higher fuel efficiency compared to the 996 Turbo.
The 997 Turbo features a new all-wheel-drive system, similar to the one found on the Porsche Cayenne. The new PTM (Porsche Traction Management) system incorporates a clutch-based system which varies the amount of torque to the wheels to avoid tire slippage. According to Porsche, this aids traction and the handling by redirecting the torque to control oversteer or understeer, resulting in neutral handling, as well as greatly improved performance in all weather conditions.
For the face lifted 2010 model year 911 Turbo, known internally as the 997.2 (as opposed to the 997.1 2007-2009 model years), launched in August 2009, the PTM system has now been tweaked to give a more rearward power bias. The new 911 Turbo introduces paddle shifters for the PDK double-clutch gearbox. The new 911 turbo uses a different engine. The previous water-cooled turbos (996 and 997) measured 3600cc. This new engine measures 3800cc (3.8 liters) and was first developed for the Carrera that was launched in 2008. The variable-vane twin turbochargers have also been reworked to increase responsiveness, and the intercooler and fuel system have been uprated. It develops 493 PS (363 kW; 486 bhp) which is 20 bhp more than the previous model. The steering wheel also houses a display showing when Sport, Sport Plus and launch control have been selected through the optional Sport Chrono package. Porsche claims the new 911 turbo will go from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 3.4 seconds, or 0-60 mph in 3.2 seconds and reach a top-speed of 312 km/h (194 mph).
As with the 996 Turbo the car featured distinctive styling cues over the Carreras including front LED driving/parking/indicator lights mounted on a horizontal bar across the air intakes. The traditional rear wing is a variation of the 996 bi-plane unit.
A new 911 Turbo S was set for production in 2010. It is a fully optioned Porsche 911 Turbo with a PDK gearbox and sport exhausts as standard. It also comes with re engineered turbos to give an extra 30 horsepower to a total of 523 PS (385 kW; 516 bhp).
Turbo S 918 Spyder Edition:
When orders were first placed for Porsche's new 918 Spyder, Porsche decided to launch a special edition 911 Turbo S exclusively for 918 buyers. These cars were based on 997 Turbo S coupés and convertibles but had various modifications in styling such as Acid Green elements including the badging and interior stitching, but could be altered to match the colors of the owner's 918's colors.
The 911 GT3, announced on February 23, 2006 accelerates 0–100 kilometres per hour (0–62 mph) in 4.1 seconds and reaches a top speed of 310 km/h (193 mph), almost as fast as the Turbo. Porsche's factory reports can be conservative though; Excellence magazine tested the 997 GT3 and recorded 0–100 km/h in 3.9 seconds and a top speed of 312 km/h (194 mph). The 997 GT3 was released in the summer of 2006. It was at that time crowned "the best handling car in America" by Motor Trend.
997 GT3 RS
The 911 GT3 RS was announced in early 2006 as a homologation version of the GT3 RSR racing car for competition events like Sebring and the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
The drivetrain of the RS is based on the 911 GT3, except for the addition of a lightweight flywheel and closer gear ratios for further improved response under acceleration. Unlike the GT3, the RS is built on the body and chassis of the 911 Carrera 4 and Turbo, and accordingly has a wider rear track for better cornering characteristics on the track.
Visually, the RS is distinguished by its distinctive color scheme – bright orange or green with black accents, which traces its roots to the iconic Carrera RS of 1973. The plastic rear deck lid is topped by a wide carbon-fiber rear wing. The front airdam has been fitted with an aero splitter to improve front downforce and provide more cooling air through the radiator.
The European version of the RS is fitted with lightweight plexiglass rear windows and a factory-installed roll cage.
Production of the first generation 997 GT3 RS ended in 2009. An estimated 413 units were delivered to the US and the worldwide production run is estimated to be under 2,000 vehicles.
In August 2009, Porsche announced the second generation of the 997 GT3 RS with an enlarged 3.8-litre engine producing 450 bhp (336 kW), a modified suspension, dynamic engine mounts, new titanium sport exhaust, and modified lightweight bodywork.
In April 2011, Porsche announced the third generation of the 997 GT3 RS with an enlarged 4.0-litre engine producing 500 bhp (373 kW), Porsche has designed the GT3 RS 4.0 using lightweight components such as bucket seats, carbon-fibre bonnet and front wings, and plastic rear windows for weight reduction, while using suspension components from the racing version. Other characteristics include low center of gravity, large rear wing and an aerodynamically optimised body. The lateral front air deflection vanes, a first on a production Porsche, increase downforce on the front axle. Aided by a steeply inclined rear wing, aerodynamic forces exert an additional 190 kg, enhancing the 911 GT3 RS 4.0's grip to the tarmac. The GT3 RS 4.0 weighs 2,998 pounds.
The Type 996 911 GT2 was superseded by the Type 997 GT2 in 2007. The new car was announced on 16 July of that year, but was launched during the 62nd Frankfurt Motor Show, held every other year in Frankfurt, Germany. It arrived in dealerships from November 2007.
The 997 GT2 has a twin-turbocharged 3.6-litre 6-cylinder engine, which generates 523 hp (390 kW) at 6500 rpm, and 505 lb·ft (685 N·m) of torque from 2200 to 4500 rpm. It has a 6-speed manual gearbox and rear wheel drive. With a curb weight of 3,175 lb (1,440 kg), the Porsche 997 GT2 does nought to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in 3.6 seconds, and nought to 100 mph (161 km/h) in 7.4 seconds, and has a top speed of 204 mph (328 km/h). This makes it the first street-legal 911 to exceed 200 mph (322 km/h), with the exception of the 1998 911 GT1 road car (which is broadly considered not to be a true 911 due to its mid-mounted engine).
Motor Trend tested a 2008 Porsche 911 GT2 0–60 mph at 3.4 seconds, and 11.4 seconds at 127.9 miles per hour (205.8 km/h) for the quarter mile. The GT2 also recorded a braking distance from 60 to 0 miles per hour (97 to 0 km/h) of 98 feet (30 m) and recorded 1.10g lateral grip. The GT2 made an appearance on Top Gear, where it had a lap time of 1:19.5, faster than a Carrera GT by .3 of a second.
Its appearance differs slightly from its sister-car, the 911 (997) Turbo, in a few ways. It does not have fog lights in the front bumper, it has a revised front lip, it has a different rear wing (with two small air scoops on either side), and it has a different rear bumper (now featuring titanium exhaust pipes).
997 GT2 RS
On May 4, 2010, an RS variant was announced to German dealers in Leipzig. The GT2 RS develops 620 PS (456 kW; 612 hp) and 700 N·m (516 lb·ft) of torque and weighs 70 kg (150 lb) less than the standard GT2, allowing for a top speed of 330 km/h (205 mph) and 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) acceleration of 3.4 seconds.
991 Series (2012–)
The 991 is an entirely new platform, only the third platform since the original 911.
Porsche revealed basic information on the 991 Carrera and Carrera S on 23 August 2011. The Carrera is powered by a 350 hp (257 kW) 3.4-litre engine. The Carrera S features a 3.8-litre engine producing 400 hp (294 kW). A Power Kit (option X51) is available for the Carrera S, increasing power to 430 hp. The new 991's overall length grows by 2.2 inches and wheelbase grows by 3.9 inches (now 96.5 in.) Overhangs are trimmed and the rear axle moves rearward roughly 3 in. toward the engine (made possible by new 3-shaft transmissions whose output flanges are moved closer to the engine). There is a wider front track (2.0 inches wider for the Carrera S). The design team was headed by Michael Mauer.
At the front, the new 991 has wide-set headlights that are more three-dimensional. Front fender peaks are a bit more prominent, and wedgy directionals now appear to float above the intakes for the twin coolant radiators. The stretched rear 3/4 view has changed the most, with a slightly more voluminous form and thin taillight slivers capped with the protruding lip of the bodywork. The biggest and main change in the interior is the center console, inspired by the Carrera GT and adopted by the Panamera.
The 991 is the first 911 to use predominantly aluminum construction. This means that even though the car is larger than the outgoing model, it is still up to 50 kilograms (110 lb) lighter. The reduced weight and increased power means that both the Carrera and Carrera S are appreciably faster than the outgoing models. The 0–60 mph (97 km/h) time for the manual transmission cars are 4.6 seconds for the Carrera and 4.3 seconds for the Carrera S. When equipped with PDK the 991 models can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.4 seconds and 4.1 seconds for the Carrera and Carrera S respectively. With the optional sports chrono package, available in cars with the PDK transmission, the 991 Carrera can accelerate from 0–60 mph in as little as 4.2 seconds  and the Carrera S can do the same in 3.9 seconds.
Apart from the reworked PDK transmission, the new 991 is also equipped with an industry-first 7-speed manual transmission with rev-matching. A new feature with the manual transmission is that it blips the throttle during downshifts (if in Sport Plus mode). Also, the 7th gear cannot be engaged unless the car is already in 5th or 6th gear.
One of Porsche's primary objectives with the new model was to improve fuel economy as well as increase performance. In order to meet these objectives, Porsche introduced a number of new technologies in the 911. One of the most controversial of these is the introduction of electromechanical power steering instead of the previous hydraulic steering. This steering helps reduce fuel consumption, but some enthusiasts feel that the precise steering feedback for which the 911 is famous is reduced with the new system. The cars also feature an engine stop/start system which turns the engine off at red lights, as well as a coasting system which allows the engine to idle while maintaining speed on downhill gradients on highways. This allows for up to 16% reduction in fuel consumption and emissions over the outgoing models.
The new cars also have a number of technologies aimed at improving handling. The cars include a torque vectoring system (standard on the Carrera S and optional on the Carrera) which brakes the inner wheel of the car when going into turns. This helps the car to turn in quicker and with more precision. The cars also feature hydraulic engine mounts (which help reduce the inertia of the engine when going into turns) as part of the optional sports chrono package. Active suspension management is standard on the Carrera S and optional on the Carrera. This helps improve ride quality on straights, while stiffening the suspension during aggressive driving. The new 991 is also equipped with a new feature called Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control (PDCC). Porsche claims that this new feature alone has shaved 4 seconds off the standard car's lap time around the Nürburgring. PDCC helps the car corner flat and is said to improve high-speed directional stability and outright lateral body control, but according to several reviews, the car is more prone to understeer when equipped with this new technology.
In January 2013, Porsche introduced the all-wheel-drive variants of the Carrera models. The '4' and '4S' models are distinguishable by wider tires, marginally wider rear body-work and a red-reflector strip that sits in between the tail-lights. In terms of technology, the new 4 and 4S models are equipped with an all-new all-wheel-drive system that sends power to the front wheels only when needed, giving the driver a sense of being in a rear-wheel-drive 911.
In May 2013, Porsche announced changes to the model year 2014 911 Turbo and Turbo S models, increasing their power to 520 hp on the 'Turbo', and 560 hp on the 'Turbo S', giving them a 0-60 mph time of 3.2 and 2.9 seconds, respectively. A rear-wheel steering system has also been incorporated on the Turbo models that will steer the rear wheels in the opposite direction at low speeds or the same direction at high speeds to improve handling. During low-speed maneuvers, this has the virtual effect of shortening the wheelbase, while at high speeds, it is virtually extending the wheelbase for higher driving stability and agility.
In January 2014, Porsche introduced the new model year 2015 Targa 4 and Targa 4S models. These new models come equipped with an all-new roof technology with the original Targa design, now with an all-electric cabriolet roof along with the B-pillar and the glass 'dome' at the rear.
In September 2015, Porsche revealed the second generation of 991 Carrera models at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Both Carrera and Carrera S models break with previous tradition by featuring a 3.0 turbo-charged 6-cylinder boxer engine, marking the first time that a forced induction engine has been fitted to the base models within the 911 range.
In 2016, Porsche unveiled a limited production 911 R. Only 991 vehicles will be produced. It has an overall weight of 1,370 kg (3,020 lb), a high-revving 4.0 L six-cylinder naturally aspirated engine from the 991 GT3 RS, and a six-speed manual transmission, while an air conditioning system and an audio system are removable options to save weight. The car goes from 0–97 km/h (0–60 mph) in 3.7 seconds and has a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph).
The Porsche 911 GT1 is a car that was developed in 1996 for the GT1 class in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In order to qualify for GT racing, 25 road-going models were built to achieve type homologation. These models developed around 600 hp (447 kW; 608 PS) and did 0–60 mph in 3.3 seconds. The top speed was 205 mph (330 km/h). Both the road and race cars carried the same twin turbocharged engine as used in the 962, and the race car was a match for the McLaren F1 GTRs that were racing at the time. A redeveloped version of the 911 GT1 race car was later built, winning outright at the 1998 24 Hours of Le Mans. The car is not considered to be a real 911, as it is derived from the 962 with the 996 911's front section. It was the most powerful and fastest road-going Porsche until the introduction of the 918 Spyder in 2013.
In 2004, Sports Car International named the 911 number three on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, the Carrera RS number seven on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, and the 911 Carrera number seven on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s. In addition, the 911 was voted Number 2 on Automobile Magazine's list of the "100 Coolest Cars". Motor Trend chose the Porsche 911 Carrera S as its Best Driver's Car for 2012. It also won "World Performance Car Of The Year" in 2014.
In 2015, Car and Driver named the Porsche 911 "the best premium sports car on the market".
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- Corlett, Tony (2005). Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera: The Last of the Evolution. Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-904788-65-2.
- Paternie, Patrick C. (2001). Porsche 911. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-0796-0.
- Paternie, Patrick C. (2004). Porsche 911 Red Book 1965–2005. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-1960-4.
- Frère, P. (2006). Porsche 911 Story (eighth edition). J H Haynes. ISBN 1-84425-301-5.
- Holmes, Mark (2007). Ultimate Convertibles: Roofless Beauty. London: Kandour. pp. 128–133. ISBN 978-1-905741-62-5.
- Meredith, L. (2000). Porsche 911. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2281-8.
- Morgan, P. (1995). Original Porsche 911. MBI Publishing. ISBN 1-901432-16-5.
- Raby, P. (2005). Porsche 911 Identification Guide. Herridge & Son. ISBN 0-9541063-8-5.
- Wood, J. (1997). Porsche: The Legend. Parragon. ISBN 0-7525-2072-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Porsche 911.|
- Official Porsche 911 microsite
- Official USA Porsche 911 page
- Official Porsche Evolution microsite
- Radio List for Porsche (1974–1989)
- Porsche 911 Carrera 1987
- Pictures of 911 Speedster
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