Klang (city)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Royal town district
Klang Bandar Diraja
کلڠ بندر دراج
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiکلڠ
 • Chinese巴生
 • Tamilகிள்ளான்
The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang
The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang
Flag of Klang
Perpaduan Sendi Kekuatan (in Malay)
"Strength Through Unity"
Location of area under MP Klang (red) within the Klang District (orange), and the state of Selangor (yellow).
Location of area under MP Klang (red) within the Klang District (orange), and the state of Selangor (yellow).
Klang is located in Malaysia
Location of area under MP Klang (red) within the Klang District (orange), and the state of Selangor (yellow).
Coordinates: 3°02′N 101°27′E / 3.033°N 101.450°E / 3.033; 101.450
Municipal Status
1 January 1977
 • Administered byKlang Municipal Council
 • Yang diPertua
Dato' Mohamad Yasid Bidin[1]
 • Royal town district573 km2 (202 sq mi)
 • Density1,298/km2 (3,360/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)Not observed

Klang or Kelang, officially Royal Town of Klang (Malay: Bandar Diraja Klang), is a royal town and former capital of the state of Selangor, Malaysia. It is located within the Klang District. It was the civil capital of Selangor in an earlier era prior to the emergence of Kuala Lumpur and the current capital, Shah Alam. Port Klang, which is located in the Klang District, is the 12th busiest transshipment port and the 12th busiest container port in the world.[2][3]

The Klang Municipal Council [ms] or MP Klang exercises jurisdiction for a majority of the Klang District while the Shah Alam City Council exercises some jurisdiction over the east of Klang District, north of Petaling District and the other parts of Selangor State including Shah Alam itself.

As of 2010, the Klang City has a total population of 240,016 (10,445 in the city centre), while the population of Klang District is 842,146, and the population of all towns managed by Klang Municipal Council is 744,062.[4]


The Klang Bell, dated 200 BC–200 AD

The royal town of Klang has been a site of human settlement since prehistoric times. Bronze Age drums, axes and other artefacts have been found in the vicinity of the town and within the town itself. A bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC was found in Klang and is now in the British Museum.[5][6][7] Also found are iron tools called "tulang mawas" ("ape bones").[8] Commanding the approaches to the tin rich Klang Valley, Klang has always been of key strategic importance. It was mentioned as a dependency of other states as early as the 11th century.[9] Klang was also mentioned in the 14th century literary work Nagarakretagama dated to the Majapahit Empire, and the Klang River was already marked and named on the earliest maritime charts of Chinese Admiral Cheng Ho on his visits to Malacca from 1409 to 1433.[10]

Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century maps of Zheng He showing Klang River estuary (吉令港) near the top left

Klang was under the control of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century. The celebrated Tun Perak, the Malacca's greatest Bendahara, came from Klang and became its territorial chief. According to the Malay Annals, the people of Klang overthrew the local chief or penghulu and asked the Sultan of Malacca Muzaffar Shah to appoint another, and Tun Perak was then appointed the leader. Klang was known as a producer of tin; according to Manuel Godinho de Erédia, it produced one hundred bares of tin a year when the Portuguese occupied Malacca.[8] Klang however remained in Malay hands after the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese in 1511, and was controlled by the Sultan Johor-Riau. In the 17th century, the Bugis began to settle in the coastal region of Selangor including Klang, and the Selangor sultanate was created in the 1766, which then controlled Klang.[11][12]

Klang Municipal Council building with old Raja Mahadi fort's gate in the foreground.

In the 19th century the importance of Klang greatly increased by the rapid expansion of tin mining as a result of the increased demand for tin from the West. The desire to control the Klang Valley led directly to the Klang War (also called the Selangor Civil War) of 1867–1874 when Raja Mahdi fought to regain what he considered his birthright as territorial chief against Raja Abdullah.[13] During the Klang War, in 1868, the seat of power was moved to Bandar Temasya, Kuala Langat,[10] and then to Jugra which became the royal capital of Selangor.[14]

Klang however did not lose its importance. In 1874, Selangor accepted a British Resident who would "advise" the Sultan, and Klang became the capital of British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when the capital city was moved to Kuala Lumpur due to the growth of Kuala Lumpur from tin-mining.[15][16] Today Klang is no longer State capital or the main seat of the ruler, but it remains the headquarters of the District to which it gives it name.

Until the construction of Port Swettenham (now known as Port Klang) in 1901, Klang remained the chief outlet for Selangor's tin, and its position was enhanced by the completion of the Klang Valley railway to Bukit Kuda in 1886, which was then connected to Klang itself via a rail bridge, the Connaught Bridge, completed in 1890.[17] In the 1890s its growth was further stimulated by the development of the district into the State' leading producer of coffee, and later rubber. In 1903, the royal seat was moved back to Klang when it became the official seat of Sultan Sulaiman (Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah).

Klang in the 1870s

In May 1890, a local authority, known as Klang Health Board, was established to administer Klang town. The official boundary of Klang was first defined in 1895.[18] The first road bridge over the Klang River connecting the two parts of the town, the Belfield Bridge, was constructed in 1908.[19] In 1926 the health boards of Klang and Port Swettenham were merged, and in 1945 the local authority was renamed Klang Town Board.[18] In 1954, the Town Board became the Klang Town Council after a local election was set up to select its members in accordance with the Local Government Election Ordinance of 1950. In 1963, the Port Klang Authority was created and it now administers three Port Klang areas: Northport, Southpoint, and West Port.[20]

In 1971, the Klang District Council, which incorporated the nearby townships of Kapar and Meru as well as Port Klang, was formed. After undergoing a further reorganisation according to the Local Government Act of 1976 (Act 171), Klang District Council was upgraded to Klang Municipal Council (KMC) on 1 January 1977.[18] From 1974 to 1977, Klang was the state capital of Selangor before the seat of government shifted to Shah Alam in 1977.[10]


Klang may have taken its name from the Klang River which runs through the town. The entire geographical area in the immediate vicinity of the river, which begins at Kuala Lumpur and runs west all the way to Port Klang, is known as the Klang Valley.

One popular theory on the origin of the name is that it is derived from the Mon–Khmer word Klong,[21] which may mean a canal or waterway.[21] Alternatively it has also been argued that it means "warehouses", from the Malay word Kilang – in the old days, it was full of warehouses (kilang currently means "factory").[22]

Klang was also once known as Pengkalan Batu meaning "stone jetty".[23]


Pasar Jawa Mosque on the northern side of Klang River

Klang is divided into North Klang and South Klang, which are separated by the Klang River. North Klang is divided into three sub-districts which are Kapar (Located at the north of North Klang), Rantau Panjang (situated at the west of North Klang) and Meru (at the east of North Klang).

Klang North used to be the main commercial centre of Klang, but since 2008, more residential and commercial areas as well as government offices are being developed in Klang South. Most major government and private health care facilities are also located at Klang South. Hence, this area tends to be busier and becomes the centre of social and recreational activities after office hours and during the weekends. This is triggered by the rapid growth of new and modern townships such as Bandar Botanic, Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Taman Sentosa Perdana, Taman Sri Andalas, Taman Bayu Perdana, Glenmarie Cove, Kota Bayuemas etc. all located within Klang South.

At the Klang North side, some of the older and established residential areas include Berkeley Garden, Taman Eng Ann, Taman Klang Utama, Bandar Baru Klang and so forth. Newer townships include Bandar Bukit Raja, Aman Perdana and Klang Sentral.

Malaysia's busiest port, Port Klang was previously named Port Swettenham until 1972 when it was renamed Port Klang. Port Klang is located at Klang South.


The economy of Klang is closely linked with that the greater Klang Valley conurbation which is the most densely populated, urbanised and industrialised region of Malaysia.[24] There is a wide range of industries within the Klang municipality, major industrial areas may be found in Bukit Raja, Kapar, Meru, Taman Klang Utama and Sungai Buloh, Pulau Indah, Teluk Gong and others.[25] Rubber used to be an important part of the economy of the region, but from the 1970s onwards, many rubber plantations have switched to palm oil, and were then converted again for urban development and infrastructure use.[26][27]

Port Klang forms an important part of the economy of Klang. It is home to about 95 shipping companies and agents, 300 custom brokers, 25 container storage centres, as well as more than 70 freight and transport companies.[28] It handled almost 50% of Malaysia's sea-borne container trade in 2013.[29] The Port Klang Free Zone was established in 2004 to transform Port Klang into a regional distribution hub as well as a trade and logistics centre.[30]


Klang encompasses three parliamentary seats: Kapar (Mr. Manikavasagam a/l Sundaram of PKR), Kota Raja (Mr. Mohamad Sabu of Amanah), and Klang (Mr. Charles Anthony Santiago of DAP). All three are held by the Pakatan Harapan coalition. These constituencies are subdivided into state seats.


The following are the census figures for the population of Klang. The 1957 and 1970 figures are for the Klang district and were collected before the reorganisation of Klang and the Bumiputra status being used as a category. The 2010 figures are for MP Klang. The figure for Klang city is not given as what constitutes Bandar Klang appears to be inconsistent with considerable fluctuation in numbers over the years.[31]

Ethnic Group Population
1957[31] 1970[31] 2010[32]
Malay 37,003 24.68% 72,734 31.13% 234,293 41.18%
Other Bumiputras 9,107 1.60%
Bumiputra total 243,400 42.78%
Chinese 65,454 43.65% 100,524 43.02% 152,582 26.83%
Indian 44,393 29.60% 59,333 25.39% 121,533 21.37%
Others 3,105 2.07% 1,079 0.46% 2,994 0.53%
Malaysian total 520,509 91.53%
Non-Malaysian 48,198 8.47%
Total 149,955 100.00% 233,670 100.00% 568,707 100.00%


There are a number of criminal gangs operating in Klang, and gang violence is not uncommon.[33][34] Among the Chinese community, there are the Ang Bin Hoey triad gangs such as Gang 21 which operates in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley.[35] There are also Gang 24,[36] Gang 36 and others,[37] and their members are often Indians.[38] Due to economic development and changes in the industry, many rubber estates where Indian plantation workers used to live and work were closed, and this is thought to have contributed to a rise of gangsterism amongst the displaced and economically-deprived Indians.[39][40] It is thought that the Indians originally worked for Chinese gang leaders but they now dominate many of these criminal organisations.[38]

Transportation and accessibility[edit]

Klang is served by five commuter stations that constitute the 2 Port Klang Line of the KTM Komuter system, namely Bukit Badak, Kampung Raja Uda, Klang, Teluk Pulai and the Teluk Gadung stations. By August 2020, Klang will also be connected to the RM 9 billion LRT 3 rail line.

Klang is connected to the rest of the Klang Valley via the Federal Highway, the New Klang Valley Expressway, South Klang Valley Expressway, the North Klang Straits Bypass (New North Klang Straits Bypass) as well as the KESAS Highway.

Klang is also served by the RapidKL bus route. Klang Sentral acts as a terminal for long-distance buses and taxis in northern Klang. There is a non-stop hourly bus service everyday from and to KLIA2 to Klang, of which the embarkation point is located at the AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre.

A view of Klang from the Kota Bridge

The double-decked Kota Bridge was first built in late 1950s as a replacement for the Belfield Bridge. The double-decked bridge now closed to car traffic after a new Kota Bridge was built alongside it in the 1992, although the lower deck is still used by pedestrians, bicycles and motorcycles.[41] A second bridge in Klang, the Musaeddin (Tengku Kelana) Bridge, was built in the 1980s near the Kota Bridge. The RM199 million Klang Third Bridge was opened for traffic in May 2017, complementing the existing two other road bridges in the city that connect Klang North and Klang South.[42]

Infrastructure and developments[edit]

Shopping complexes[edit]

The AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre in Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Klang has the largest AEON store in Southeast Asia.

There are several shopping complexes and hypermarkets in Klang, primarily in Klang South, namely:


  • TGV Cinemas Bukit Tinggi
  • TGV Cinemas Bukit Raja
  • TGV Cinemas Central-I City
  • GSC Klang Parade
  • Mmcineplexes Shaw Centrepoint
  • LFS Sri Intan

Hospitals and medical centres[edit]

  • Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (Klang General Hospital), Jalan Langat
  • Manipal Hospitals Klang, Bandar Bukit Tinggi
  • Pantai Hospital Klang, Persiaran Raja Muda Musa, Port Klang
  • Sri Kota Medical Centre, Jalan Mohet
  • KO Specialist Center Klang, Jalan Goh Hock Huat
  • KPJ Klang Specialist Hospital, Bandar Baru Klang
  • Metro Maternity Hospital, Jalan Pasar
  • Sentosa Specialist Hospital
  • Hospital Bersalin Razif, Taman Sri Andalas
  • Columbia Asia Hospital, Bandar Bukit Raja
  • Klinik Kesihatan Bandar Botanic (Government health clinic)

Local landmarks and attractions[edit]

  • Istana Alam Shah – The royal residence of the Sultan of Selangor was built in 1950 in south Klang to replace the old Mahkota Puri Palace. Parts of the Palace are accessible to the public but only on a few days of the week.[44] Near the Palace is the Klang Royal City Park (Taman Bandar Diraja Klang), and located in front of the Palace is a sports stadium (Stadium Padang Sultan Sulaiman) and the Royal Klang Club.
  • Sultan Sulaiman Royal Mosque – The royal Mosque was built in 1932.
  • Kuan Im Teng Klang (巴生观音亭) (Goddess of Mercy Temple) – Kuan Im Teng (as pronounced in the Hokkien dialect) was established in 1892 and is over 100 years old. This Goddess of Mercy Temple is located at the Jalan Barat Daya, near Simpang Lima. Bustling with devotees during the first day and the fifteenth day of lunar calendar. It is one of the oldest temple in Malaya since colonial period, built by the Hokkien community. The temple is also involved in charity work, contributing to several health and educational organisations. On the eve of Chinese New Year, the temple is opened all night and the street is often packed with devotees queuing shoulder to shoulder to enter the temple hall to offer their incense to the Kwan Yin in hope for an auspicious start to the New Year.[45][46]
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
  • Church of Our Lady of Lourdes – Built in 1928, the church celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2008 after the church building had undergone restoration. Father Souhait played a large part in the design of the church building, modelling it on the pilgrimage church in Lourdes, France. The design of the church follows the style of a Gothic architecture.
  • Kota Raja Mahadi – This historic fort was actually an arch of the fort. In the old days, there was a struggle between Raja Mahadi and Raja Abdullah for the control of the Klang district.
  • Tugu Keris (Keris Monument) – A memorial erected to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of the Sultan of Selangor's installation in 1985. The monument is specially designed to depict the Keris Semenanjung that symbolises power, strength and unity.
  • Kai Hong Hoo Temple (开封府) – The only temple in Malaysia dedicated to the worship of Justice Bao (包公), who was a government officer in ancient China's Song Dynasty. Justice Bao consistently demonstrated extreme honesty and uprightness and is today respected as the cultural symbol of justice in the Chinese community worldwide.
  • Tanjung Harapan (The Esplanade) – Fronting the Straits of Malacca, the Esplanade is a sea-side family recreation spot near to Northport that houses several seafood restaurants. Nice setup for sunset-gazing and also for anglers to fish.
  • Little India (Klang) – Colourful street from the striking saris hanging from shops to the snacks and sweetmeats on sale from shops and roadside stalls. During Deepavali, the Indian festival of lights, the street is astoundingly transformed into a colourful spectacle of lights and booming sound of music.
  • Sri Sundararaja Perumal Temple – Built in 1896, it is one of the oldest and the largest of the Vaishnavite temples in Malaysia. The temple is often referred to as the "Thirupathi of South East Asia" after its namesake in India.
  • Sri Subramania Swamy Temple,Klang – A Hindu temple devoted to the worship of Lord Murugan in Teluk Pulai,Klang that was established on 14 February 1914. It holds a unique distinction among the Hindu temples in Klang as it was founded and managed by the Ceylonese/Sri Lankan community who lived around the vicinity of the temple. Prayer rituals are done like those in Sri Lanka and certain festivals specific to the Ceylonese/Jaffnese community are celebrated here. The arasamaram or sacred fig tree which is in the temple was there since 1914 and is possibly one of the oldest living tree in Klang.
  • Connaught Bridge is one of the oldest bridge in Malaysia's Klang Valley region. It was built in 1948 by the British. The bridge is located in Jalan Dato' Mohd Sidin (Federal route ) near Connaught Bridge Power Station in Klang Selangor. At one time, Connaught bridge can only be crossed one vehicle at a time. No lorry could pass it because it was limited to car, van and small vehicle only. While on the bridge, you will heard the sound of wood 'cracking'! The wooden bridge closed in 1993–1994. In 1995 the wooden bridge was replaced by a concrete box girder bridge.
  • Kota Bridge is the first and only double-decker bridge in Malaysia and South East Asia. The bottom deck is a pedestrian walkway bridge while the top deck is a motorist bridge. The bridge was closed to car traffic in the '90s due to high demand that necessitated the construction of a new bridge. The new Jambatan Kota is located beside of the old bridge. The old bridge was constructed between 1957 and 1960, and was officially opened in 1961 by the late Sultan of Selangor, Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah as part of the celebration of his coronation as the ninth Sultan of Selangor.[47][41]
  • Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery is the royal gallery located at Bangunan Sultan Suleiman, Klang. Various collections depicting the reign of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah; from his early childhood through his appointment as the eighth Sultan Selangor in 1960 and as the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong in 1999.
  • Klang Selatan Fire Station is a Victorian-style structure that was built in 1890s. Today, the building still serves as a fire station.[48] Local firemen have taken the initiative to set up a mini gallery at the fire station in support of the Klang Heritage Walk.[49]


Malay food[edit]

The most significant food spot in Klang is at "Emporium Makan", this old spot situated in the heart the city, opposite of Pasar Jawa and next to Jambatan Kota. One of the stalls is "Lontong Klang" and it serves dishes such as, lontong and nasi lemak sambal sotong.[citation needed] This spot is visited by all races, Malay, Chinese and Indian, and still open until now.[citation needed]

Indian food[edit]

Klang is incomplete without Indian restaurants because Klang has one of the best Indian restaurant in the state especially in the federal area, many Indian restaurants located in the Little India as the restaurants visited by not only Indians moreover by Malay and Chinese too. Banana leaf rice, Chicken and Mutton Briyani, Chicken Tandoori, Idiyappam, Idli and so on are the cuisine people craving for lunch and dinner can get easily in here. There are some Indians restaurants outside the Little India which are the places where Indians are highly populated.

Chinese food[edit]

Klang is known for its Bak Kut Teh (Chinese: 肉骨茶; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Bah-kut-tê), a herbal soup that uses pork ribs and tenderloins. The dish is popularly thought to have originated in Klang.[50] Bak Kut Teh is available in various locations including Taman Intan (previously called Taman Rashna), Teluk Pulai, Jalan Kereta Api and Pandamaran.[citation needed]

There are a number of foodcourts in Klang which served local cuisine. Located in Taman Eng Ann is a large foodcourt serving many daytime snacks ranging from the well-known Chee Cheong Fun, Yong Tau Foo, Popia (Chinese springrolls), the medicinal herb Lin Zhi Kang drink, to Rojak and Cendol. Other stalls found also serving Chee Cheong Fun in Klang are located around the Meru Berjaya area. The Yong Tau Foo, a Malaysian Hakka Chinese delicacy, is a common meal for lunch and dinner as well.[citation needed]


The coastal regions and islands near Port Klang are also known for their seafood, such as Pulau Ketam, Bagan Hailam,[51] Teluk Gong,[52] Pandamaran and Tanjung Harapan.[53]



International relations[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Klang currently has two sister cities:


  1. ^ "Turning Klang into a clean town". The Star. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  2. ^ "PORT KLANG CELEBRATES OVER 100 YEARS OF BEING MALAYSIA'S PREMIER PORT". Port Klang Authority. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  3. ^ "TOP 50 WORLD CONTAINER PORTS". World Shipping Council. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  4. ^ MPK, Klang. "TABURAN PENDUDUK DAN CIRI-CIRI ASAS DEMOGRAFI TAHUN 2010". MP Klang Site. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014.
  5. ^ British Museum Collection
  6. ^ Bernet Kempers, A. J. (1 January 1988). The Kettledrums of Southeast Asia: A Bronze Age World and Its Aftermath – August Johan Bernet Kempers – Google Books. ISBN 9789061915416. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  7. ^ W. Linehan (October 1951). "Traces of a Bronze Age Culture Associated With Iron Age Implements in the Regions of Klang and the Tembeling, Malaya". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 24 (3 (156)): 1–59. JSTOR 41502997.
  8. ^ a b R. O. Winstedt (October 1934). "A History of Selangor". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 12 (3 (120)): 1–34. JSTOR 41559525.
  9. ^ J.M. Gullick (1983). The Story of Kuala Lumpur, 1857–1939. Eastern Universities Press (M). p. 7. ISBN 978-9679080285.
  10. ^ a b c "Background and History". Port Klang Integrated Coastal Management Project.
  11. ^ Ooi Keat Gin (2010). The A to Z of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. p. 286. ISBN 9781461671992.
  12. ^ Swee-Hock Saw (1989). The Population of Peninsular Malaysia. Singapore University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-9971691264.
  13. ^ Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard Y. (15 September 1984). A History of Malaysia – Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya – Google Books. ISBN 9780312381219. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  14. ^ Kon Yit Chin, Voon Fee Chen (2003). Landmarks of Selangor. Jugra Publications. p. 34. ISBN 9789814068789.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ Prem Kumar Rajaram (19 September 2014). Ruling the Margins: Colonial Power and Administrative Rule in the Past and Present. p. 35. ISBN 9781317621072.
  16. ^ Isabella Lucy Bird (1883). The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither. G. P. Putnam's sons. pp. 271–272.
  17. ^ "History of Railways around Kuala Lumpur".
  18. ^ a b c "Background". Klang Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
  19. ^ "The Construction of the Klang Bridge". Dearie Russell Family History.
  20. ^ "Port Klang: Review and History". World Port Source.
  21. ^ a b "History". Klang Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
  22. ^ "The town that tin built". Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  23. ^ JM Gullick (1955). "Kuala Lumpur 1880–1895" (PDF). Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 24 (4): 10–11.
  24. ^ Ooi Keat Gin (2009). Historical Dictionary of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0810859555.
  25. ^ "Industrial Areas". Klang Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015.
  26. ^ Peter D. Tyson, ed. (2002). Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Springer. p. 160. ISBN 9783540424031.
  27. ^ Garik Gutman et al. (2004). Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth's Surface. Springer. p. 122. ISBN 978-9400743069.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  28. ^ "Klang Introduction". Klang Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
  29. ^ "Port Klang aims for 20 million TEUs". The Star. 2 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Gateway" (PDF). Port Klang Authority. 2009.
  31. ^ a b c Katiman Rostam. "Population Change of the Klang-Langat Extended Metropolitan Region, Maalaysia, 1957–2000" (PDF). Akademika. 79 (1): 1–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2015.
  32. ^ "Table 13.1 : Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia, 2010" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 181. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012.
  33. ^ "Brutal killings a sign of all-out gang war". The Malay Mail. 16 February 2015.
  34. ^ G. Prakash (3 April 2015). "Chopped up teen linked to Klang gang war, cops say". The Malay Mail.
  35. ^ Gregory F Treverton, Carl Matthies, Karla J Cunningham, Jeremiah Gouka, Greg Ridgeway (2009). Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism. RAND Corporation. p. 68. ISBN 978-0833045652.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  36. ^ Gregory F Treverton; Carl Matthies; Karla J Cunningham; Jeremiah Gouka; Greg Ridgeway (2009). Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism. RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0833045652.
  37. ^ "'Tis the season for extortion". The Malaysian Insider. 18 February 2015. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015.
  38. ^ a b "The 'Taikos' Behind Indian Gangs". Sin Chew Daily. 28 August 2013.
  39. ^ C. E. R. Abraham (2006). Speaking Out: Insights Into Contemporary Malaysian Issues. Utusan Publications. p. 107. ISBN 978-9676117939.
  40. ^ "Malaysia's gang menace". Al Jazeera. 11 July 2014.
  41. ^ a b Dawn Chan (22 November 2019). "Klang's priceless Kota Bridge". New Straits Times. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  42. ^ "Klang's third bridge opens". The Star, Malaysia.
  43. ^ "Mega-mall coming up in Klang". The Star (Malaysia). 8 April 2015.
  44. ^ "Istana Alam Shah". Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  45. ^ "A step back in time — the historic Kuan Yin temple of Klang". Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  46. ^ "镇庙之宝:巴生观音亭有3宝.光绪牌匾高挂123年". Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  47. ^ Dawn Chan (14 November 2019). "Kota Bridge can be a heritage site". New Straits Times. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  48. ^ "Klang Selatan Fire Station". Tourism Selangor.
  49. ^ Chester Chin (8 March 2018). "What to do at the Klang Heritage Walk in Klang". Star2.com. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  50. ^ Su-Lyn Tan; Mark Tay (2003). Malaysia & Singapore. Lonely Planet. p. 140. ISBN 9781740593700.
  51. ^ Simon Richmond, Damian Harper (2007). Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-1740593571.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  52. ^ Charles de Ledesma, Mark Lewis, Pauline Savage (2003). The Rough Guide to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1843530947.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  53. ^ "Medan Muara Ikan Bakar @ Tanjung Harapan, Port Klang". Foodstreet.
  54. ^ Yi Yanjun (2 September 2014). "Twin Towns and Sister Cities (Abroad)". Hong Shan. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  55. ^ "List of Sister cities of Hunan". Hunan Government. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Capital of Selangor
Succeeded by
Kuala Lumpur

Preceded by
Kuala Lumpur
Capital of Selangor
Succeeded by
Shah Alam

Coordinates: 3°02′N 101°27′E / 3.033°N 101.450°E / 3.033; 101.450