Santi Apostoli, Rome
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|Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles |
Santi XII Apostoli (in Italian)
SS. XII Apostolorum (in Latin)
View of the church from the Vittoriano
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Parish church, titulus, minor basilica|
|Leadership||Father Mario Peruzzo|
|Architect(s)||Baccio Pontelli, Carlo Rainaldi, Carlo Fontana|
|Length||75 metres (246 ft)|
|Width||40 metres (130 ft)|
|Width (nave)||18 metres (59 ft)|
The Church of the Twelve Holy Apostles (Italian: Santi Dodici Apostoli, Latin: SS. Duodecim Apostolorum) is a 6th-century Roman Catholic parish and titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated originally to St. James and St. Philip whose remains are kept here, and later to all Apostles. Today, the basilica is under the care of the Conventual Franciscans, whose headquarters in Rome is in the adjacent building.
Built by Pope Pelagius I to celebrate a Narses victory over the Ostrogoths, and dedicated by Pope John III to St. James and Saint Philip the Apostle, the basilica is listed as 'Titulus SS Apostolorum' in the acts of the synod of 499. Santi Apostoli was ruined by the earthquake of 1348, and left abandoned.
In 1417, Pope Martin V, whose Colonna family owned the adjacent Palazzo Colonna, restored the church, while the facade was built at the end of the same century by Baccio Pontelli. It was frescoed by Melozzo da Forlì whose wall-paintings at Santi Apostoli were renowned for their innovative techniques of foreshortening and came to be regarded as Melozzo's masterpiece.
Pope Clement XI instigated dramatic renovations of the church. Melozzo's frescoes were either destroyed or moved partly to the Quirinal and partly to the Vatican Museums. A new Baroque interior was designed by Carlo Fontana and Francesco Fontana, and was completed in 1714. The church was later restored again, with the facade completed by Giuseppe Valadier in 1827.
The inscriptions found in SS. XII Apostoli, a valuable source illustrating the history of the church, have been collected and published by Vincenzo Forcella.
This church has three naves,[dubious ] divided by a row of Corinthian pillars, supporting the ceiling, on the middle of which is painted in 1707 the Triumph of the Order of St Francis, by Baciccio. There are also frescoes of the Evangelists by Luigi Fontana. The use of perspective is very good, and the angels appear to come out of the vault. Above the sanctuary is a fresco from 1709 by Giovanni Odazzi, representing the "Fall of Lucifer and his Angels".
To the right of the high altar are the tombs of Count Giraud de Caprières (died 1505) and Cardinal Raffaele Riario (died 1474), tentatively attributed to Michelangelo. To the left is a monument to Cardinal Riario, by the school of Andrea Bregno and possible designed by Andrea Bregno himself. There is also a Madonna by Mino da Fiesole.
On the wall, to the right of the portico of the ancient church, is an antique bas-relief of an eagle surrounded by an oak crown that it holds in its talons. Opposite is the monument of the engraver Giovanni Volpato executed and erected by his friend and countryman Antonio Canova. It consists of a large bas-relief, representing "Friendship" in the form of a woman weeping before the bust of the deceased Volpato.
On a pier of the nave on the right-hand side, near the first chapel, is enshrined the heart of Maria Klementyna Sobieska, wife of the Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart. Her tomb is in St Peter's Basilica. Her monument is by Filippo della Valle. Her husband used to pray here every morning. James III was laid in state here himself in 1766, before he was buried with his wife at St Peter's.
Frescoes of Melozzo da Forlì
Melozzo da Forlì painted, on the ceiling of the great chapel, the Ascension of our Lord. According to Giorgio Vasari, "the figure of Christ is so admirably foreshortened as to appear to pierce the vault; and in the same manner the angels are seen sweeping through the field of air in two opposite directions."  This painting was executed for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV about the year 1472.
During the dramatic renovation of the church, it was removed and placed in the Quirinal Palace in 1711, where it is still seen, bearing this inscription: "Opus Melotii Foroliviensis, qui summos fornices pingendi artem vel primus invenit vel illustravit". Several heads of the apostles which surrounded it, and were likewise cut away, were deposited in the Vatican palace.
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The twelve chapels in total, with three domed ones on each side, are adorned with marbles and fine paintings; the painting in the first chapel to the right, is by Nicola Lapiccola; and that in the next, by Corrado Giaquinto. The Chapel of St. Anthony contains eight fine marble columns, and a painting by Benedetto Luti.
The first chapel on the right-hand side is the Chapel of the Immaculate. It has a 15th-century Madonna donated by Cardinal Bessarion (1403–1472).
The Chapel of the Crucifixion on the right-hand side is divided into a nave and two aisles. The 8 columns are from the 6th-century church. The tomb of Raffaele della Rovere (died 1477), brother of Pope Sixtus IV and father of Pope Julius II, is found in the chapel on the left side of the crypt. It was designed by Andrea Bregno.
The confessio was constructed in 1837. During its construction, the relics of St James and St Philip, which were taken from the catacombs in the 9th century to protect them from invaders, were rediscovered. The wall paintings are reproductions of ancient catacomb paintings. An inscription explains that Pope Stephen IV walked barefoot in 886 from the catacombs to the church carrying the relics on his shoulders. The other chapels were decorated 1876-1877.
Pope Clement XIV (1769–1774) is buried in the last chapel on the left side, near the door of the sacristy. His Neo-Classical tomb is by Antonio Canova, made in 1783-1787. Besides the statue of that Pope, there are two uncommonly fine figures of "Temperance" and "Clemency". This was the first major work Canova did in Rome.
Beyond the sacristy is the chapel of St. Francis, painted by Giuseppe Chiari. On the altar of the following chapel, The second chapel on the left has an altarpiece from 1777 by Giuseppe Cades, depicting Saint Joseph of Cupertino. The two columns of verde antico, green marble, are the largest known in that type of stone. The "Descent of the Cross", on the altar of the last chapel, is a famous work of Francesco Manno.
On the second pillar on the left side is the epitaph of Cardinal Bessarion, and a 16th-century portrait of him. His mortal remains were moved here in 1957.
- Raffaele della Rovere (died 1521)
- Pope Clement XIV (1769–1774)
- Cardinal Bessarion (1403–1472)
- Count Giraud de Caprières (died 1505)
- Cardinal Pietro Riario (died 1474)
For a short time, the basilica housed the tomb of Michelangelo, before its transportation to the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze. Upon the death of James Francis Edward Stuart in 1766, his body lay in state here before he was buried with his wife at St. Peter's Basilica.
List of Cardinal-priests since 1059
- Bernardus (attested in 1059)
- Gregorius (by 1102 - 1112) went into schism against Pope Paschal II.
- Hugo (Ugone d'Alatri) (by 1116 - after 10 November 1121)
- Gregorius (restored) (by 6 April 1123 - 1138) He followed Anacletus II in the schism of 1130.
- Ildebrandus (1156 - 1178)
- Pandulfus de Masca (1182 - 1201)
- Stephanus de Ceccano, O.Cist. (1213 - 1227)
- Guilelmus Talliante O.S.B. (1244 - 1250)
- Annibale Annibaldi de Molaria O.P. (1262 - 1272)
- Gerardo Bianchi O.Cist. (March 1278 - 1281)
- Imbertus de Puteo (Dupuis) (18 December 1327 - 26 May 1348)
- Pectin de Montesquieu (17 December 1350 – 1 February 1355)
- Pierre de La Forêt (23 December 1356 – 7 June 1361)
- Bernard du Bosquet (22 September 1368 – 19 April 1371)
- Robert de Genève (30 May 1371 – 20 September 1378)
- Jan Očko of Vlašim (18 September 1378 – 14 January 1380)
- Pietro Filargis (12 June 1405 – 26 June 1409)
- Basilios Bessarion (8 January 1440 – 18 November 1472)
- Clemente Grosso della Rovere (6 December 1503 – 18 August 1504)
- Leonardo Grosso della Rovere (17 December 1505 – 15 September 1508)
- Francesco Soderini (15 September 1508 – 29 October 1511)
- Pompeo Colonna (13 November 1517 – 28 June 1532)
- Alonso Manrique de Lara (12 July 1532 – 28 September 1538)
- Pedro Sarmiento (15 November 1538 – 13 October 1541)
- Miguel da Silva (cardinal) (6 February 1542 – 5 October 1543)
- Durante Duranti (9 January 1545 – 24 December 1557)
- Markus Sitticus von Hohenems Altemps (10 March 1561 – 15 May 1565)
- Marcantonio Colonna (15 May 1565 – 5 December 1580)
- Rodrigo de Castro Osorio (20 May 1585 – 18 September 1600)
- François de Sourdis (20 December 1600 – 30 January 1606)
- Domenico Ginnasi (30 January 1606 – 16 September 1624)
- Desiderio Scaglia(9 February 1626 – 6 October 1627)
- Francesco Maria Brancaccio (9 January 1634 – 2 July 1663)
- Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (15 March 1666 – 1 December 1681)
- Francesco Lorenzo Brancati di Lauria (1 December 1681 – 30 November 1693)
- Giorgio Cornaro (7 April 1698 – 10 August 1722)
- Benedetto Erba Odescalchi (29 January 1725 – 13 December 1740)
- Domenico Riviera (2 January 1741 – 2 November 1752)
- Henry Benedict Stuart (18 December 1752 – 13 July 1761)
- Pope Clement XIV (29 March 1762 – 19 May 1769)
- Francisco de Solís Folch de Cardona (26 June 1769 – 21 March 1775)
- Giovanni Archinto (15 July 1776 – 1 June 1795)
- Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana (24 July 1797 – 17 April 1804)
- Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara (29 April 1816 – 27 September 1822)
- Carlo Odescalchi (16 May 1823 – 15 April 1833)
- Francesco Serra Casano (29 July 1833 – 17 August 1850)
- Antonio Francesco Orioli (30 September 1850 – 20 February 1852)
- Giusto Recanati (10 March 1853 – 17 November 1861)
- Antonio Maria Panebianco (23 December 1861 – 21 November 1885)
- José Sebastião de Almeida Neto (10 June 1886 – 7 December 1920)
- Pietro La Fontaine (7 March 1921 – 9 July 1935)
- Ignatius Gabriel I Tappuni (19 December 1935 – 11 February 1965)
- Francesco Roberti (26 June 1967 – 16 July 1977)
- Agostino Casaroli (30 June 1979 – 25 May 1985)
- Giovanni Battista Re (21 February 2001 – 1 October 2002)
- Angelo Scola (21 October 2003 – incumbent)
- Official website of the vicariate of Rome Archived February 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- V. Forcella, Inscrizioni delle chese e d' altre edifici di Roma, dal secolo XI fino al secolo XVI Volume II (Roma: Fratelli Bencini, 1873), pp. 219-298.
- Vasi, Mariano (1824), A new picture of Rome and its environs in the form of an itinerary, Cradock, & Joy, p. 176
- Lanzi, Luigi (1828), The History of Painting in Italy: The schools of Bologna, Ferrara, Genoa, and Piedmont, W. Simpkin and R. Marshall, p. 43[better source needed]
- Rudolf Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms , 1049-1130 (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer 1977), pp. 150-153.
- Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I, editio altera (Monasterii 1913) pp. 39-40.
- GCatholic Cardinal Title Santi XII Apostoli
- Salvador Miranda, The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: XII Apostolorum Retrieved 03/08/2016
- Angelo Fumagalli, Delle Istituzioni Diplomatiche (Milano: Al Genio Tipografico 1802), p. 140.
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- Giovanni Antonio Bonelli, Memorie storiche della Basilica costantiniana dei SS. XII.: Apostoli di Roma e dei nuovi suoi ristauri (Roma: Tipi del Salviucci, 1879).
- Rezio Buscaroli, Melozzo da Forlì nei documenti (Roma: Reale accademia l'Italia, 1938).
- Emma Zocca, La basilica dei S.S. Apostoli in Roma (Roma: F. Canella, 1959).
- Nicholas Clark, Melozzo da Forlì: pictor papalis (London: Sotheby's Publications 1990).
- L. Finocchi Ghersi, La Basilica dei Santi Apostoli a Roma tra il XV e il XIX secolo (Roma: La Sapienza 1990) [dissertation]
- Isabelle Jennifer Frank, Melozzo Da Forli and the Rome of Pope Sixtus IV: (1471 - 84) (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1991).
- L. Finocchi Ghersi, "Francesco Fontana e la basilica dei Santi Apostoli a Roma," Storia dell'Arte no. 73 (1991), pp. 332–60.
- Lorenzo Finocchi Ghersi, La basilica dei SS. Apostoli a Roma: storia, arte e architettura (Roma: Artemide, 2011).