Quad (figure skating)

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A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with no less than four revolutions and no more than five revolutions.[1] Most quadruple jumps have exactly four revolutions; the quadruple Axel has 4½ revolutions, although no figure skater to date has completed this jump in competition. The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly skated in the discipline. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not having one in a program may be considered a handicap.[2]

In singles competition for men:

  • The first person to land a ratified quadruple jump in competition was Kurt Browning in 1988. He landed a quad toe loop.
  • Lausanne, Switzerland; 1998 Junior Grand Prix Finals: Timothy Goebel of the United States became the first man to successfully land a quadruple Salchow and, in particular, a quad Salchow in combination.
  • On September 16, 2011, in the short program at the Colorado Springs Invitational, Brandon Mroz landed the first successful quad Lutz in a sanctioned competition.[3][4][5][6][7] On November 12, he landed a ratified quad Lutz at the NHK Trophy, becoming the first skater to land successfully a quad Lutz in international competition.
  • In April 2016, ratified at the Team Challenge Cup, Shoma Uno became the first skater to ever land a quadruple flip at an international competition.[8]
  • Yuzuru Hanyu becomes the first skater in history to successfully land a quadruple loop (also known as the "Rittberger" in Europe) in competition, at the 2016 CS Autumn Classic International.[9]
  • No quadruple Axel has yet been ratified.

In singles competition for ladies, only Miki Ando has landed a ratified quadruple jump. In pair skating competition, top skaters are executing either quad throw jumps or quad twist lifts.

Timeline of major events[edit]

Men[edit]

  • 1983
    • Mark Cockerell (USA) lands quads in training at the US National Sports Festival, but decides not to try it during his performance.[10]
  • 1984
    • Alexander Fadeyev (USSR) attempts a quad toe at the Olympics, but it is not officially recognized by the ISU because of a flawed landing.[11]
  • 1986
  • 1987
  • 1988
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands the first ratified quadruple jump, a toe loop, at the World Championships (with three turns on the landing).[12][14][15] Browning said: "I remember that there were a few people landing the jump (in practice) long before I did, and by watching them I was inspired to try it myself. After landing it, I certainly expected more skaters to start doing it in competition. I was surprised in the next few years when that really did not happen."[12]
    • Brian Boitano (USA) attempts a quad toe later in the same competition but cannot hold the landing and takes an extra step; ruled not valid.[14]
  • 1989
    • Kurt Browning (CAN) lands a quad toe loop at the World Championships but touchdown with free foot.[15]
  • 1990
    • Alexei Urmanov (USSR) becomes the first Russian skater to land a quad (quad toe loop) in competition, at the Soviet championships in December.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but touches down with free foot at the European Championships in January
  • 1991
    • Erik Larson (USA) attempts a slide spiral into a quad toe lands it and turns out at the NHK Trophy.
    • Michael Chack (USA) attempts a one-foot Axel/quad Salchow combination at the U.S. Nationals; quad landing is two-footed.
    • Alexei Urmanov lands a quadruple toe loop at the European Championships in January.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad in combination, the first quadruple toe loop-double toe loop combination, at the World Championships.[16] He later said that he had studied VHS tapes of Browning, Boitano, Fadeev, and Sabovcik to master the quad.[17]
  • 1992
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a quad toe loop, but stepping out on landing at the European Championships in January.[18]
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
    • Alexei Urmanov (CIS) lands the first quad (toe loop) in Olympic competition but touches down with the right hand.
    • Petr Barna (CZE) lands a huge quad toe-loop but touch down with free foot.[19]
  • 1993
    • Konstantin Kostin (LAT) lands a quad toe loop at the European Championships in January
  • 1994
    • Zhang Min (CHN) lands a quad toe cleanly at the Winter Olympics, Lillehammer.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) attempts a quad toe-triple toe combination at the World Championships, but steps out on the landing.[20]
  • 1995
  • 1996
    • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) landed a quad-toe-double toe at the World Championships.[23]
  • 1997
    • Michael Weiss (USA) two-foots a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.[24]
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) lands the first quad-triple combination (the first quad toe-triple toe) at the Champions Series Final.[17]
    • A total of three quads are landed by three different skaters at this competition: Ilia Kulik (RUS), Alexei Urmanov (RUS) and Elvis Stojko (CAN).
    • Guo Zhengxin (CHN) is the first to land two quads in a single performance at the World Championships: a quad toe, plus a quad toe-double toe combination, thus also making him the first to land a single quad and a quad in combination together in one performance.
    • Elvis Stojko repeats his quad toe-triple toe at the World Championships.
    • Anthony Liu (AUS) becomes the first Australian to land a quad at his country's national championships in July (quad toe loop).
    • 17-year-old Tim Goebel (USA) attempts quads throughout the fall season at the Junior Champions series and attempts a quad Salchow at the Ukrainian Souvenir competition (where five other men planned quads). The attempt is ruled a two-footed landing.
  • 1998
    • Michael Weiss (USA) attempts a quad lutz in both his U.S. Nationals free skate (two-footed) and in his Olympic free skate (fall).
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) falls on a quad toe attempt at the U.S. Nationals.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first American to land a quadruple jump (a quad Salchow in combination with a double toe loop) in competition at the Junior Champions Series Final. In so doing he also lands the first quadruple Salchow and the first quad Salchow in combination (as well as the first quad combination by an American). The jump is ratified by the ISU a month later.[25]
    • Ilia Kulik (RUS) becomes the first Olympic champion to land a quad in a winning program.
    • The ISU votes to permit solo quadruple jumps in the men's short program at their biennial congress in June.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a clean (solo) quad Salchow at the Goodwill Games in July.
    • Derek Schmidt (CAN) attempts quad toe loops in his short programs during two minor regional Canadian summer competitions but fails to complete the jumps cleanly.
    • Elvis Stojko (CAN) is the first to attempt a quad (toe loop) in a short program at a major international competition at Skate America, but falls on the attempt.
  • 1999
    • Zhang Min (CHN) becomes the first man to land a quadruple jump (a toe loop) in a short program at the Four Continents Championship in February.[26]
    • Michael Weiss (USA) is the first American to land a quadruple toe at the World Championships.[27]
    • Ilia Klimkin (RUS) becomes the first man to land two different quadruple jumps (salchow and toe loop) in a program at the 1999 Nebelhorn Trophy.[28]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) becomes the first man to land three quadruple jumps in a program (long program) at 1999 Skate America in October; he landed a quad salchow, quad toe loop in combination, and a quad toe as a solo jump.[12]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs the world's first quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) combination at the NHK Trophy.
  • 2000
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quadruple jumps in his long program at the World Championships, including one in combination[29]
    • Todd Eldredge (USA) lands his first quadruple jump in competition at the Masters of Figure Skating.[30]
  • 2001
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop) at the World Championships.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) falls on a quad lutz attempt at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2002
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands a quad-triple combination jump in his short program at the 2002 Olympics.[31]
    • Alexei Yagudin (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympic-winning long program: 1) a quad-triple-double (quadruple toe, toe-triple toe, double loop) combination and 2) a quadruple toe loop.[32]
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands two quads in his Olympics long program: a quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop attempt (step out on the last jump) and a solo quad toe.[33]
    • Zhang Min (CHN) is the first to land three quadruple jumps in the long program at the Olympic Games.[34]
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands a quad salchow-triple toe loop combination in his Olympic short program.
    • Timothy Goebel (USA) lands two quad salchow (one in combination with a triple toe loop) and one quad toe loop during his Olympic free program.
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) lands the first quad-triple-triple (quadruple toe-triple toe-triple loop) combination in competition at the Cup of Russia.
  • 2003
  • 2006
    • Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination in his Olympic-winning free skate.[36]
    • Stephane Lambiel (CHE) performs a quadruple toe-triple toe-double loop combination during his free skate at the Olympics. He attempts a second quad past the halfway point, but steps out and touches down with his hand.[37]
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) lands three quads (a quad toe in combination with double toe, a quad Salchow and a second quad toe) in competition at the Cup of Russia. He became the first European to perform it, and the first skater to land three quads in a free program under the ISU Judging System.[38]
  • 2008
  • 2010
  • 2011
    • Brandon Mroz (USA) lands a quad Lutz in the short program at the 2011 Colorado Springs Invitational.[3][4] The U.S. Figure Skating-sanctioned competition was a small non-ISU event with three men's entries, making it unclear whether the accomplishment would be recognized by the International Skating Union.[4][43] On October 26, the ISU announced it had ratified the jump as the first quad Lutz to be performed in a sanctioned competition.[5][6] World Champion Patrick Chan of Canada commented, "I don't think it can be an official ISU record until [Mroz] has done it in an ISU event."[44]
    • Adam Rippon attempted quad Lutz in his free skating at the 2011 Skate Canada, but the jump was downgrated and two-footed.[45]
    • On November 12, 2011, Brandon Mroz (USA) landed a quad Lutz as his opening jump in the men's short program at the NHK Trophy in Sapporo, Japan, becoming the first skater to land a quadruple lutz in international competition.[46]
    • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) attempts quad loop at 2011 Cup of China. The jump was downgraded, then he fell.[47]
  • 2012
    • Kevin Reynolds (CAN) attempts quad loop at 2012 World Team Trophy. The jump was underrotated, then he fell.[48]
    • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the second European skater to land three quads (two salchows and a toe-loop) in a free program and the first one to do it with a quad-triple combination (4S+3T) at the 2012 Grand Prix Final in Sochi, Russia.
  • 2013
    • Brian Joubert (FRA) becomes the first skater to land more than 100 quadruple jumps in his career at international competitions.[49]
    • Vladislav Sesganov (RUS) becomes the first European skater to have landed quadruple lutz in a competition at the 2013 International Cup of Nice.[50]
    • Javier Fernández (ESP) becomes the first skater to land three quads twice in the same season after the 2012-13 Grand Prix Final and the 2013 European Championships. In both programs he did two quad Salchows and a quad toe-loop, the first Salchow in combination with a triple toe-loop.
  • 2014
  • 2015
    • Alexei Krasnozhon (USA) at a JGP in Latvia attempts quad loop. The jump was downgraded and received a fall deduction.[52] He also attempts quad loop at a JGP in Poland but the jump is underrotated.[53]
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) at a domestic competition (2015 National Grand Prix) lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Lutz.[54]
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) lands a successful quad lutz - triple toe-loop (4Lz-3T) combination during his senior debut, short program at the 2015 ISU Grand Prix event, Cup of China. The jump combination earned +1.29 GOE and Jin became the first man to land a positively-graded 4Lz in an official ISU competition and the first man to jump a 4Lz in combination. Jin landed two successful quads in his short program. During the free skate Jin attempted four quads, landing a 4Lz, 4T-2T, 4T, but falling on his 4S attempt. He earned +2.14 GOE on his 4Lz, landing it for the second time in one competition.
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) at the 2015-16 Grand Prix Final lands six quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate, although he steps out on the quad Salchow.[55]
  • 2016
    • Nathan Chen (USA) at the 2016 U.S. Figure Skating Championships becomes the first American to have landed two quads (4T and 4S) in his short program, four quads (4T-2T, 4S-2T-2Lo, 4T and 4S) in the free skate, and also six quads in two programs.[56]
    • Boyang Jin (CHN) at his debut Four Continents Championships in Taipei landed six clean quad jumps in two programs: 4Lz-3T combination and 4T in a short program, and 4Lz, 4S, 4T-2T, 4T in a free skate. However, he placed second overall at this competition behind Canada's Patrick Chan by a difference of 0.38 points. Chan landed only one quad toe in his short program and two quads in the free skate.
    • Shoma Uno (JPN) becomes the first skater in history to successfully land a quadruple flip in the competition at the 2016 Team Challenge Cup.[57][58][59][60]
    • Alexei Krasnozhon (USA) at a JGP in Slovenia landed quad loop but stepped out on the landing. The jump was counted as fully rotated.
    • Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) becomes the first skater in history to successfully land a quadruple loop in competition at the 2016 CS Autumn Classic International.[61]
    • Nathan Chen (USA) attempts five quads in a single program for the first time in his free skate at 2016 Finlandia Trophy: a quad lutz, a quad flip, a quad toe, a quad toe-double toe-double loop combination and a quad salchow. However, only his quad toe combination is landed cleanly as he falls on the first quad toe and the quad salchow.
  • 2017

Ladies[edit]

  • 1989
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad toe loop at the European Championships; first quad attempt by a woman in a major competition. She also falls on a quad Salchow attempt.
  • 1991
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad attempt at the World Championships.
  • 1992
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) lands an underrotated quad toe at the Olympics and later repeats this at the World Championships.[66]
  • 1996
    • Surya Bonaly (FRA) attempts a quad Salchow at the World Championships, but lands forward and falls.[67]
  • 2001
    • Sasha Cohen (USA) lands a quad Salchow in warmup and practice at Skate America, but her attempt in her long program ends up aborted.[68]
  • 2002
    • Miki Ando (JPN) becomes the first woman to land a quadruple (a Salchow) at the Junior Grand Prix Final.[69]

Pairs[edit]

Execution[edit]

A jump harness is often employed in training quads.[78] Max Aaron stated that the smallest error may make the difference in the success of a quad attempt: "The minute your left arm is behind you, or your three-turn is too fast, if your hips don't turn in time, if your foot isn't in the right place, anything will throw you off."[78] Ross Miner stated that the quality of the ice sometimes plays a role but more on the quad salchow than the toe loop.[78] Practicing quads increases the risk of injury and wear and tear on a skater's body.[78][79]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GLOSSARY". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on June 9, 2006. 
  2. ^ Borzilleri, Meri-Jo (March 25, 2003). "Not taking same path as others". The Gazette (Colorado Springs). 
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  4. ^ a b c Hersh, Philip (September 21, 2011). "Top skating official says Mroz could jump into record books". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 21, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "The first reportedly recognized quadruple Lutz jump". International Skating Union. October 26, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Rosewater, Amy (October 26, 2011). "ISU confirms Mroz's historic accomplishment". Icenetwork. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Brandon Mroz's quad lutz validated". Associated Press. ESPN. October 26, 2011. 
  8. ^ Hoang, Mai (April 23, 2016). "Uno lands historic quad flip at Team Challenge". Golden Skate. 
  9. ^ "Hanyu first to nail quadruple loop". The Japan Times Online. October 1, 2016. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved October 2, 2016. 
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  11. ^ Smith. "Figure Skating: A Celebration"
  12. ^ a b c d Wilner, Barry (December 2, 1999). "The quad: Skating's evolution is for more revolution". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on October 31, 2000. 
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External links[edit]