PolyGram Filmed Entertainment
|Fate||Merged with Seagram|
|Headquarters||Universal City, California & London, England|
Universal Studios (1998–1999)
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (PFE) (originally known as PolyGram Films and PolyGram Pictures) was a film studio, founded in 1980, which became a European competitor to Hollywood, but eventually sold to The Seagram Company in 1998 and folded in 1999.
The music company PolyGram (owned by Dutch-based Philips and Germany's Siemens) created PolyGram Pictures in 1980 as a partnership with film producer Peter Guber. It was a spin-off of sorts to Casablanca FilmWorks, the film unit of PolyGram's Casablanca Records which Guber previously ran and had success with The Deep and Midnight Express. PolyGram reserved the finances and Guber would run as CEO. Guber would form a partnership with Barbra Streisand's hairdresser Jon Peters, who co-produced his client's A Star Is Born remake. Peters would produce PolyGram's films, and eventually become a stockholder with Guber.
Its first film was King of the Mountain (1981), which was a box-office flop. More money-losers followed. Ancillary markets such as home video and pay television were not yet established, and broadcast television networks were paying less for licenses to films. PolyGram's European investors were not happy; they had lost about $80 million on its film division. Not long after, Siemens parted with Philips. Guber and Peters left PolyGram Pictures in 1982, taking their plans for a new Batman movie with them, along with a few other projects. The duo eventually found a home at Warner Bros. As part of their exit proceedings, PolyGram would still own 7.5% of profits from some of its projects, including the Batman film.
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, PolyGram continued to invest in a diversified film unit with the purchases of individual production companies. In 1991, PolyGram's Michael Kuhn became the head of PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, with US$200 million pumped in with the intention of developing a European film studio that could produce and distribute films internationally on a scale to match the major Hollywood studios.
Following the style of its music business, the company produced films through a number of creatively semi-autonomous 'labels', such as Working Title Films in the UK and Propaganda Films and Interscope Communications in the United States; It also built up its own network of distribution companies.
Film production within PolyGram differed from traditional Hollywood studios, in that power to make ('green light') a film was not centralised in the hands of a small number of executives, but instead was decided by negotiations between producers, management and marketing. Kuhn claimed that "movies sort of green lit themselves."
PolyGram also built up a sizable film and television library that could be profitable. The company purchased ITC Entertainment in 1995. Through this purchase, PolyGram acquired 350 feature films, several thousand hours of television programming, and gained further access into the television market. In 1997, PFE agreed to purchase over a thousand feature films held by Credit Lyonnais Bank for $225 million. PolyGram also attempted purchasing MGM and The Samuel Goldwyn Company's library, but to no avail.
PFE was based in the United Kingdom, and invested heavily in British film making — some credit it with reviving the British film industry in the 1990s. Despite a successful production history, Philips decided to sell PolyGram to the beverage (liquor) conglomerate Seagram in 1998.
Only interested in PolyGram's music operations, Seagram, which at the time controlled Universal Pictures, looked forward to divesting in PFE. After being dissatisfied with offers to buy the studio (including a joint venture between Canal+ and Artisan Entertainment), Seagram opted to sell off individual assets and folded whatever remained into Universal. Seagram sold the bulk of its library of films released up until March 31, 1996 to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and the ITC library was sold to Carlton Communications. Some of PFE's North American distribution assets were sold to USA Networks. Universal owns the rest of the post-1996 films and PolyGram Television.
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment took over the distribution of Manga Entertainment's titles in Australia and New Zealand in late 1996 after Siren Entertainment's license to the Manga Video catalogue expired, but PolyGram lost the license to the Manga Video catalogue in 1998 after Madman Entertainment took over the licenses. This was due to Manga Entertainment being moved from Island Records to Palm Pictures.
- Working Title Films (UK), acquired by PFE in 1991.
- Propaganda Films (US), acquired in 1991.
- Interscope Communications (US)
- A&M Films (theatrical film division of A&M Records)
- Island Pictures (theatrical film division of Island Records), acquired Dec. 1994.
- Cinéa (France)
- PolyGram Video
- PolyGram Television
In 1992, PolyGram partnered with Universal Pictures to create a joint venture called Gramercy Pictures. Gramercy primarily distributed PolyGram films in the USA, and it doubled as a specialty label for Universal. In 1997, PolyGram Filmed Entertainment Distribution was founded to release PFE's mainstream titles in the USA, while Gramercy became a low-budget sublabel. After PolyGram's merger with Universal in 1999, the company merged Gramercy with October Films to create USA Films, which eventually became Focus Features.
Among the films directly produced by PFE were:
|May 30, 1980||The Hollywood Knights||co-production with Columbia Pictures|
|May 1, 1981||King of the Mountain||released by Universal Pictures|
|July 17, 1981||Endless Love||co-production with Universal Pictures|
|August 14, 1981||Deadly Blessing||released by United Artists|
|August 21, 1981||An American Werewolf in London||co-production with Universal Pictures|
|November 13, 1981||The Pursuit of D.B. Cooper||co-production with Universal Pictures|
|March 12, 1982||Missing||co-production with Universal Pictures|
|October 3, 1982||Split Image||released by Orion Pictures|
|December 24, 1982||Six Weeks||released by Universal Pictures|
|April 15, 1983||Flashdance||co-production with Paramount Pictures|
|December 13, 1985||A Chorus Line||co-production with Columbia Pictures and Embassy Pictures|
|December 13, 1985||Clue||co-production with Paramount Pictures|
|April 22, 1988||The Blue Iguana||co-production with Paramount Pictures|
|March 24, 1989||Troop Beverly Hills||co-production with Weintraub Entertainment Group|
|June 23, 1989||Batman||co-production with Warner Bros.|
|December 8, 1989||Fear, Anxiety & Depression||released by The Samuel Goldwyn Company|
|February 18, 2000||Pitch Black||distributed by USA Films; co-production with Interscope Communications[N 2]|
|March 24, 2000||Waking the Dead||distributed by USA Films[N 2]|
|April 14, 2000||Where the Money Is||distributed by USA Films[N 2]|
|July 28, 2000||Wonderland||distributed by USA Films[N 2]|
- Trainspotting (1996) (distributed by Miramax Films in the United States)
- Spice World (1997) (distributed by Columbia Pictures in the Americas)
- Barney's Great Adventure (1998) (co-production with Lyrick Studios)
- Arlington Road (1999, US rights owned by Screen Gems)
Working Title Films
- The Young Americans (1993)
- 100 Films and a Funeral, a documentary film about the rise and fall of PFE.
- Griffin, Nancy and Masters, Kim (1996). "Hit and Run" (pp. 100-116). New York: Touchstone, a Simon & Schuster company.
- Apodaca, Patrice (1995-02-21). "Screen Play : PolyGram Hopes to Bolster Its Hollywood Presence With Purchase of Once-Venerable ITC Entertainment - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "ITC Entertainment Sold to Polygram for $156 Million - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. 1987-11-24. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Fabrikant, Geraldine (1996-07-17). "Kerkorian Group Plans to Buy MGM Studio for $1.3 Billion - New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "Company News;Polygram Said To Drop Goldwyn Offer - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1996-01-31. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Eller, Claudia (October 9, 1998). "Seagram May Settle for Sale of Film Library". Los Angeles Times.
- Eller, Claudia (1998-10-23). "MGM Agrees to Acquire PolyGram Movie Library - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Thal, Peter (1999-01-20). "Carlton pays $150m for film library - Business - News". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "USA Will Buy Some Seagram Film Assets". Los Angeles Times. April 8, 1999.
- Eller, Claudia (1997-05-03). "PolyGram Unit to Distribute Films in U.S. - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Michael Kuhn, One Hundred Films and a Funeral: The Life and Death of Polygram Films, Thorogood, 2002. ISBN 1-85418-216-1.