Klang War

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Klang War
Date 1867–1874
Location Selangor
Result Tengku Kudin victory
Belligerents
Raja Abdullah
Raja Ismail
Raja Mahdi
Commanders and leaders
Raja Abdullah
Raja Ismail
Tengku Kudin
Yap Ah Loy
Raja Mahdi
Raja Mahmud
Syed Mashhor
Chong Chong
Part of a series on the
History of Malaysia
The independence of Malaya and the merger proclamation of North Borneo and Sarawak to formed Malaysia.

The Klang War or Selangor Civil War was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1867 to 1874 in the Malay state of Selangor. It was initially fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang, and Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman. It was joined by Tengku Kudin (Tengku Dhiauddin, also spelt Ziauddin), as well as Chinese rival gangs. The war was eventually won by Tengku Kudin and Abdullah's son, Raja Ismail.

Background[edit]

In 1854, the sultan of Selangor Sultan Muhammad Shah appointed Raja Abdullah as Klang's administrator. Raja Abdullah and his brother Raja Juma'at had previously helped Raja Sulaiman pay a debt incurred during a failed mining venture, and was therefore rewarded with the chieftainship of Klang.[1][2] Raja Mahdi (also spelt Raja Mahadi), Sultan Muhammad Shah's grandson and whose father Raja Sulaiman was the previous Klang's head, therefore became disinherited. Raja Abdullah and Raja Juma'at, who had opened very successful tin mines in Lukut, then obtained the finance to open tin mines near Kuala Lumpur in 1857. The success of the tin mines generated considerable revenues, and the struggle for the control of the revenues from the tin mines as well as political power were essentially the reasons for the war.[3]

Sultan Muhammad died in 1857, and Sultan Abdul Samad took the throne after a power struggle. Sultan Abdul Samad however only controlled Langat and did not have absolute control over Selangor, which was then ruled by four chieftains in Bernam, Lukut, Klang and Kuala Selangor.[2] When the disgruntled Raja Mahdi initiated the conflict, the Malays would split into two camps in the ensuing war. On Raja Mahdi side were Raja Mahmud, son of the Panglima Raja of Selangor; Raja Hitam of Bernam; groups of Sumatran settlers led by Haji Muhamad Tahir (later switched to Raja Abdullah's side and was appointed as the Dato Dagang of Kuala Lumpur and Klang by Sultan Abdul Samad); Syed Mashhor, an Arab-Malay fighter from Pontianak (originally on Raja Abdullah side but switched side later); and Raja Muda Musa who also went to their side later. Raja Abdullah's faction included his son, Raja Ismail who continued the war after Raja Abdulla's death, later joined by Tengku Kudin and supported by the Sultan of Selangor. Tengku Kudin also gained the support of British colonial administrators and fighters from Pahang in the final stages. The Chinese tin miners were also divided between the two camps.

Initial conflict[edit]

The entrance gate of the old fort of Sultan Mahadi in Klang built in 1866 as a defense against Raja Abdullah . Today only the main gate and the earthen ramparts remain of the fort.

In 1866, Raja Abdullah leased Klang to two traders from the Straits Settlements; William Henry Macleod Read and Tan Kim Ching. Among benefits of being a renter was tax collection from the opium trade, which Raja Mahdi was involved in.[2] When the two traders went out to collect tax, Raja Mahdi was offended as he felt he was exempted from the tax, and refused to pay.[3]

At that time there was also a long-standing animosity between the Bugis Melayu (the Selangor royal family were of Bugis origin) and the Sumatran Batu Bara ethnic groups. Raja Abdullah, also a Bugis, refused to punish a member of the Bugis Melayu he sent to guard Bukit Nanas but had murdered a villager from the Batu Bara ethnic group. A Batu Bara leader then informed Raja Mahdi and they would support him if he wanted to attack Raja Abdullah.[4] Raja Mahdi, supported by the Sumatran traders, then laid siege to the fort of Klang. Raja Abdullah evacuated with his family to Malacca, where he later died, while his two sons continued with the fighting. In March 1867, Raja Mahdi gained possession of the fort and control of Klang. One of Abdullah's sons, Raja Ismail, returned with three small ships to lay siege to Raja Mahdi, but was unable to take Klang.[3]

Chinese Kongsi Involvement[edit]

When the Selangor Civil War broke out, Kapitan Cina Yap Ah Loy was faced with internecine fighting among dissident Chinese groups as well as attacks from Malay factions. The two largest Chinese gangs, the Hai San (based in Kuala Lumpur) and the Ghee Hin (based in the Kanching and Rawang area), had engaged in fighting to gain control of tin production in the town.[5][6] The Chinese factions would eventually joined opposing sides in the civil war, with the Ghee Hin siding with Raja Mahdi, and the Hai San with Yap Ah Loy siding with Tengku Kudin.[7]

At Kanching, the headman Yap Ah Sze who was an ally of Yap Ah Loy was murdered, most likely at the instigation of Chong Chong, another Hakka headman.[8] Yap Ah Loy, the Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, went to Kanching with his men to drive out Chong Chong, and many from the Kanching faction were killed. Chong Chong then took refuge in Rawang and sided with Raja Mahdi.[2]

Yap Ah Loy initially stayed uncommitted in the Klang War, choosing to deal with whoever that was in power. After Raja Madhi took power in Klang, Raja Madhi had in fact organised a ceremony to formally invest Yap into the office of Kapitan in 1869. Later Yap recognized the authority of Tengku Kudin who had captured Klang after meeting him by chance in Langat.[9] Chong Chong joined Syed Mashhor to attack Kuala Lumpur twice, but were unsuccessful both times.

Tengku Kudin enters the war[edit]

Tengku Dhiauddin and Raja Ismail with Captain Powlett. H.M.S. "Avon".

In 1867, Tunku Dhiauddin Zainal Rashid, also known as Tengku Kudin, a prince from Kedah, married into the Selangor royal family. The Sultan appointed his son-in-law as Viceroy of Selangor to arbitrate between the warring parties, first on 26 June 1868.[10][11][12]

Raja Mahadi however flatly refused the peace effort. Offended by Raja Mahdi refusal to acknowledge his effort, Tengku Kudin sided with Raja Ismail instead. In March 1870, Raja Ismail with help from Tengku Kudin then besieged Klang. Raja Mahdi, defeated, then retreated to Kuala Selangor, which he captured from Raja Musa with help from Raja Hitam. Syed Mashhor, who served under Tengku Kudin, was sent to Kuala Selangor to help Raja Musa but switched side after learning that his brother had been killed by a son of the Sultan.[13] Raja Mahdi allied with Chinese in Kanching who were enemies of Yap, then attacked Kuala Lumpur in 1870 with the Malay forces led by Syed Mashhor, and again in 1871, but both attacks were unsuccessful.[7][9]

Meanwhile, with disruption to the economy and trade in the British Straits Settlements, and concerns over security especially occurrences of piracy, the British became increasingly involved in the affairs of Selangor. In July 1871, due to an attack by pirates which was traced to Raja Mahdi's stronghold Kuala Selangor, the British attacked and captured Kuala Selangor, drove Mahdi's men out and then handed the town to Tengku Kudin.[14] Kudin however refused to yield control of revenue from the town to Raja Musa who had previously ruled Kuala Selangor, which prompted Raja Musa to join Mahdi's side. The Sultan of Selangor, who had bestowed Langat upon Tengku Kudin to help him fund his war, also began to be concerned about the rising power of Tengku Kudin.[2]

End of war[edit]

Tengku Dhiauddin's Secretariat.

In 1872, Raja Mahdi gained the support of a number of Malay chiefs, some of them members of Selangor Royal family. Leaders of Mandailing settlers in Selangor, Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa, also switched side to Raja Mahdi. Raja Mahdi's forces attacked Kuala Lumpur, and Raja Asal laid siege to Bukit Nanas where Tengku Kudin's forces 500 soldiers and various mercenaries including Europeans were stationed. The siege forced Tengku Kudin's men to try to escape, but they were captured and killed. Yap Ah Loy managed to escape to Klang, but Kuala Lumpur was razed to the ground. Kuala Selangor was then captured by Raja Mahdi's forces.

Yap however was determined to recapture Kuala Lumpur, and assembled a force of around 1,000 men. Tengku Kudin also requested the help of Sultan of Pahang in 1872, and the Bendahara Wan Ahmad of Pahang sent him 1,000 men and other reserves in response. He also gained the support of Sir Andrew Clarke of the British Empire. In March 1873, Kudin's and Yap's men, with support from Pahang fighters, defeated Mashhor in Kuala Lumpur.[3] The fighting went on for a few more months, and the capture of Kuala Selangor by the Pahang forces on 8 November 1873 largely ended the war. In 1874 Raja Mahdi was forced to leave for Johore and then Singapore, where he died in 1882.[15]

Aftermath[edit]

Despite winning the war, Tengku Kudin was viewed with suspicion by the royal family of Selangor. Tengku Kudin's army from Pahang also refused to return to Pahang because they wanted to collect tax as payment for their service. The leader of the Pahang forces was allowed to collect the revenue of Kuala Selangor and Klang, while J. G. Davidson and others who helped funded Tengku Kudin were given favourable concession on mining land for ten years in Selangor.[2] The refusal of the Pahang army to leave made the situation worse for Tengku Kudin. While the British through the new Governor Andrew Clarke was on Tengku Kudin's side, the post-war situation had weakened Tengku Kudin's support. Kudin remained the Viceroy of Selangor until 1878, but he had already left for Kedah by 1876, and later went on to live in Penang.[16][17]

British Resident[edit]

A significant development in this period is the beginning of direct British involvement in the affairs of the Malay states. The British were concerned about the effect of piracy and the disruption caused by the war to their trade and investments in the region, eventually siding with Tengku Kudin, in part because Mahdi and some of his followers had attacked shipping in the Straits. Colonial Secretary James W. W. Birch voiced his support for Tengku Kudin and lent him a ship to blockade Kuala Selangor, and Governor Sir Harry Ord also encouraged Pahang to back Tengku Kudin with fighters.[7]

After a number of pirate attacks took place in Selangor, Andrew Clarke in August 1874 assigned Frank Swettenham as a resident advisor to Sultan Abdul Samad. Sultan Abdul Samad accepted James Guthrie Davidson, a lawyer from Singapore, as the first British Resident of Selangor in 1875. In October, Sultan Abdul Samad sent a letter to Andrew Clarke requesting that Selangor become a British protectorate.[18][19] This came after the signing of the 1874 Pangkor Agreement with the Sultan of Perak that marked the beginning the period of indirect rule of Malay states by the British Residents serving as advisers to the sultans.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J.M. Gullick (1983). "Chapter 2: The State of Selangor". The Story of Kuala Lumpur, 1857-1939. Eastern Universities Press (M). pp. 8–29. ISBN 978-9679080285. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tan Ding Eing (1975). A Portrait of Malaysia and Singapore. Oxford University Press. pp. 82–85. ISBN 978-0195807226. 
  3. ^ a b c d J.M. Gullick (1983). "Chapter 4: The Selangor Civil War (1867-1873)". The Story of Kuala Lumpur, 1857-1939. Eastern Universities Press (M). pp. 17–23. ISBN 978-9679080285. 
  4. ^ "Raja Mahadi Fort (Kota Raja Mahadi)". Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. 2000. Archived from the original on 16 November 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  5. ^ "From tin town to tower city", kiat.net, Retrieved 28 September 2010
  6. ^ "Kuala Lumpur History". Kuala-Lumpur.ws. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c Jim Baker (31 July 2010). Crossroads: A Popular History of Malaysia and Singapore (2nd ed.). Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 124–125. ISBN 9789814435482. 
  8. ^ "The Death of Yap Ah Sze". 
  9. ^ a b Sharon A. Carstens (31 March 2005). Histories, Cultures, Identities: Studies in Malaysian Chinese Worlds. Singapore University Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-9971693121. 
  10. ^ "Sultan Abdul Samad memberi kuasa kepada menantunya Tengku Kudin". National Archives of Malaysia. 15 October 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  11. ^ "Selangor Sultanate - the History". Irfan Nughoro. Melayu Online, Indonesia. 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  12. ^ "Perlantikan semula Tengku Kudin sebagai wakil Yamtuan Negeri Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2009. 
  13. ^ "The Defection of Syed Mashhor". The History of Yap Ah Loy. 
  14. ^ "The Selangor Civil War". Sejarah Melayu. 
  15. ^ J.M. Gullick (1983). The Story of Kuala Lumpur, 1857-1939. Eastern Universities Press (M). p. 39. ISBN 978-9679080285. 
  16. ^ "Tengku Kudin meninggal dunia". National Archives of Malaysia. 14 October 2008. 
  17. ^ "Tengku Kudin menawan Kuala Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 16 June 2008. 
  18. ^ "Perisytiharan Pentadbiran Inggeris di Selangor". National Archives of Malaysia. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  19. ^ Andaya, B.W. (1984). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9. 
  20. ^ James W. Gould (1 July 1974). The United States and Malaysia. Harvard University Press. pp. 64 – 66. ISBN 978-0674926158. 

Further reading[edit]