Location of Rakhine State in Burma
|• Chief Minister||Maung Maung Ohn (Military)|
|• Legislature||Rakhine State Hluttaw|
|• Total||36,778.0 km2 (14,200.1 sq mi)|
|Population (2014 Census)|
|• Density||85/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicities||Rakhine, Rohingya, Kamein|
|• Religions||Theravada Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and others|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+06:30)|
Rakhine State (Burmese: ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်; MLCTS: rahkuing pranynai, Rakhine pronunciation [ɹəkʰàiɴ pɹènè]; Burmese pronunciation: [jəkʰàiɴ pjìnɛ̀]; formerly Arakan) is a state in Burma. Situated on the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State in the north, Magway Region, Bago Region and Ayeyarwady Region in the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest. It is located approximately between latitudes 17°30' north and 21°30' north and east longitudes 92°10' east and 94°50' east. The Arakan Mountains, which rise to 3,063 metres (10,049 ft) at Victoria Peak, separate Rakhine State from central Burma. Off the coast of Rakhine State there are some fairly large islands such as Cheduba and Myingun Island. Rakhine State has an area of 36,762 square kilometres (14,194 sq mi) and its capital is Sittwe.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Administration
- 5 Government
- 6 Transport
- 7 Economy
- 8 Education
- 9 Health care
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2015)|
The term Rakhine is believed to have been derived from the Pali word Rakkhapura (Sanskrit Raksapura), meaning "Land of Ogres" (Rakshas), possibly a pejorative referring to the original Negrito inhabitants. The Pali word "Rakkhapura" ("Rakkhita") means "land of the people of Rakhasa" (also Rakkha, Rakhaing). They were given this name in honor of their preservation of their national heritage and ethics or morality. The word Rakhine means, "one who maintains his own race." In the Rakhine language, the land is called Rakhinepray, the ethnic Rakhine are called Rakhinetha.
Arakan, used in British colonial times, is believed to be a Portuguese corruption of the word Rakhine that is still popularly used in English. Many English language users[note 1] eschew the name changes promulgated by the military government.
The history of the region of Arakan (now renamed Rakhine) State can be roughly divided into seven parts. The first four divisions and the periods are based on the location of the centre of power of the main independent Rakhine-dominated polities in the northern Rakhine region, especially along the Kaladan River. Thus, the history is divided into the Dhanyawadi, Waithali, Laymro and Mrauk U. Mrauk U was conquered by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma in 1784-85, after which Rakhine became part of the Konbaung kingdom of Burma. In 1824, the first Anglo-Burmese war erupted and in 1826, Rakhine (alongside Tanintharyi) was ceded to the British as reparation by the Burmese to the British. Rakhine thus became part of the province of Burma of British India. In 1948, Burma was given independence and Rakhine became part (colony) of the new federal republic.
Based on Rakhine oral histories and inscriptions in certain temples, the history of the Rakhine region dates back nearly five thousand years. The Rakhine people trace their societal history back to as far as 3325 BCE and have given a lineal succession of 227 native monarchs and princes down to the last ruler in 1784. They also describe their territory of including, in varying points of time, the regions of Ava, the Irrawaddy Delta, the port town of Thanlyin (Syriam) and parts of eastern Bengal. However, the expanse of the successive Rakhine kingdoms does not exactly corroborate with certain known historical documentation.
According to Rakhine legend, the first recorded kingdom arose, centred around the northern town of Dhanyawadi in the 34th century BCE and lasted until 327 CE. Rakhine documents and inscriptions state that the famed Mahamuni Buddha image was cast in Dhanyawady in around 554 BCE when the Buddha visited the kingdom. After the fall of Dhanyawadi in the 4th century CE, the centre of power shifted to a new dynasty based in the town of Waithali. The Waithali kingdom ruled the regions of Rakhine from the middle of the 4th century to 818 CE. The period is seen as the classical period of Rakhine culture, architecture and Buddhism, as the Waithali period left behind more archeological remains compared to its predecessor. A new dynasty emerged in four towns along the Laymro river as Waithali waned in influence, and ushered in the Lemro period, where four principal towns served as successive capitals.
The final Kingdom of Mrauk U was founded in 1429 by Min Saw Mon. It is seen by the Rakhine people as the golden age of their history, as Mrauk U served as a commercially important port and base of power in the Bay of Bengal region and involved in extensive maritime trade with Arabia and Europe. The country steadily declined from the 17th century onwards after the loss of Chittagong to the Mughal Empire in 1666. Internal instability, rebellion and dethroning of kings were very common. The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan.
On 2 January 1785, the internally divided kingdom fell to invading forces from Konbaung, Burma. The Mahamuni image was taken away by the Burmese as war loot. Thus, an expansionist Burma came into direct territorial contact with territories of the British East India Company, which set the stage for future flaring of hostility. Various geopolitical issues gave rise to the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26). As the image of Mahamuni had been taken as war loot by the Burmese, this time the huge bell of the temple was taken by the British Army and awarded to a soldier, Bhim Singh, a Risaldar in East India Company's 2nd Division of the British, for his bravery. This inscribed huge bell is still installed in a Mandir at village Nadrai near Kasganj town in present day Kanshiram Nagar District of Utter Pradesh India. In the Treaty of Yandabo (1826), which ended hostilities, Burma was forced to cede Arakan alongside Tanintharyi (Tenasserim) to British India. The British made Akyab (now Sittwe) the capital of Arakan. Later, Arakan became part of the province of Burma of the British Indian Empire, and then part of British Burma when Burma was made into a separate crown colony. Arakan was administratively divided into three districts along traditional divisions during the Mrauk U period.
Rakhine (Arakan) was the site of many battles during the Second World War, most notably the Arakan Campaign 1942-1943 and the Battle of Ramree Island. Arakan became part of the newly independent Union of Burma in 1948 and the three districts became Arakan Division. From the 1950s, there was a growing movement for secession and restoration of Arakan independence. In part to appease this sentiment, in 1974, the socialist government under General Ne Win constituted Rakhine State from Arakan Division giving at least nominal acknowledgment of the regional majority of the Rakhine people.
2010 onward (After 2008 constitution)
The Chief Ministers of Rakhine State have been
- Hla Maung Tin ( January 2011 - 20 June 2014)
He was an elected Rakhine State Hluttaw member representing USDP from Ann Township in 2010 general election. He resigned from the post after recurrent intense inter-communal conflicts between Muslims and Rakhine ethnic groups in 2012-14.
- Major General Maung Maung Ohn (30 June 2014 – present)
He was Deputy Minister for Border Affairs and head of the Rakhine State’s Emergency Coordination Center before he was named to become a military-appointed Rakhine State Hluttaw member by Election Commission on 21 June 2014. His appointment as Chief Minister was formalized on 30 June 2014 although Arakan National Party opposed it.
Ethnic clashes and the Rohingya rebellion
2012 Rakhine State riots
The 2012 Rakhine State riots were a series of conflicts between Rohingya Muslims who are majority in the northern Rakhine and ethnic Rakhines who are majority in the south. Before the riots, there were widespread and strongly held fears circulating among Buddhist Rakhines that they would soon become a minority in their ancestral state. The riots finally came after weeks of sectarian disputes including a gang rape and murder of a Rakhine woman by Rohingyas and killing of ten Burmese Muslims by Rakhines. From both sides, whole villages were "decimated". According to the Burmese authorities, the violence, between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and up to 140,000 people have been displaced. The government has responded by imposing curfews and by deploying troops in the region. On 10 June 2012, a state of emergency was declared in Rakhine, allowing the military to participate in the administration of the region. Rohingya NGOs overseas have accused the Burmese army and police of targeting Rohingya Muslims through arrests and participating in violence. However, an in-depth research conducted by the International Crisis Group shows that both communities are grateful for the protection provided by the military. A number of monks' organisations have taken measures to boycott NGOs which they believe helped only Rohingyas in the past decades even though Rakhines are equally poor. In July 2012, the Burmese Government did not include the Rohingya minority group in the census—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982. About 140,000 Rohingya in Burma remain confined in IDP camps.
Rakhine State, like many parts of Burma, has a diverse ethnic population. Official Burmese figures state Rakhine State's population as 3,118,963.
The ethnic Rakhine make up the majority. The Rakhine reside mainly in the lowland valleys as well as Ramree and Manaung (Cheduba) islands. A number of other ethnic minorities like the Rohingya, Kamein, Chin, Mro, Chakma, Khami, Dainet, Bengali Hindu and Maramagri inhabit mainly in the hill regions of the state. Most of the Tibeto-Burmans living in Rakhine State adhere to Theravada Buddhism. Even the Chin, who are usually related with Protestant Christianity or Animism, of Rakhine state adhere to Buddhism due to the cultural influence of the Rakhine people. Muslim constitute more than 96% of the population near the border with Bangladesh and the coastal areas, even though they are subject to a government rule limiting them to two children per family. According to various local surveys conducted after the riots of 2012, it was found that if the +1 million diaspora outside Burma were included, the Rohingya Muslims would constitute about 40.75% of the population of the state of Rakhine (excluding the diaspora, they would constitute about 20% of the population of the state of Rakhine), making them the second largest ethnic group after the Rakhine people.
Rakhine State consists of four districts, as below, showing areas and officially estimated populations in 2002:
- Sittwe (12,504 km2; 1,099,568 people)
- Maungdaw (3,538 km2; 763,844 people)
- Kyaukphyu (9,984 km2; 458,244 people)
- Thandwe (10,753 km2; 296,736 people)
- Total Rakhine State: 36,778 km2; 2,915,000 people
|This section requires expansion. (July 2015)|
|This section requires expansion. (July 2015)|
|This section requires expansion. (July 2015)|
Few roads cross the Arakan Mountains from central Burma to Rakhine State. The three highways that do are the Ann to Munbra (Minbya in Burmese pronunciation) road in central Rakhine, the Toungup to Pamtaung road in south central Rakhine, and the Gwa to Ngathaingchaung road in far southern Rakhine. Air travel still is the usual mode of travel from Rangoon and Mandalay to Sittwe and Ngapali, the popular beach resort. Only in 1996 was a highway from Sittwe to the mainland constructed. The state still does not have a rail line (although Myanmar Railways has announced a 480-km rail extension to Sittwe from Pathein via Ponnagyun-Kyauttaw-Mrauk U-Minbya-Ann).
The airports in Rakhine State are
With Chinese investment, a deep sea port has been constructed in Kyaukphyu to facilitate the transport of natural gas and crude oil from the Indian Ocean to China without passing through Strait of Malacca.
Rivers useful for transportation in Rakhine are
Rice is the main crop in the region, occupying around 85% of the total agricultural land. Coconut and nipa palm plantations are also important. Fishing is a major industry, with most of the catch transported to Yangon, but some is also exported. Wood products such as timber, bamboo and fuel wood are extracted from the mountains. Small amounts of inferior-grade crude oil are produced from primitive, shallow, hand-dug wells, but there is yet unexplored potential for petroleum and natural gas production.
Tourism is slowly being developed. The ruins of the ancient royal town Mrauk U and the beach resorts of Ngapali are the major attractions for foreign visitors, but facilities are still primitive, and the transportation infrastructure is still rudimentary.
While most places in Myanmar suffer from chronic power shortages, in rural states like Rakhine the problem is disproportionately greater. In 2009, the electricity consumption of a state of 3 million people was only 30 MW, or 1.8% of the country's total generation capacity. In December 2009, the military government added three more hydropower plants, Saidin, Thahtay Chaung and Laymromyit, at a cost of over US$800 million. The three plants together can produce 687 MW but the surplus electricity will be distributed to other states and divisions.
Educational opportunities in Myanmar are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. The following is a summary of the public school system in the state in academic year 2013-2014.
Sittwe University is the main university in the state.
The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The military government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. In general, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor but is especially bad in remote areas like Rakhine State. The entire Rakhine State has fewer hospital beds than the Yangon General Hospital. The following is a summary of the public health care system in the state.
|2002–2003||# Hospitals||# Beds|
|General hospitals with specialist services||1||200|
- List of Arakan Kings
- Arakan Campaign 1942-1943 (for the World War II campaign)
- Rakhine State Cultural Museum
- Mratt Kyaw Thu (20 June 2014). "Rakhine State Chief Minister resigns". Mizzima. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- http://www.themimu.info/docs/MIMU696v01_110707_Planning%20Map%20for%20Rakhine%20State_Eng.pdf Rakhine State Map
- စန္ဒမာလာလင်္ကာရ။ ရခိုင်ရာဇဝင်သစ် ရခိုင်သမိုင်း ၊ ၁၅ ၊ ၁၈ ရာစု။
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 14.
- "Four killed as Rohingya Muslims riot in Myanmar: government". Reuters. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Lauras, Didier (15 September 2012). "Myanmar stung by global censure over unrest". Agence France-Presse in the Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (28 June 2012). "Burmese authorities targeting Rohingyas, UK parliament told". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "UN refugee agency redeploys staff to address humanitarian needs in Myanmar". UN News. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Linn Htet (11 June 2012). "အေရးေပၚအေျခအေန ေၾကညာခ်က္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးသမားမ်ား ေထာက္ခံ". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Keane, Fergal (11 June 2012). "Old tensions bubble in Burma". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
- "UN focuses on Myanmar amid Muslim plight". PressTV. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- "Myanmar’s Military: Back to the Barracks?" (PDF). The International Crisis Group. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (25 July 2012). "Burma's monks call for Muslim community to be shunned". The Independent (London). Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- "Rohingyas are not citizens: Myanmar minister". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 August 2012.
- "US Holocaust Museum highlights plight of Myanmar's downtrodden Rohingya Muslims". Associated Press. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Summary of the Provisional Results (PDF). Ministry of Immigration and Population. August 2014.
- "Rakhine people who speak Sittwe Dialect". Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Rakhine people who speak Rang-bre Dialect". Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Unforgiving history". The Economist. 3 November 2012.
- "Myanmar States/Divisions & Townships Overview Map" Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
- "Map of Rakhine State" Myanmar's Net
- Köllner, Helmut and Bruns, Axel (1998) Myanmar (Burma): an up-to-date travel guide Nelles Verlag, Munich, Germany, p. 224, ISBN 3-88618-415-3
- "Minister inspects roads and bridges in Rakhine State" The New Light of Myanmar 12 June 2001, last accessed 1 November 2010
- "Myanmar to construct first railroad to link western state". Xinhua News. 2009-02-19.
- "Myanmar Adds More Hydropower Plants in Western State". Xinhua News. 2009-12-07.
- "United Nations Statistic Department for data for Myanmar". Education Statistical Year Book, 2013_2014. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
- "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States". 2007-01-17.
- Yasmin Anwar (2007-06-28). 06.28.2007 "Burma junta faulted for rampant diseases". UC Berkeley News.
- "Hospitals and Dispensaries by State and Division". Myanmar Central Statistical Organization. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
- For example, see Staff (2009) "An Introduction To The Toponymy Of Burma" The Permanent Committee of Geographic Names (PCGN), United Kingdom
- The Land of the Great Image: Being Experiences of Friar Manrique in Arakan, Maurice Collis (1943), (US publication 1958, Alfred A. Knopf)
Political Party of Arakan (ALD)
- Rohingya Blogger - Volunteers
- Narinjara News (NN) - independent
- Arakan Review (AR) - Non Profit Organization
Sittwe and Kyaukpyu SEZ routes to Ruili Yunnan
- Taipei American Chamber of Commerce; Topics Magazine, Analysis, November 2012. Myanmar: Southeast Asia's Last Frontier for Investment, BY DAVID DUBYNE
- Oilseedcrops.org; Editor Article, Transit routes from western China through Myanmar. Myanmar: the Missing Link from Western China to India’s N.E. States
||Chittagong Division, Bangladesh||Chin State|
|Bay of Bengal||Ayeyarwady Region|