Reference ranges for blood tests

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Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Blood test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test.[1]

Interpretation[edit]

A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[2] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood[edit]

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60–100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology – red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology – white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid/Folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units[edit]

Arterial or venous[edit]

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[5] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[5]

Usual or optimal[edit]

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.

Variability[edit]

Further information: Reference range

References range may vary with age, sex, race, pregnancy,[6] diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Reference ranges often depend on the analytical method used, for reasons such as inaccuracy, lack of standardisation, lack of certified reference material and differing antibody reactivity.[7] Also, reference ranges may be inaccurate when the reference groups used to establish the ranges are small.

Sorted by concentration[edit]

By mass and molarity[edit]

A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below.

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

, where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540,[8] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units[edit]

Units don't necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity[edit]

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells[edit]

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Sorted by category[edit]

Ions and trace metals[edit]

Further information: Trace metal

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Sodium (Na) 135,[9] 137[4][10] 145,[4][10] 147[9] mmol/L or mEq/L[9] See hyponatremia or hypernatremia
310,[11] 320[11] 330,[11] 340[11] mg/dl
Potassium (K) 3.5,[4][9] 3.6[10] 5.0,[4][9][10] 5.1 mmol/L or mEq/L[9] See hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
14[12] 20[12] mg/dl
Chloride (Cl) 95,[9] 98,[13] 100[4] 105,[9] 106,[13] 110[4] mmol/L or mEq/L[9] See hypochloremia or hyperchloremia
340[14] 370[14] mg/dl
Ionized calcium (Ca) 1.03,[15] 1.10[4] 1.23,[15] 1.30[4] mmol/L See hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia
4.1,[16] 4.4[16] 4.9,[16] 5.2[16] mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca) 2.1,[9][17] 2.2[4] 2.5,[4][17] 2.6,[17] 2.8[9] mmol/L
8.4,[9] 8.5[18] 10.2,[9] 10.5[18] mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - male 65,[19] 76[10] 176,[19] 198[10] µg/dL See hypoferremia or the following: iron overload (hemochromatosis), iron poisoning, siderosis, hemosiderosis, hyperferremia
11.6,[20][21] 13.6[21] 30,[20] 32,[21] 35[21] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - female 26,[10] 50[19] 170[10][19] µg/dL
4.6,[21] 8.9[20] 30.4[20] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns 100[19] 250[19] µg/dL
18[21] 45[21] µmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - children 50[19] 120[19] µg/dL
9[21] 21[21] µmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 240,[19] 262[10] 450,[19] 474[10] μg/dL
43,[21] 47[21] 81,[21] 85[21] µmol/L
Transferrin 190,[22] 194,[4] 204[10] 326,[4] 330,[22] 360[10] mg/dL
25[23] 45[23] μmol/L
Transferrin saturation 20[19] 50[19]  %
Ferritin - Males and postmenopausal females 12[24] 300[24][25] ng/mL or µg/L
27[26] 670[26] pmol/L
Ferritin - premenopausal females 12[24] 150[24] - 200[25] ng/mL or µg/L
27[26] 330[26] - 440[26] pmol/L
Ammonia 10,[27] 20[28] 35,[27] 65[28] μmol/L See hypoammonemia and hyperammonemia
17,[29] 34[29] 60,[29] 110[29] μg/dL
Copper (Cu) 70[18] 150[18] µg/dL See hypocupremia or hypercupremia
11[30][31] 24[30] μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin 15[18] 60[18] mg/dL
1[32] 4[32] μmol/L
Phosphate (HPO42−) 0.8 1.5[33] mmol/L See hypophosphatemia or hyperphosphatemia
Inorganic phosphorus (serum) 1.0[9] 1.5[9] mmol/L
3.0[9] 4.5[9] mg/dL
Zinc (Zn) 60,[34] 72[35] 110,[35] 130[34] μg/dL See zinc deficiency or zinc poisoning
9.2,[36] 11[4] 17,[4] 20[36] µmol/L
Magnesium 1.5,[18] 1.7[37] 2.0,[18] 2.3[37] mEq/L or mg/dL See hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia
0.6,[38] 0.7[4] 0.82,[38] 0.95[4] mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases[edit]

Further information: Acid-base homeostasis
Further information: Arterial blood gas

If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[39]

Test Arterial/Venous Lower limit Upper limit Unit
pH Arterial 7.34,[10] 7.35[9] 7.44,[10] 7.45[9]
Venous 7.31[40] 7.41[40]
[H+] Arterial 36[9] 44[9] nmol/L
3.6[41] 4.4[41] ng/dL
Base excess Arterial & venous[40] -3[40] +3[40] mEq/L
oxygen partial pressure (pO2) Arterial pO2 10,[9] 11[42] 13,[42] 14[9] kPa
75,[9][10] 83[18] 100,[10] 105[9] mmHg or torr
Venous 4.0[42] 5.3[42] kPa
30[40] 40[40] mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturation Arterial 94,[40] 95,[13] 96[18] 100[13][18]  %
Venous Approximately 75[13]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) Arterial PaCO2 4.4,[9] 4.7[42] 5.9,[9] 6.0[42] kPa
33,[9] 35[10] 44,[9] 45[10] mmHg or torr
Venous 5.5,[42] 6.8[42] kPa
41[40] 51[40] mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2) Arterial 23[40] 30[40] mmol/L
100[43] 132[43] mg/dL
Bicarbonate (HCO3) Arterial & venous 18[18] 23[18] mmol/L
110[44] 140[44] mg/dL
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe) Arterial & venous 21, 22[9] 27, 28[9] mmol/L or mEq/L[9]
134[44] 170[44] mg/dL

Liver function[edit]

Further information: Liver function tests
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Total protein 60,[9] 63[10] 78,[9] 82,[10] 84[18] g/L see hypoproteinemia
Albumin 35[9][45] 48,[10] 55[9] g/L see hypoalbuminemia
3.5[10] 4.8,[10] 5.5[9] U/L
540[46] 740[46] μmol/L
Globulins 23[9] 35[9] g/L
Total bilirubin 1.7,[47] 2,[9] 3.4,[47] 5[4] 17,[9][47] 22,[47] 25[4] μmol/L
0.1,[9] 0.2,[10] 0.29[48] 1.0,[9][18] 1.3,[10] 1.4[48] mg/dL
Direct/conjugated bilirubin 0.0[9] or N/A[4] 5,[9] 7[4][47] μmol/L
0[9][10] 0.3,[9][10] 0.4[18] mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[4]) 5,[49] 7,[10] 8[9] 20,[9] 21,[13] 56[10] U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Female 0.15[4] 0.75[4] µkat/L
Male 0.15[4] 1.1[4]
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[4]) Female 6[50] 34[50] IU/L Also called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
0.25[4] 0.60[4] µkat/L
Male 8[50] 40[50] IU/L
0.25[4] 0.75[4] µkat/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Female 42[49] 98[49] U/L
Male 53[49] 128[49]
(Enzyme activity) 0.6[4] 1.8[4] µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 5,[49] 8[10] 40,[49] 78[10] U/L
Women 0.63[51] µkat/L
Men 0.92[51] µkat/L

Cardiac tests[edit]

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Creatine kinase (CK) male 24,[52] 38,[10] 60[49] 174,[18] 320[49] U/L
or ng/mL
0.42[53] 1.5[53] µkat/L
female 24,[52] 38,[10] 96[18] 140,[18] 200[49] U/L
or ng/mL
0.17[53] 1.17[53] µkat/L
CK-MB 0 3,[10] 3.8,[4] 5[49] ng/mL or μg/L[4]
Myoglobin Female 1[54] 66[54] ng/mL or µg/L
Male 17[54] 106[54]
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
-more detailed ranges in BNP article
Interpretation Range / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely < 100 pg/mL[55][56]
"Gray zone" 100-500 pg/mL[55][56]
Congestive heart failure likely >500 pg/mL[55][56]
NT-proBNP
-more detailed ranges in NT-proBNP article
Interpretation Age Cutoff
Congestive heart failure likely < 75years > 125 pg/mL[57]
>75 years >450pg/mL[57]

Lipids[edit]

Further information: Blood lipids
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides 10 – 39 years 54[18] 110[18] mg/dL < 100 mg/dL[58]
or 1.1[58] mmol/L
0.61[59] 1.2[59] mmol/L
40 – 59 years 70[18] 150[18] mg/dL
0.77[59] 1.7[59] mmol/L
> 60 years 80[18] 150[18] mg/dL
0.9[59] 1.7[59] mmol/L
Total cholesterol 3.0,[60] 3.6[9][60] 5.0,[4][61] 6.5[9] mmol/L < 3.9[58]
120,[10] 140[9] 200,[10] 250[9] mg/dL < 150[58]
HDL cholesterol female 1.0,[62] 1.2,[4] 1.3[60] 2.2[62] mmol/L > 1.0[62] or 1.6[60]  mmol/L
> 40[63] or 60[64] mg/dL
40,[63] 50[65] 86[63] mg/dL
HDL cholesterol male 0.9[4][62] 2.0[62] mmol/L
35[63] 80[63] mg/dL
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[62] 2.4[61] 3.0,[4][61] 3.4[62] mmol/L < 2.5[62]
80,[63] 94[63] 120,[63] 130[63] mg/dL < 100[63]
LDL/HDL quotient n/a 5[4] (unitless)

Tumour markers[edit]

Further information: Tumour markers
Test Cutoff Unit Comments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) 44[10] ng/mL or µg/L Hepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG) 5[10] IU/l or mU/ml in male and non-pregnant female
CA19-9 40[10] U/ml Pancreatic cancer
CA-125 30,[66] 35[67] kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
3.4,[4] 3.6[68] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
4.1[68] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers 5[69] μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) 2.5,[4] 4[10] μg/L[4][10] or ng/mL[18] below age 45 <2.5 μg/L
PAP 3[18] units/dL (Bodansky units)
Calcitonin
-more detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article
5,[70] 15[70] ng/L or pg/mL Cutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[70]

Endocrinology[edit]

Thyroid hormones[edit]

Further information: Thyroid function tests
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.5,[18] 0.6[71] 4.0,[4] 4.5,[10] 6.0[18] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3,[72] 0.5[73] 2.0,[73] 3.0[72] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants 1.3[74] 19[74] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4)
-more detailed ranges in
Thyroid function tests article
Normal adult 0.7,[75] 0.8[10] 1.4,[75] 1.5,[10] 1.8[76] ng/dL
9,[4][77] 10,[78] 12[79] 18,[4][77] 23[79] pmol/L
Child/Adolescent
31 d - 18 y
0.8[75] 2.0[75] ng/dL
10[77] 26[77] pmol/L
Pregnant 0.5[75] 1.0[75] ng/dL
6.5[77] 13[77] pmol/L
Total thyroxine 4,[78] 5.5[10] 11,[78] 12.3[10] μg/dL
60[78][79] 140,[78] 160[79] nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) Normal adult 0.2[78] 0.5[78] ng/dL
3.1[80] 7.7[80] pmol/L
Children 2-16 y 0.1[81] 0.6[81] ng/dL
1.5[80] 9.2[80] pmol/L
Total triiodothyronine 60,[10] 75[78] 175,[78] 181[10] ng/dL
0.9,[4] 1.1[78] 2.5,[4] 2.7[78] nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 12[10] 30[10] mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg) 1.5[78] 30[78] pmol/L
1[78] 20[78] μg/L

Sex hormones[edit]

Further information: Sex steroid

The diagrams below take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.

Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle.
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Dihydrotestosterone adult male 30[82] 85[82] ng/dL
Testosterone Male, overall 8,[83] 10[84] 27,[83] 35[84] nmol/L
230,[85] 300[86] 780[85] - 1000[86] ng/dL
Male < 50 years 10[4] 45[4] nmol/L
290[85] 1300[85] ng/dL
Male > 50 years 6.2[4] 26[4] nmol/L
180[85] 740[85] ng/dL
Female 0.7[84] 2.8[84] - 3.0[4] nmol/L
20[86] 80[86] - 85[85] ng/dL
17-Hydroxyprogesterone male 0.06[18] 3.0[18] mg/L
0.18[87] 9.1[87] µmol/l
Female (Follicular phase) 0.2[18] 1.0[18] mg/L
0.6[87] 3.0[87] µmol/l
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
(FSH)
-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Prepubertal <1[88] 3[88] IU/L
Adult male 1[88] 8[88]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
1[88] 11[88]
Adult female (Ovulation) 6[88]
95% PI (standard)
26[88]
95% PI)
5[89]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15[89]
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female 30[88] 118[88]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Female, peak 20[89]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75[89]
(90% PI)
IU/L
Female, post-menopausal 15[90] 60[90]
Male aged 18+ 2[91] 9[91]
Estradiol
(an estrogen)
-more detailed ranges in
estradiol article
Adult male 50[92] 200[92] pmol/L
14[93] 55[93] pg/mL
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[92] 500,[92] 600[92] pmol/L
19[93] 140,[93] 160[93] pg/mL
Adult female - free (not protein bound) 0.5[94] 9[94] pg/mL
1.7[94] 33[94] pmol/L
Post-menopausal female N/A[92] < 130[92] pmol/L
N/A[93] < 35[93] pg/mL
Progesterone
-more detailed ranges
in Progesterone article
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23) 17,[89] 35[95] 92[95] nmol/L
6,[89] 11[96] 29[96] ng/mL
Androstenedione Adult male and female 60[90] 270[90] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female < 180[90]
Prepubertal < 60[90]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
-more detailed ranges
in DHEA-S article
Adult male and female 30[97] 400[97] µg/dL
SHBG
-more detailed ranges
in SHBG article
Adult female 40[98] 120[98] nmol/L
Adult male 20[98] 60[98]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
-more detailed ranges in
AMH article
13–45 years 0.7[99] 20[99] ng/mL
5[100] 140[100] pmol/l

Other hormones[edit]

Further information: Hormones
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4.4[101] 18,[102] 22[101] pmol/L
20[10] 80,[103] 100[10] pg/mL
Cortisol 09:00 am 140[104] 700[104] nmol/L
5[105] 25[105] μg/dL
Midnight 80[104] 350[104] nmol/L
2.9[105] 13[105] μg/dL
Growth hormone (fasting) 0 5[9] ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation) 7[9] n/a ng/mL
IGF-1
-more detailed ranges in
IGF-1 article
Female, 20 yrs 110[106] 420[106] ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs 55[106] 220[106]
Male, 20 yrs 160[106] 390[106]
Male, 75 yrs 48[106] 200[106]
Prolactin
-more detailed ranges in
Prolactin article
Female 71,[107] 105[107] 348,[107] 548[107] mIU/L
3.4,[107] 3.9[107] 16.4,[107] 20.3[107] µg/L
Male 58,[107] 89[107] 277,[107] 365[107] mIU/L
2.7,[107] 3.3[107] 13.0,[107] 13.5[107] µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 10,[108] 17[109] 65,[108] 70[109] pg/mL
1.1,[4] 1.8[110] 6.9,[4] 7.5[110] pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8,[18][111] 9[111] 40,[111] 80[18] ng/mL
20,[112] 23[113] 95,[113] 150[112] nmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
-Therapeutic target range
30,[114] 40[115] 65,[115] 100[114] ng/mL
85,[58] 100[115] 120,[58] 160[115] nmol/L
Plasma renin activity 0.29,[116] 1.9[117] 3.7[116][117] ng/(mL*hour)
3.3,[118] 21[119] 41[118][119] mcU/mL
Aldosterone
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone article
Adult 19,[118] 34.0[118] ng/dL
530,[120] 940[120] pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone/renin ratio article
Adult 13.1,[121] 35.0[121] ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[121] 970[121] pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)

Vitamins[edit]

Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine.

Test Patient type Standard range Unit Optimal range
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Vitamin A 30[18] 65[18] µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year 3.0[122] 16[122] ng/mL or μg/L 5[123]
6.8[124] 36[124] nmol/l 11[124]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[122] 600[122] ng/mL or μg/L
450[124] 1400[124] nmol/L
Pregnant ng/mL or μg/L 400[122]
nmol/L 900[122]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 130,[125] 160[126] 700,[125] 950[126] ng/L
100,[127] 120[4] 520,[127] 700[4] pmol/L
Homocysteine
-more detailed ranges in
Homocysteine article
3.3,[128] 5.9[128] 7.2,[128] 15.3[128] μmol/L 6.3[58]
45,[129] 80[129] 100,[129] 210[129] μg/dL 85[58]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 0.4[18] 1.5[18] mg/dL 0.9[58]
23[130] 85[130] μmol/L 50[58]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D) 8,[18][111] 9[111] 40,[111] 80[18] ng/mL 30,[114] 40[115] 65,[115] 100[114]
20,[112] 23[113] 95,[113] 150[112] nmol/L 85,[58] 100[115] 120,[58] 160[115]
Vitamin E μmol/L 28[58]
mg/dL 1.2[58]

Toxins[edit]

Test Limit type Limit Unit
Lead Optimal health range < 20[13] or 40[18] µg/dL
Blood ethanol content Limit for drunk driving 0,[131] 0.2,[131] 0.8[131] or g/L
17.4[132] mmol/L

Hematology[edit]

Red blood cells[edit]

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Hemoglobin (Hb) male 2.0,[133] 2.1[9][134] 2.5,[133] 2.7[9][134] mmol/L Higher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[4] 132,[10] 135[9] 162,[10] 170,[4] 175[9] g/L
female 1.8,[133] 1.9[9][134] 2.3,[133] 2.5[9][133][134] mmol/L Sex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[4][9][10] 150,[4] 152,[10] 160[9][18] g/L
Hemoglobin subunits (sometimes displayed simply as "Hemoglobin") male 8.0,[135] 8.4[135] 10.0,[135] 10.8[135] mmol/L 4 per hemoglobin molecule
female 7.2,[135] 7.6[135] 9.2,[135] 10.0[135]
Hemoglobin in plasma 0.16[9] 0.62[9] μmol/L Normally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
1 4 mg/dL
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 50 years 3.6[4] 5.0[4]  % of Hb
> 50 years 3.9[4] 5.3[4]
Haptoglobin < 50 years 0.35[4] 1.9[4] g/L
> 50 years 0.47[4] 2.1[4]
Hematocrit (Hct) male 0.39,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.41,[9] 0.45[18] 0.50,[4] 0.52,[10] 0.53,[9] 0.62[18]
female 0.35,[4] 0.36,[9] 0.37[10][18] 0.46,[4][9][10] 0.48[18]
Child 0.31[10] 0.43[10]
Mean cell volume (MCV) Male 76,[18] 82[10] 100,[18] 102[10] fL Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Female 78[10] 101[10] fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5[10] 14.5[10]  %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) 0.39[9] 0.54[9] fmol/cell
25,[9] 27[4][18] 32,[18] 33,[4] 35[9] pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31,[10] 32[4][18] 35,[10] 36[4][18] g/dL or %[note 1]
4.8,[136] 5.0[136] 5.4,[136] 5.6[136] mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC) male 4.2,[18] 4.3[4][9][10] 5.7,[4] 5.9,[9] 6.2,[10] 6.9[18] x1012/L
or
mln/mm3
Female 3.5,[9] 3.8,[10] 3.9[4] 5.1,[4] 5.5[9][10]
Infant/Child 3.8[10] 5.5[10]
Reticulocytes Adult 26[4] 130[4] x109/L
Adult 0.5[9][10] 1.5[9][10]  % of RBC
Newborn 1.1[10] 4.5[10]  % of RBC
Infant 0.5[10] 3.1[10]  % of RBC

White blood cells[edit]

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) Adult 3.5,[4] 3.9,[137] 4.1,[10] 4.5[9] 9.0,[4] 10.0,[137] 10.9,[10] 11[9]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
Newborn 9[138] 30[138]
1 year old 6[138] 18[138]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult 1.3,[4] 1.8,[137] 2[138] 5.4,[4] 7,[137] 8[138] x109/L
45-54[9] 62,[9] 74  % of WBC
Newborn 6[138] 26[138] x109/L
Neutrophilic band forms Adult 0.7[138] x109/L
3[9] 5[9]  % of WBC
Lymphocytes Adult 0.7,[4] 1.0[137][138] 3.5,[137] 3.9,[4] 4.8[138] x109/L
16-25[9] 33,[9] 45  % of WBC
Newborn 2[138] 11[138] x109/L
Monocytes Adult 0.1,[4] 0.2[139][140] 0.8[4][138][140] x109/L
3,[9] 4.0 7,[9] 10  % of WBC
Newborn 0.4[138] 3.1[138] x109/L
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
Adult 1.5 5 x109/L
20 35  % of WBC
CD4+ T cells Adult 0.4,[10] 0.5[13] 1.5,[13] 1.8[10] x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes Adult 0.0,[4] 0.04[140] 0.44,[140] 0.45,[138] 0.5[4] x109/L
1[9] 3,[9] 7  % of WBC
Newborn 0.02[138] 0.85[138] x109/L
Basophil granulocytes Adult 40[137] 100,[4][140] 200,[138] 900[137] x106/L
0.0 0.75,[9] 2  % of WBC
Newborn 0.64[138] x109/L

Coagulation[edit]

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt) 140,[10] 150[4][9] 350,[4][18] 400,[9] 450[10] x109/L or
x1000/µL
Mean platelet volume (MPV) 7.2,[141] 7.4,[142] 7.5[143] 10.4,[142] 11.5,[143] 11.7[141] fL
Prothrombin time (PT) 10,[13] 11,[9][144] 12[10] 13,[13] 13.5,[144] 14,[10] 15[9] s PT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR 0.9[4] 1.2[4] The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 18,[10] 30[4][13] 28,[10] 42,[4] 45[13] s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT) 11 18 s
Fibrinogen 1.7,[10] 2.0[4] 3.6,[4] 4.2[10] g/L
Antithrombin 0.80[4] 1.2[4] kIU/L
0.15,[145] 0.17[146] 0.2,[145] 0.39[146] mg/mL
Bleeding time 2 9 minutes
Viscosity 1.5[147] 1.72[147] cP

Immunology[edit]

Acute phase proteins[edit]

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR)
Male 0 Age÷2[148] mm/h ESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[149]
Female (Age+10)÷2[148]
C-reactive protein (CRP) 5,[4][150] 6[151] mg/L
200,[152] 240[152] nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) 20,[153] 22[154] 38,[154] 53[153] μmol/L
89,[155] 97[4] 170,[4] 230[155] mg/dL
Procalcitonin 0.15[156] ng/mL or μg/L

Isotypes of antibodies[edit]

Further information: Antibody
Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
IgA Adult 70,[4] 110[157] 360,[4] 560[157] mg/dL
IgD 0.5[157] 3.0[157]
IgE 0.01[157] 0.04[157]
IgG 800[157] 1800[157]
IgM 54[157] 220[157]

Autoantibodies[edit]

For clinical associations, see Autoantibody.

Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[158] are given for the ELISA test.

Test Negative Equivocal Positive Unit
anti-SS-A (Ro) < 15[159] 15-25[159] > 25[159] Units
per
millilitre
(U/mL)
anti-SS-B (La) < 3[159] 3 – 4[159] > 4[159]
Anti ds-DNA < 40[159] 40 – 60[159] > 60[159]
Anti ss-DNA < 8[159] 8 - 10[159] > 10[159]
Anti-histone antibodies < 25[159] n/a[159] > 25[159]
Cytoplasmic/classical
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies
(c-ANCA)
< 20[159] 21 - 30[159] > 30[159]
Perinuclear
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[159] n/a > 5[159]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) < 10[159] n/a[159] > 10[159]
Rheumatoid factor (RF) < 20 20 - 30 > 30[10]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
preschoolers
> 100
ASOT at school age > 250[10]
ASOT in adults > 125[10]
Test Negative Low/weak positive Moderate positive High/strong positive Unit
Anti-phospholipid IgG < 20[159] 20 –30[159] 31 – 50[159] > 51[159] GPLU/ml[159]
Anti-phospholipid IgM < 1.5[159] 1.5 –2.5[159] 2 – 9.9[159] > 10[159] MPL /ml[159]
Anti-phospholipid IgA < 10[159] 10 -20[159] 21 – 30[159] > 31[159] arb U/ml[159]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies < 20[159] 20 – 39[159] 40 - 59[159] > 60[159] EU[159]

Other immunology[edit]

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Serum free light chains (FLC): kappa/lambda ratio 0.26[160] 1.65[160] (unit-less)

Other enzymes and proteins[edit]

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 50[18] 150[18] U/L
0.4[49] 1.7[49] μmol/L
1.8[4] 3.4[4] µkat/L < 70 years old[4]
Amylase 25,[9] 30,[10] 53[18] 110,[10] 120,[161] 123,[18] 125,[9] 190[49] U/L
0.15[4] 1.1[4] µkat/L
200[152] 240[152] nmol/L
D-dimer
-more detailed ranges in D-dimer article
n/a 500[162] ng/mL Higher in pregnant women[163]
0.5[4] mg/L
Lipase 7,[10] 10,[18] 23[49] 60,[10] 150,[18] 208[49] U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 23[49] 57[49] U/L
Acid phosphatase 3.0[49] ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) 2.3[4] 16[4] µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites[edit]

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Osmolality 275,[9] 280,[18] 281[4] 295,[9] 296,[18] 297[4] mOsm/kg Plasma weight excludes solutes
Osmolarity Slightly less than osmolality mOsm/l Plasma volume includes solutes
Urea 3.0[164] 7.0[164] mmol/L BUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[9] 18,[9] 21[10] mg/dL
* Uric acid[10] 0.18[9] 0.48[9] mmol/L
Female 2.0[18] 7.0[18] mg/dL
Male 2.1[18] 8.5[18] mg/dL
Creatinine male 60,[4] 68[165] 90,[4] 118[165] μmol/L May be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[166] 0.8[166] 1.0,[166] 1.3[166] mg/dL
female 50,[4] 68[165] 90,[4] 98[165] μmol/L
0.6,[166] 0.8[166] 1.0,[166] 1.1[166] mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5[18] 35[18] -
Plasma glucose (fasting) 3.8,[9] 4.0[4] 6.0,[4] 6.1[167] mmol/L See also glycated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[10] 70,[9] 72[168] 100,[167] 110[18] mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting) 3.3[4] 5.6[4] mmol/L
60[168] 100[168] mg/dL
Random glucose 3.9[169] 7.8[169] mmol/L
70[170] 140[170] mg/dL
Lactate (Venous) 4.5[18] 19.8[18] mg/dL
0.5[171] 2.2[171] mmol/L
Lactate (Arterial) 4.5[18] 14.4[18] mg/dL
0.5[171] 1.6[171] mmol/L
Pyruvate 300[18] 900[18] μg/dL
34[172] 102[172] μmol/L
Ketones 1[173] mg/dL
0.1[173] mmol/L

Medication[edit]

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Digoxin 0.5[174] 2.0[174] ng/ml Narrow therapeutic window
0.6[174] 2.6[174] nmol/l
Lithium 0.4,[175] 0.5,[176][177] 0.8[178] 1.3[176][177] mmol/l Narrow therapeutic window
Paracetamol 30[179] mg/L Risk of paracetamol toxicity at higher levels
200[179] µmol/L

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of hemoglobin in red blood cells in % are numerically identical in practice, assuming a RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible hemoglobin in plasma.

References[edit]

{{WBC 6.13/UL))

External links[edit]

  1. ^ "Reference Ranges and What They Mean". Lab Tests Online (USA). Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  2. ^ Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-10186-8. 
  3. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0-7817-2845-2, ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4 1914 pages
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  5. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  6. ^ Abbassi-Ghanavati, M.; Greer, L. G.; Cunningham, F. G. (2009). "Pregnancy and Laboratory Studies". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 114 (6): 1326. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c2bde8. 
  7. ^ Armbruster, David; Miller (August 2007). "The Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM): A Global Approach to Promote the Standardisation of Clinical Laboratory Test Results". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 28 (3): 105–114. PMC 1994110free to read. PMID 17909615. 
  8. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
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  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  11. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  14. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
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  16. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  17. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
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  20. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  22. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133" Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  23. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
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  25. ^ a b Andrea Duchini. "Hemochromatosis Workup". Medscape. Retrieved 2016-07-14.  Updated: Jan 02, 2016
  26. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  27. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125<1084:MCCAHH>2.0.CO;2. PMID 11473464. 
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  29. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  30. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  31. ^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook
  32. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  33. ^ Walter F. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
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  35. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  36. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  37. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  38. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  39. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreements between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J. 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165free to read. PMID 16858095. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  41. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  43. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  44. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  45. ^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook
  46. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  47. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  48. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3-437-15120-7, ISBN 978-3-437-15120-0. Length: 1288 pages
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  52. ^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook
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  60. ^ a b c d Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  61. ^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  64. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  65. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  66. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
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  69. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
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  75. ^ a b c d e f Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  76. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  77. ^ a b c d e f Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
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  80. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  81. ^ a b Cioffi M, Gazzerro P, Vietri MT, et al. (2001). "Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children". Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 14 (9): 1635–9. doi:10.1515/jpem.2001.14.9.1635. PMID 11795654. INIST:13391788. 
  82. ^ a b Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
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  84. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  85. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  86. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  87. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
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  89. ^ a b c d e f Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Stricker R, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Quinn FA, Bischof P, Stricker R (2006). "Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 44 (7): 883–7. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.160. PMID 16776638. 
  90. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  91. ^ a b Mayo Medical Laboratories > Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum, retrieved December 2012
  92. ^ a b c d e f g GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  93. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  94. ^ a b c d Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). "Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372. 
  95. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  96. ^ a b Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  97. ^ a b Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum at Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research. Retrieved July 2012
  98. ^ a b c d Unit Code 91215 at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  99. ^ a b Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum from Mayo Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2012.
  100. ^ a b Derived from mass values using 140,000 g/mol, as given in:
  101. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  102. ^ "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. Retrieved 2008-11-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  103. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  104. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  105. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  106. ^ a b c d e f g h Friedrich N, Alte D, Völzke H, et al. (June 2008). "Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)". Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 18 (3): 228–37. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337. 
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran L, Fahie-Wilson MN, McKenna TJ, Kavanagh L, Smith TP (October 2008). "Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms". Clinical Chemistry. 54 (10): 1673–81. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312. PMID 18719199. 
  108. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  109. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract. 12 (2): 137–44. doi:10.4158/ep.12.2.137. PMC 1482827free to read. PMID 16690460. 
  110. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  111. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  112. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  113. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. (September 2004). "Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or &#61;60 y". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 752–8. PMID 15321818. 
  114. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 
  115. ^ a b c d e f g h Vasquez A, Cannell J (July 2005). "Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures: data are not sufficient to show inefficacy". BMJ. 331 (7508): 108–9; author reply 109. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b. PMC 558659free to read. PMID 16002891. 
  116. ^ a b Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  117. ^ a b Pratt RE, Flynn JA, Hobart PM, Paul M, Dzau VJ (March 1988). "Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (7): 3137–41. PMID 2893797. 
  118. ^ a b c d New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  119. ^ a b Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  120. ^ a b Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  121. ^ a b c d Tiu SC, Choi CH, Shek CC, et al. (January 2005). "The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic test for primary hyperaldosteronism and its test characteristics under different conditions of blood sampling". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (1): 72–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1149. PMID 15483077. 
  122. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  123. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  124. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  125. ^ a b GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  126. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  127. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  128. ^ a b c d The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  129. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  130. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  131. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  132. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  133. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. 
  134. ^ a b c d Normal Lab Values at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. Retrieved July 2013
  135. ^ a b c d e f g h molar concentration as given for hemoglobin above, but multiplied by 4, according to: Lodemann P, Schorer G, Frey BM (February 2010). "Wrong molar hemoglobin reference values-a longstanding error that should be corrected". Annals of Hematology. 89 (2): 209. doi:10.1007/s00277-009-0791-x. PMID 19609525. 
  136. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. . Subsequently, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  137. ^ a b c d e f g h lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  138. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  139. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  140. ^ a b c d e gpnotebook.co.uk > blood constituents (reference range) Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  141. ^ a b Demirin H, Ozhan H, Ucgun T, Celer A, Bulur S, Cil H, Gunes C, Yildirim HA (2011). "Normal range of mean platelet volume in healthy subjects: Insight from a large epidemiologic study". Thromb. Res. 128 (4): 358–60. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2011.05.007. PMID 21620440. 
  142. ^ a b Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  143. ^ a b Lozano M, Narváez J, Faúndez A, Mazzara R, Cid J, Jou JM, Marín JL, Ordinas A (1998). "[Platelet count and mean platelet volume in the Spanish population]". Med Clin (Barc) (in Spanish). 110 (20): 774–7. PMID 9666418. 
  144. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  145. ^ a b Antithrombin III at eMedicine
  146. ^ a b Antithrombin CO000300 in Coagulation Test Handbook at Massachusetts General Hospital. In turn citing:
    • Elizabeth M. Van Cott, M.D., and Michael Laposata, M.D., Ph.D., "Coagulation." In: Jacobs DS et al, ed. The Laboratory Test Handbook, 5th Edition. Lexi-Comp, Cleveland, 2001; 327-358.
  147. ^ a b [1] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  148. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (January 1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". British Medical Journal. 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 1546487free to read. PMID 6402065. 
  149. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J. 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 1841240free to read. PMID 6020854. 
  150. ^ C-reactive protein at GPnotebook
  151. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  152. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  153. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. 
  154. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  155. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  156. ^ "Procalcitonin, Serum". http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2015-03-01.  External link in |website= (help)
  157. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  158. ^ All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
  159. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq chronolab.com > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  160. ^ a b Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. (August 2005). "Serum free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance". Blood. 106 (3): 812–7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-03-1038. PMC 1895159free to read. PMID 15855274. 
  161. ^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook
  162. ^ Ageno W, Finazzi S, Steidl L, et al. (2002). "Plasma measurement of D-dimer levels for the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke subtypes". Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 (22): 2589–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.22.2589. PMID 12456231. 
  163. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. 
  164. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084free to read. PMID 7400337. 
  165. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 37 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. 
  166. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  167. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  168. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  169. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  170. ^ a b "Diabetes - Prevention". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2016-06-23.  Last revised 1/15/2013
  171. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  172. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol
  173. ^ a b Ketones at eMedicine
  174. ^ a b c d Page 700 in:
    Richard C. Dart. Medical Toxicology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins=year=2004. ISBN 9780781728454. 
  175. ^ The UK Electronic Medical Compendium recommends 0.4–0.8 mmol/l plasma lithium level in adults for prophylaxis of recurrent affective bipolar manic-depressive illness Camcolit 250 mg Lithium Carbonate Revision 2 December 2010, Retrieved 5 May 2011
  176. ^ a b Amdisen A. (1978). "Clinical and serum level monitoring in lithium therapy and lithium intoxication". J. Anal. Toxicol. 2: 193–202. doi:10.1093/jat/2.5.193. 
  177. ^ a b R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 851–854.
  178. ^ One study (Solomon, D.; Ristow, W.; Keller, M.; Kane, J.; Gelenberg, A.; Rosenbaum, J.; Warshaw, M. (1996). "Serum lithium levels and psychosocial function in patients with bipolar I disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (10): 1301–1307. PMID 8831438. ) concluded a "low" dose of 0.4–0.6 mmol/L serum lithium treatment for patients with bipolar 1 disorder had less side effects, but a higher rate of relapse, than a "standard" dose of 0.8–1.0 mmol/l. However, a reanalysis of the same experimental data (Perlis, R.; Sachs, G.; Lafer, B.; Otto, M.; Faraone, S.; Kane, J.; Rosenbaum, J. (2002). "Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum levels of lithium: A reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (7): 1155–1159. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1155. PMID 12091193. ) concluded the higher rate of relapse for the "low" dose was due to abrupt changes in the lithium serum levels[improper synthesis?]
  179. ^ a b John Marx; Ron Walls; Robert Hockberger (2013). Rosen's Emergency Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9781455749874.