Cleveland Clinic

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Cleveland Clinic logo.png
Cleveland Clinic.jpg
Geography
Location 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, United States
Organization
Care system Private
Hospital type Academic
Affiliated university

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Services
Beds 1440
History
Founded 1921
Links
Website www.clevelandclinic.org
Lists Hospitals in the United States

The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital located in Cleveland, Ohio that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF), an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921.[1] The Cleveland Clinic is recognized as one of the top medical centers in both the U.S. and the world, particularly in the field of technological and management systems[2] and in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.[3][4][5]

In addition to their flagship hospital in Cleveland, the CCF also operates affiliated facilities in Florida, Nevada, Canada, and Abu Dhabi.

History[edit]

The Cleveland Clinic was founded in February 1921 by four physicians who envisioned a group practice in which individual members would share clinical expertise and specialization and dedicate themselves teaching future generations of physicians, and where an academic culture would be fostered through innovations in medical procedures as well as through basic and applied research activities[3]

The Cleveland Clinic fire of 1929 killed 123 people, including one of the founders, Dr. Phillips, and caused significant damage to the original building.[3][6] The fire started in nitrocellulose x-ray film held in the basement of the hospital.[6] The disaster prompted medical facilities to establish standards for the storage of nitrocellulose film and other hazardous materials.[3]

From 1989 to 2004, the Cleveland Clinic nearly doubled both the capacity of its buildings and the number of visits, adding the Lerner Research Institute (1998), Cole Eye Institute (1999), and Taussig Cancer Center (2000), the Surgery Center, and two on-campus hotels.[3] By 2005, CCF was the second-largest private medical group practice in the US, with 1,400 physicians in 120 medical specialties and sub-specialties, serving more than a million patient visits a year.[3]

The Clinic has since then also expanded overseas, with the phased opening in 2015 of Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, constructed at the cost of approximately 1.5 billion USD. After completion, the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi will become one of the largest medical centers in the Middle East.

Research[edit]

The Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute had an annual research expenditure of approximately $250 million in 2008. The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University opened in 2004. Cleveland Clinic’s graduate medical education program is one of the largest in the country.[3]

Reputation[edit]

Cleveland Clinic is nationally recognized as one of the top medical centers in the US and the world, particularly in technological and management systems[2] and in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.[3][4][5] For high acuity conditions requiring special expertise or the newest technology, based on a statistical model that utilizes factors such as admission numbers and visit volumes, reputational perception by peers, the availability of special equipment,[7][8] and the campus availability of numerous high acuity specialties,[9] it is nationally ranked by U.S. News & World Report (USNWR) in 14 adult and 10 pediatric specialities in the US as follows:[5]

Specialty National ranking
Cancer 13
Cardiology and CT surgery 1
Diabetes and endocrinology 2
Ear, nose and throat 6
Gastroenterology and GI surgery 2
Geriatrics 9
Gynecology 3
Nephrology 2
Neurology and neurosurgery 6
Ophthalmology 7
Orthopedics 3
Pulmonology 3
Rheumatology 2
Urology 1

The USNWR ratings stand in contrast to rankings in models which feature a safety emphasis. In a Kaiser Family Foundation review of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data for hospital acquired conditions the Cleveland Clinic received a 8.7 score (1-10 possible, with 10 being the worst), in the bottom 7% of hospitals.[10] Consumer Reports rated the Cleveland Clinic 98th among 105 rated hospitals in the State of Ohio for overall safety, with a score of 39 out of 100 possible points; nationwide, the top 10 hospitals in this survey received scores of 68 to 72, and the bottom 10 hospitals received scores of 16-25.[11] Leapfrog Group ranked Cleveland Clinic as one of 121 hospitals (of a total of 2618) with a "barely passing" D rating for safety (25 hospitals had F scores), which Leapfrog sees as among the "most hazardous environments for patients in need of care."[12] The different emphasis and specific methodology for the USNWR and for the other ranking systems explains why teaching hospitals collectively score prominently on one system but rarely feature highly on others.[7]

Between 2010 and 2013, the CMS undertook an extensive series of ongoing separate investigations of CCF with at least a dozen inspections and follow-up visits triggered by patient complaints.[13][14] An analysis of Medicare inspection data between 2011 and 2014 found that CCF was one of at least 230 institutions where validated serious incidents—dubbed “immediate jeopardy” complaints— led CMS to threaten loss of ability to serve Medicare patients unless the problems were fixed immediately.[13] Due to numerous serious ongoing safety violations, CCF was on payment termination track for a period of 19 months, placing at stake $1B in annual Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement.[13] The citations were reported and analyzed in detail by Modern Healthcare, which posted some of the safety documents.[13][14]

Locations[edit]

Cleveland Clinic's main campus consists of 41 buildings on about 140 acres (57 ha) near University Circle, in Fairfax, Cleveland. CCF operates 14 family health and ambulatory surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital and family health center in Weston, Florida, an outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario.[15]

The Cleveland Clinic operates ten northeast Ohio hospitals and has affiliates in Florida, Nevada, Canada and Abu Dhabi:

Finances[edit]

According to data analyzed by American Hospital Directory, annual gross total patient revenues of $9.14 billion were the second largest in the US in 2011.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mission Vision and Values Cleveland Clinic. [1]. Accessed 05/17/2015.
  2. ^ a b Adler J. The Hospital That Could Cure Health Care. Newsweek. 2009. [2]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: Cleveland Clinic Foundation
  4. ^ a b Cleveland Clinic tops U.S. News list for heart care 20 years running. Cleveland Plain Dealer. July 15, 2014. [3]
  5. ^ a b c Best Hospitals 2014–15. U.S. News & World Report. [4]
  6. ^ a b Clough JD. To Act as a Unit : The Story of the Cleveland Clinic. Cleveland Clinic Press; 4th edition. April 1, 2005. ISBN 9781596240001
  7. ^ a b Lowes, Robert (2012-09-20). "Joint Commission's Top-Hospital List Still Missing Big Names". Medscape Medical News. 
  8. ^ Comarow, Avery (2008-07-10). "A Look Inside the Hospital Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 
  9. ^ "Top American Hospitals". U.S. News & World Report. 17 July 2012. 
  10. ^ staff (December 18, 2014). "Penalties For Hospital Acquired Conditions" (PDF). Kaiser Health News. Kaiser Family Foundation. 
  11. ^ staff (August 2012). "How safe is your hospital? Our new ratings find too many pose risks" (PDF). Consumer Reports: 20–28. 
  12. ^ Clark, Cheryl (November 28, 2012). "Leapfrog's New Safety Report Card Alarms Hospitals". Health Leaders Media. 
  13. ^ a b c d Carlson J. Cleveland Clinic cases highlight flaws in safety oversight. Modern Healthcare. June 7, 2014. [5]
  14. ^ a b Carlson J. Selected Cleveland Clinic hospital inspection reports. Modern Healthcare. June 7, 2014. [6]
  15. ^ www.clevelandcliniccanada.com
  16. ^ Bell J. Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi opens its doors for first patients. The National, UAE. March 17, 2015. [7]
  17. ^ Oh J. 100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America Becker's Hospital Review. Aug 29,2011 [8]

External links[edit]