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The Ukraine Portal - Портал України

Україна  (Ukrainian)
ISO 3166 codeUA

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanizedUkraïna, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (listen)) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi), and had a pre-war population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. The country's national language is Ukrainian, although the majority of the population is also fluent in Russian.

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture under the state of Kievan Rus', which emerged in the 9th century and was destroyed by a Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol invasion, the Kingdom of Ruthenia (13th to 14th century) became the successor of Kievan Rus' on the side of modern Ukraine, which was later absorbed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania became the de facto successor of the traditions of Kievan Rus'. Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania enjoyed wide autonomy. Over the next 600 years, the area was contested, divided, and ruled by a variety of external powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in central Ukraine in the 17th century, but was partitioned between Russia and Poland, and ultimately absorbed by the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution a Ukrainian national movement re-emerged, and formed the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1917. This short-lived state was forcibly reconstituted by the Bolsheviks into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding member of the Soviet Union in 1922. In the 1930s millions of Ukrainians were killed by the Holodomor, a man-made famine of the Stalinist era.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine regained independence and declared itself neutral, forming a limited military partnership with the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States, while also joining the Partnership for Peace with NATO in 1994. In 2013 a series of mass demonstrations, known as the Euromaidan, erupted across Ukraine, eventually escalating into the Revolution of Dignity in 2014, which led to the establishment of a new government and pro-Russian unrest. During this period, unmarked Russian troops invaded the Crimean Peninsula, which was later annexed by Russia; and pro-Russia unrest in Ukraine's Donbas culminated in Russia-backed separatists seizing territory throughout the region, sparking the War in Donbas. This series of events marked the beginning of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, and in a major escalation of the conflict in February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine. Since the outbreak of war with Russia in 2014, Ukraine has continued to seek closer economic, political, and military ties with the Western world, including with the United States, European Union, and NATO.

Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system and a developing country, ranking 74th on the Human Development Index. Despite having a free-market economy, Ukraine remains among the poorest countries in Europe by nominal GDP per capita, especially in the east due to war. However, due to its extensive fertile land, pre-war Ukraine was one of the largest grain exporters in the world. It is a founding member of the United Nations, as well as a member of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the OSCE, and is currently in the process of joining the European Union. (Full article...)

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Hero of Ukraine (HOU; Ukrainian: Герой України, Heroi Ukrainy) is the highest national title that can be conferred upon an individual citizen by the President of Ukraine. The title was created in 1998 by President Leonid Kuchma and as of 8 July 2022 the total number of awards is 648. The title is granted to two different order recipients: the civilian Order of the State, and the military Order of the Gold Star. The first foreigner awarded the award was Belarusian Mykhailo Zhyznevskyi in June 2017. (Full article...)
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In the news

19 August 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
2022 Western Russia attacks
Overnight, explosions are reported in Crimea and Belgorod Oblast, Russia, with two villages evacuated. (Reuters)
19 August 2022 – Russian occupation of Kharkiv Oblast
Russia appoints former Krasnodar mayor Andrei Alekseyenko as the head of its Kharkiv military–civilian administration. (Reuters)
18 August 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Southern Ukraine campaign, 2022 Western Russia attacks
Explosions are reported at military facilities in Crimea and Belgorod Oblast, Russia, and are believed to have been launched by Ukraine. An explosion and large fire occur at an arms depot near Timonovo. Explosions are also reported at Stary Oskol Airport and in Russian-occupied Nova Kakhovka, Kherson Oblast. (Forbes)
Explosions are reported at Sevastopol International Airport. The Governor of Sevastopol Mikhail Razvozhayev says that Russian air defences have shot down a Ukrainian Air Force drone near the airport. (Reuters)
Residents of Kerch and nearby villages in eastern Crimea report multiple explosions. Crimean officials say that air defences were activated near the city but that "there is no danger to the town or the Crimean Bridge". (Yahoo! News)
17 August 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

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