Quad (figure skating)

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A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with at least four but less than five revolutions.[1] Most quadruple jumps have exactly four revolutions; the quadruple Axel has 4½ revolutions, although no figure skater to date has completed or attempted this jump in competition. The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly skated in the discipline. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not having one in a program has come to be seen as a severe handicap.[2][3] The first person to land a ratified quadruple jump in competition was Canadian Kurt Browning in 1988. In 2002, Miki Ando became the first woman to do so, and she remains one of only two women to have landed a ratified quadruple jump in competition.

History of first jumps[edit]

In singles competition for men:

  • On March 25, 1988, at the World Championships in Budapest, Hungary, Kurt Browning, a Canadian, landed the first ratified quadruple jump (a quad toe loop) in competition.
  • On March 7, 1998, at the Junior Grand Prix Final in Lausanne, Switzerland, Timothy Goebel landed the first ratified quadruple Salchow and, in particular, a quad Salchow in combination.
  • On September 16, 2011, in the short program at the Colorado Springs Invitational, Brandon Mroz landed the first ratified quad Lutz in a sanctioned competition.[4][5][6][7][8] On November 12, he landed a ratified quad Lutz at the NHK Trophy, becoming the first skater to land successfully a quad Lutz in international competition.
  • On April 22, 2016, in the short program at the Team Challenge Cup in Spokane, United States, Shoma Uno landed the first ratified quadruple flip in competition.[9]
  • On September 30, 2016, in the short program at the Autumn Classic International in Montreal, Canada, Yuzuru Hanyu landed the first ratified quadruple loop (also known as the "Rittberger" in Europe) in competition.[10]
  • No quadruple Axel has yet been ratified.
  • No quadruple combinations (quadruple jumps followed by quadruple loop or toe loop) or sequences (quadruple jumps followed by any quadruple jumps except for quadruple loop or toe loop) have yet been ratified.

In singles competition for ladies:

  • On December 14, 2002, in the free skate at the Junior Grand Prix Final, Miki Ando landed the first ratified quadruple Salchow in competition.
  • On March 10, 2018, in the long program at the World Junior Figure Skating Championships, Alexandra Trusova landed the first ratified quadruple toe loop in competition. She is also the second woman to land a ratified quadruple Salchow, making her the first woman to complete two quads in one program, and two different types of quads in one program.[11]
  • On September 7, 2018, in the long program at the 2018 Junior Grand Prix in Kaunas, Lithuania, Alexandra Trusova became the first woman to land a quad jump in combination, landing the quad toe loop that was followed by a triple toe loop.
  • On October 12, 2018, in the long program at the 2018 Junior Grand Prix in Yerevan, Armenia, Alexandra Trusova becomes the first lady to land a quad Lutz in international competition.

In pair skating competition:

Timeline of major events[edit]

Men[edit]

  • 1983
    • Mark Cockerell (USA) lands quads in training at the US National Sports Festival, but decides not to try it during his performance.[13]
  • 1984
    • Alexander Fadeyev (USSR) attempts a quad toe at the Olympics, but it is not officially recognized by the ISU because of a flawed landing.[14]
  • 1986
  • 1987
  • 1988
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands the first ratified quadruple jump, a toe loop, at the World Championships (with three turns on the landing).[15][17][18] Browning said: "I remember that there were a few people landing the jump (in practice) long before I did, and by watching them I was inspired to try it myself. After landing it, I certainly expected more skaters to start doing it in competition. I was surprised in the next few years when that really did not happen."[15]
    • Brian Boitano (USA) attempts a quad toe later in the same competition but cannot hold the landing and takes an extra step; ruled not valid.[17]
  • 1989
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands a quad toe loop at the World Championships but touchdown with free foot.[18]
  • 1990
    • Alexei Urmanov (USSR) becomes the first Soviet skater to land a quad (quad toe loop) in competition, at the Soviet championships in December.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but touches down with free foot at the European Championships in January
  • 1991
    • Erik Larson (USA) attempts a slide spiral into a quad toe lands it and turns out at the NHK Trophy.
    • Michael Chack (USA) attempts a one-foot Axel/quad Salchow combination at the U.S. Nationals; quad landing is two-footed.
    • Alexei Urmanov (RUS) lands a quadruple toe loop at the European Championships in January.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad in combination, the first quadruple toe loop-double toe loop combination, at the World Championships.[19] He later said that he had studied VHS tapes of Browning, Boitano, Fadeev, and Sabovcik to master the quad.[20]
  • 1992
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but stepping out on landing at the European Championships in January.[21]
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands the first quad (toe loop) in Olympic competition but touches down with the right hand.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a huge quad toe-loop but touch down with free foot.[22]
  • 1993
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
  • 1994
    • Zhang Min (CHN) lands a quad toe cleanly at the Winter Olympics, Lillehammer.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) attempts a quad toe-triple toe combination at the World Championships, but steps out on the landing.[citation needed]
  • 1995
  • 1996
  • 1997
    • Michael Weiss (USA) two-foots a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.[26]
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad-triple combination (the first quad toe-triple toe) at the Champions Series Final.[20]
    • A total of three quads are landed by three different skaters at this competition: Ilia Kulik (RUS), Alexei Urmanov (RUS) and Elvis Stojko (CAN).
    • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) is the first to land two quads in a single performance at the World Championships: a quad toe, plus a quad toe-double toe combination, thus also making him the first to land a single quad and a quad in combination together in one performance.
    • Elvis Stojko repeats his quad toe-triple toe at the World Championships.
    • Anthony Liu (AUS) becomes the first Australian to land a quad at his country's national championships in July (quad toe loop).
    • 17-year-old Tim Goebel (USA) attempts quads throughout the fall season at the Junior Champions series and attempts a quad Salchow at the Ukrainian Souvenir competition (where five other men planned quads). The attempt is ruled a two-footed landing.
  • 1998
    • Michael Weiss (USA) attempts a quad lutz in both his U.S. Nationals free skate (two-footed) and in his Olympic free skate (fall).
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) falls on a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first American to land a quadruple jump (a quad Salchow in combination with a double toe loop) in competition at the Junior Champions Series Final. In so doing he also lands the first quadruple Salchow and the first quad Salchow in combination (as well as the first quad combination by an American). The jump is ratified by the ISU a month later.[27]
    • Ilia Kulik (RUS) becomes the first Olympic champion to land a quad in a winning program.
    • The ISU votes to permit solo quadruple jumps in the men's short program at their biennial congress in June.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a clean (solo) quad Salchow at the Goodwill Games in July.
    • Derek Schmidt (CAN) attempts quad toe loops in his short programs during two minor regional Canadian summer competitions but fails to complete the jumps cleanly.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) is the first to attempt a quad (toe loop) in a short program at a major international competition at Skate America, but falls on the attempt.
  • 1999
    • Zhang Min (CHN) becomes the first man to land a quadruple jump (a toe loop) in a short program at the Four Continents Championship in February.[28]
    • Michael Weiss (USA) is the first American to land a quadruple toe at the World Championships.[29]
    • Ilia Klimkin (RUS) becomes the first man to land two different quadruple jumps (salchow and toe loop) in a program at the 1999 Nebelhorn Trophy.[30]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first man to land three quadruple jumps in a program (long program) at 1999 Skate America in October; he landed a quad salchow, quad toe loop in combination, and a quad toe as a solo jump.[15]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs the world's first quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) combination at the NHK Trophy.
  • 2000
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quadruple jumps in his long program at the World Championships, including one in combination[31]
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) lands his first quadruple jump in competition at the Masters of Figure Skating.[citation needed]
  • 2001
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) at the World Championships.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) falls on a quad lutz attempt at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2002
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands a quad-triple combination jump in his short program at the 2002 Olympics.[32]
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympic-winning long program: 1) a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe, toe-triple toe, double loop) combination and 2) a quadruple toe loop.[33]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympics long program: a quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop attempt (step out on the last jump) and a solo quad toe.[34]
    • Zhang Min (CHN) is the first to land three quadruple jumps in the long program at the Olympic Games.[35]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a quad salchow-triple toe loop combination in his Olympic short program.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands two quad salchow (one in combination with a triple toe loop) and one quad toe loop during his Olympic free program.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands the first quad-triple-triple (quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop) combination in competition at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2003
  • 2006
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination in his Olympic-winning free skate.[citation needed]
    • Stephane Lambiel (CHE) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination during his free skate at the Olympics. He attempts a second quad past the halfway point, but steps out and touches down with his hand.[37]
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) lands three quads (a quad toe in combination with double toe, a quad Salchow and a second quad toe) in competition at the Cup of Russia. He became the first European to perform it, and the first skater to land three quads in a free program under the ISU Judging System.[38]
  • 2008
  • 2010
  • 2011
    • Brandon Mroz (USA) lands a quad Lutz in the short program at the 2011 Colorado Springs Invitational.[4][5] The U.S. Figure Skating-sanctioned competition was a small non-ISU event with three men's entries, making it unclear whether the accomplishment would be recognized by the International Skating Union.[5][43] On October 26, the ISU announced it had ratified the jump as the first quad Lutz to be performed in a sanctioned competition.[6][7] World Champion Patrick Chan of Canada commented, "I don't think it can be an official ISU record until [Mroz] has done it in an ISU event."[44]
    • Adam Rippon attempted quad Lutz in his free skating at the 2011 Skate Canada, but the jump was downgraded and two-footed.[45]
    • On November 12, 2011, Brandon Mroz (USA) landed a quad Lutz as his opening jump in the men's short program at the NHK Trophy in Sapporo, Japan, becoming the first skater to land a quadruple lutz in international competition.[46]
    • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) attempts quad loop at 2011 Cup of China. The jump was downgraded, then he fell.[47]
  • 2012
    • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) attempts quad loop at 2012 World Team Trophy. The jump was underrotated, then he fell.[48]
    • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the second European skater to land three quads (two salchows and a toe-loop) in a free program and the first one to do it with a quad-triple combination (4S+3T) at the 2012 Grand Prix Final in Sochi, Russia.
  • 2013
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) becomes the first skater to land more than 100 quadruple jumps in his career at international competitions.[49]
    • Vladislav Sesganov (RUS) becomes the first European skater to have landed quadruple Lutz in a competition at the 2013 International Cup of Nice.[50]
    • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the first skater to land three quads twice in the same season after the 2012-13 Grand Prix Final and the 2013 European Championships. In both programs he did two quad Salchows and a quad toe loop, the first Salchow in combination with a triple toe loop.
    • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) becomes the first figure skater to land five quads in one competition
  • 2014
  • 2015
    • Alexei Krasnozhon (USA) at a JGP in Latvia attempts the quad loop. The jump was downgraded and received a fall deduction.[52] He also attempts quad loop at a JGP in Poland but the jump is underrotated.[53]
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) at a domestic competition (2015 National Grand Prix) lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Lutz.[54]
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) lands a successful quad Lutz - triple toe-loop (4Lz-3T) combination during his senior debut, the short program at the 2015 ISU Grand Prix event, Cup of China. The jump combination earned +1.29 GOE and Jin became the first man to land a positively graded 4Lz in an official ISU competition and the first man to jump a 4Lz in combination. Jin landed two successful quads in his short program. During the free skate Jin attempted four quads, landing a 4Lz, 4T-2T, 4T, but falling on his 4S attempt. He earned +2.14 GOE on his 4Lz, landing it for the second time in one competition.
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) at the 2015-16 Grand Prix Final lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Salchow.[55]
  • 2016
  • 2017
    • Nathan Chen (USA) at the 2017 U.S. Figure Skating Championships becomes the first skater in history to land 1) four different types of quads in a free skating program (Lutz, flip, toeloop, Salchow), 2) five quads in total in a free skating program, and 3) seven quads in total in both his short program and free skating.[62]
    • Shoma Uno (JPN) successfully lands a quad loop in his free skate at the 2017 Four Continents Championships. He also lands a quad flip and two quad toe loops in the same programs.[63]
    • Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) becomes the first competitor to land three quads in the second half of a free skating program.[64]
    • Nathan Chen (USA) became the first figure skater in history to have landed five different types of quads across various competitions: toe loop, Salchow, loop, flip and Lutz, following his successful quadruple loop at the 2017 US International Figure Skating Classic.
    • Yaroslav Paniot (UKR) successfully lands a quad flip in his free skate at the 2017 US International Figure Skating Classic.
    • Mikhail Kolyada (RUS) successfully lands a quad Lutz in his free skate at the 2017 Ondrej Nepela Memorial.
    • Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) successfully lands a quad Lutz at the 2017 Rostelecom Cup (Cup of Russia).
    • Alexander Samarin (RUS) became the first European skater to land a quad Lutz in combination with a triple toe in international competitions at the 2017 Skate Canada.
    • Nathan Chen (USA) became the first figure skater in history to land two quad Lutz jumps in a free skating and three quad Lutz jumps in a single competition at the 2017 Skate America.
    • Daniel Grassl (ITA) became the youngest person to land a quad Lutz jump in international competition, at the age of 15. He did so in his free skate at the 2017 CS Golden Spin of Zagreb.
  • 2018
    • Nathan Chen (USA) at the 2018 Winter Olympics Team event (men's short) became the first skater to land a quad Flip at the Olympics.[65]
    • Vincent Zhou (USA) became the first skater to land a quad Lutz at the Olympics.[66]
    • Nathan Chen (USA) was the first to land six quads in a free skate (five of them cleanly), also at the 2018 Winter Olympics.[65]
    • Stephen Gogolev (CAN) became the youngest person to land quad Lutz, quad Salchow and quad toe in international competition, at the age of 13. He landed three quad jumps in his free skate at the 2018 Junior Grand Prix Slovakia.
    • Dmitri Aliev (RUS) became the first European skater to have completed three quadruple jumps (toe loop, Lutz and Salchow) in international competitions. He added the quad Lutz during the 2018 Winter Olympics and the quad Salchow during the 2018 Lombardia Trophy.

Ladies[edit]

  • 1989
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad toe loop at the European Championships; first quad attempt by a woman in a major competition. She also falls on a quad Salchow attempt.
  • 1991
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad attempt at the World Championships.
  • 1992
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad toe loop at the Olympics and later repeats this at the World Championships.[67][68]
  • 1996
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad Salchow at the World Championships, but lands forward and falls.[69]
  • 2001
    • Sasha Cohen (USA) lands a quad Salchow in warmup and practice at Skate America, but her attempt in the long program ends up aborted.[70]
  • 2002
    • Miki Ando (JPN) becomes the first woman to land a rotated quadruple (a Salchow) at the Junior Grand Prix Final.[71]
  • 2017
  • 2018
    • Alexandra Trusova (RUS) lands a rotated quad Salchow at the Russia Cup Final, she also falls on a quad toe loop attempt.
    • Alexandra Trusova (RUS) lands a ratified quad Salchow and a ratified quad toe loop with positive grades of execution at the 2018 World Junior Figure Skating Championships.[11]
    • Alexandra Trusova lands a quad toe loop-triple toe loop combination at the JGP in Kaunas, Lithuania. She also lands an underrotated quad Lutz.
    • Anna Shcherbakova (RUS) attempts a quad Lutz at the JGP Canada but falls.
    • Anna Shcherbakova (RUS) lands two quad Lutzes at the 2nd Stage of the Cup of Russia. The first was in combination with a triple toe loop although she stepped out on the landing.
    • Alexandra Trusova (RUS) lands a rotated quad Lutz at the JGP in Yerevan, Armenia.

Pairs[edit]

Execution[edit]

A jump harness is often employed in training quads.[84] Max Aaron stated that the smallest error may make the difference in the success of a quad attempt: "The minute your left arm is behind you, or your three-turn is too fast, if your hips don't turn in time, if your foot isn't in the right place, anything will throw you off."[84] Ross Miner stated that the quality of the ice sometimes plays a role but more on the quad salchow than the toe loop.[84] Practicing quads increases the risk of injury as well as wear and tear on a skater's body.[84][85]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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