Ramindjeri were an indigenous Australian people forming part of the Kukabrak grouping now otherwise known as the Ngarrindjeri) people. They were the most westerly Ngarrindjeri, living in the area around Encounter Bay and Goolwa in southern South Australia, including Victor Harbor and Port Elliot. In modern native title actions a much more extensive territory has been claimed.
Ramindjeri Heritage Association Inc assert a historical territory including Karta (Kangaroo Island) and the whole southern portion of the Fleurieu Peninsula, extending as far north as Noarlunga or even the River Torrens. There is no evidence of continual occupation on Kangaroo Island earlier than the complete separation of the island from the mainland 11,000 years ago. Several small sites dated 6,000, 5,200 and 4,300 years have been found but it is unknown whether these belong to visitors or a remnant population. As available technology precludes intentional visits by Aboriginals, a remnant population of up to 200 individuals is the preferred hypothesis with the last dying 2,500 years ago. The territory also overlaps a significant portion of the territory claimed by both the neighboring Ngarrindjeri to the east and the Kaurna Commonwealth of Australia Federal Court Native Title Claims Registered respectively 1998 and 2000. Linguistic evidence suggests that the "Aborigines" encountered by Colonel Light at Rapid Bay in 1836 were "Kaurna" speakers.
Ronald and Catherine Berndt's ethnographic study, which was conducted in the 1930s, identified six Kukabrak.[a] subsequently described as "Ngarrindjeri" clans, the Ramindjeri lakinyeri occupying the coast from Cape Jervis to a few kilometres south of Adelaide. Berndt posited that the Ramindjeri clans may have expanded along trade routes as the Kaurna were dispossessed by colonists.
The Ramindjeri were composed of 14 clans.
|(1) Ratalwerindjera||pangarii.(seal)||Goolwa to Middleton[b]|
|(2) Latalindjera||kondili (whale)||Latang on the Hindmarsh River near Victoria Harbour|
|(3) Muwerindjera||unknown||western bank of the Inman River.|
|(4) Ngarakerindjera||ngarakani(shark)||Ngarakerung near King's Point.|
|(5) Krilbalindjera||krilbali(brown skylark)||near Kondilinar (place of the whale)|
|(6) Limindjera||limi (stingray or carpet shark)||Hindmarsh River estuary|
|(7) Wati-erilindjera||wati-eri(jaybird)||Near Mount Hayfield|
|(8) Lepuldalindjera||lepuldali(marsupial possum)||Mt Robinson|
|(9) Yaltalindjera||yoldi, yalti(cormorant)||Bald Hills, Inman Valley|
|(10)Pariwarindjera||tjirbuki (species of crane)||Cape Jervis(Pariwa)|
|(11)Yangkalyarindjera||kalaipani (butterfish),tinemari (bream)||Yankalilla to Yankie Hill, and the Normanville coast|
|(13)Ruwurindjera||uwal, kuratji(tommy rough fish)||Ruwuru south of Port Willunga|
|(14)Tainbarindjera||mulgali (red ochre)||Tainbarung, Noarlunga River|
The Ramindjeri had a genre of tuŋari sings, called mantimanŋari, which were songs of caution, composed to warn or teach lessons to members of the tribe, such as one mocking a recently bereaved woman for appearing to be too much in a hurry to remarry.
History of contact
Ramindjeri were amongst, if not the first South Australian Aboriginal people to come into regular contact with Europeans since 1802, with Karta (Kangaroo Island) based sealers raiding Ramindjeri ruwe (territorial lands) for women. In the early 19th century, pre-1836 settlement.
Ramindjeri men began working as whalers around Encounter Bay in the 1830s.
Ramindjeri lands have been subject to a native title claim lodged by Ngarrindjeri claimants in 1998, determination of which is ongoing. However in 2009, Ramindjeri Heritage Association Inc spokesman Karno Walker challenged the legitimacy of that claim, claiming the Ramindjeri were the rightful owners of land encompassing much of both the 1998 Ngarrindjeri claim and the 2000 Kaurna claim, and calling the Kaurna and Ngarrindjeri "Johnny-come-latelys". A native title claim was Registered with the Federal Court in 2010, encompassing over 20,000 square kilometres (4,900,000 acres) of land extending to the River Torrens on the north, Kangaroo Island on the west, and the Murray Mouth on the east. Subsequently, Walker made unofficial claims to land as far north as Tea Tree Gully.
The claim was rejected by the National Native Title Tribunal on 24 March 2011, having failed six of the eleven required preconditions for acceptance, Walker later claimed that eight out of ten had been fulfilled. The Federal Court was set to hear the case in October 2011.
The native title dispute led one local council to alter their "Acknowledgement of country" statement before meetings. The City of Unley changed their acknowledgement to read "Aboriginal people" instead of "Kaurna", so as not to take sides in the dispute.
Victoria Square proposal
After the Adelaide City Council released a master plan for a $100 million redevelopment for Victoria Square, Karno Walker, with architect Michael Thiele and community development consultants Encompass Technology, proposed a Ramindjeri-themed redevelopment at a projected cost of $500 million. They claimed it could be funded by private developers in return for parking revenue from a 2000-space underground carpark.
- "The appropriate traditional categorization of the whole group was Kukabrak: this term, as we mention again below, was used by these people to differentiate themselves from neighbours whom they regarded as being socio-culturally and linguistically dissimilar. However, the term Narrinyeri has been used consistently in the literature and by Aborigines today who recognise a common descent from original inhabitants of this region-- even though their traditional identifying labels have been lost".
- 'name from the place Ratalwar. This is the western promontory near Middleton (Ratalang). Opposite this place is the important Keli (dog) Rock. Dog was a mythic man who was metamorphosed. A heavy tide from the Southern Ocean covers the Keli Rock with spray and causes the Dog to 'bark'. The sound warned Ratalwerindjera of an approaching storm.'
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, p. 21.
- Brown 1918, p. 242.
- Wheatley 2009.
- Amery 2016, p. ?.
- Monroe 2011.
- Taylor 2002, p. 52.
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, p. 19.
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, p. 312.
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, pp. 311–312.
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, p. 311.
- Tindale 1974, p. 34.
- Barker 1894, p. 6.
- Berndt, Berndt & Stanton 1993, p. 1.
- Jenkin 1979, p. 26.
- Jenkin 1979, p. 50.
- ABC 2011.
- Ramindjeri map 2010.
- Greenwood 2011.
- Karno 2011.
- Martin 2011.
- Bachmayer 2010.
- Charrison 2010.
- Amery, Rob (2016). Warraparna Kaurna!: Reclaiming an Australian language. University of Adelaide Press. ISBN 978-1-925-26125-7.
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- Berndt, Ronald Murray; Berndt, Catherine Helen; Stanton, John E. (1993). A World that was: The Yaraldi of the Murray River and the Lakes, South Australia. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-774-80478-3.
- Brown, A. R. (July–December 1918). "Notes on the Social Organization of Australian Tribes". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 48: 222–253. JSTOR 2843422.
- Charrison, Emily (15 July 2010). "Ramindjeri v Kaurna on Vic Sq". City Messenger. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Greenwood, Rob (1 March 2011). "Gully faces native title claim". Leader Messenger. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Jenkin, Graham (1979). Conquest of the Ngarrindjeri. Rigby. ISBN 978-0-727-01112-1.
- Martin, Sarah (8 April 2011). "Ramindjeri people claim Adelaide under native title". The Advertiser. Adelaide. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Monroe, M. H. (30 September 2011). "Karta: Island of the Dead - Kangaroo Island Australia".
- "Native title bid pursued in Federal Court". Australian Broadcasting Commission. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Native Title Determination Application: Ramindjeri" (PDF). National Native Title Tribunal. 22 October 2010.
- "Ngunderi". South Australian Museum. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- "An old time episode. The murder of Captain Barker, narrative of a survivor". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 30 October 1894. p. 6 – via Trove.
- "Registration test decision" (PDF). National Native Title Tribunal. 24 March 2011.
- Taylor, Rebe (2002). Unearthed: The Aboriginal Tasmanians of Kangaroo Island. Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-862-54552-6.
- Tindale, Norman Barnett (1935). "Legend of Waijungari, Jaralde tribe, Lake Alexandrina, South Australia, and the phonetic system employed in its transcription". Records of the South Australian Museum. 5 (3): 261–274.
- Tindale, Norman Barnett (1974). "Ramindjeri (SA)". Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. Australian National University Press. ISBN 978-0-708-10741-6.
- Wheatley, Kim (20 November 2009). "Tribal war on native title". The Advertiser. Adelaide. Retrieved 17 August 2011.