Staines-upon-Thames

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Staines-upon-Thames
EnglandSurreyStainesCityhall.JPG
Clarence Street and the Town Hall
Staines-upon-Thames is located in Surrey
Staines-upon-Thames
Staines-upon-Thames
Location within Surrey
Area7.86 km2 (3.03 sq mi)
Population18,484 (2011 Census, traditional boundaries)[1] or 25,736 (Built-up Area, which includes Laleham)[2]
• Density2,352/km2 (6,090/sq mi)
OS grid referenceTQ045715
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townStaines-Upon-Thames[3]
Postcode districtTW18-19
Dialling code01784
PoliceSurrey
FireSurrey
AmbulanceSouth East Coast
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Surrey
51°25′59″N 0°30′58″W / 51.433°N 0.516°W / 51.433; -0.516Coordinates: 51°25′59″N 0°30′58″W / 51.433°N 0.516°W / 51.433; -0.516

Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the historic county of Middlesex and its two precursor districts were transferred to Surrey County Council in 1965.

The town is inside the M25 motorway, 17 miles (27 km) southwest of Charing Cross. Situated in the far north of Surrey, it is within the London Commuter Belt and the Greater London Urban Area, and adjoins part of the Green Belt. Passing along the edge of the town and crossing Staines Bridge is the Thames Path National Trail. The bridge is one of many re-buildings. It was built from 1827–1832, to white granite-faced designs by George Rennie.

The larger Staines-upon-Thames post town includes the villages of Stanwell, Laleham and Wraysbury. Owing to the long association of Staines Bridge with a medieval causeway (levee) on the opposite bank of the river, the post town also includes part of Egham Hythe. This contains a significant business zone of the county and, in its east, a few of the town's oldest listed buildings.

Staines-upon-Thames has many parks, leisure centres, a football club and several multinational research/technology company offices. The centre of Heathrow Airport is 3 miles (5 km) to the north-east and Staines railway station is a main stop on the London Waterloo to Reading line and the Windsor & Eton Riverside line.

The traditional boundaries are unusual for a South-East town, being a north–south strip parish that ranges from 13 to 20 metres (43 to 66 ft) above sea level.[note 1]

Toponymy[edit]

The first surviving records of Staines from the post-Roman period are from 1066, when the settlement appears in two separate charters as Stana and Stane.[4][note 2] In Domesday Book of 1089, the settlement is referred to as Stanes.[5] It later appears as Stanis (1167), Stanys (1428), Steynys and Staynys (1535), before the modern spelling "Staines" is first used in 1578.[4] The name derives from the Old English stān, meaning "stone",[5] and may refer to a Roman milestone on the London to Silchester road that survived into the early Anglo-Saxon period.[4]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

A neolithic causewayed camp has been found at the south of Yeoveney on Staines Moor. This had later prehistoric, Roman, and Saxon occupation.[6]

At the site of Majestic House excavations in 2013 revealed evidence of intermittent human activity over many centuries.[7] Residual flint artefacts of Mesolithic and Neolithic date, and a small number of Neolithic/Bronze Age features including postholes, were found.[7] The most significant prehistoric evidence was the remains of a ring ditch of that era, a monument type rarely recorded locally.[7] A small Iron Age artefact assemblage was found, as was evidence for drainage ditches from those Mesolithic/Neolithic times.[7] Drainage and boundary ditches formed much of the evidence for later activity on the site, which is east of the later centre of the town but close to the line of the Roman road.[7] Roman occupation debris and agricultural features of 2nd–3rd century AD date were found, and there was a suggestion of continuity of occupation into the 4th century AD. There was no evidence for Saxon or early medieval activities, but the remains of later medieval rectilinear buildings, a well and ditches were found.[7] Ellis (2013) draws a map of this site at the heart of a town island, rather a perennially non-marshy, rounded (penannular) zone that has five archaeological sites.[7]

There has been a crossing of the Thames at Staines since Roman times. The emperor Claudius invaded Britain in AD 43. Staines had the zone mentioned above, likely remaining settled, at that time. Within a decade, some sort of first Staines Bridge would have been needed for the Roman road much later known in places as the Devil's Highway, elsewhere as the stone ('stane') street between Londinium (London) and Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester).

Pontibus, Latin for "at the bridges" in the early 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary, has long been guessed to refer to Staines, but that may be wrong since the Itinerary's mileages actually point some distance away (possibly to the south end of Virginia Water Lake). More than one bridge might have traversed Church Island.[8] Ad Pontem was an altogether different place.

The London Stone between the River Thames and Staines Town Hall

The Middlesex section of the Domesday Book records the manor "Stanes" as a property held by Westminster Abbey. It was stated to have 19 hides of land and had 6 mills worth £3, 4s, 0d; 2 weirs worth 6s, 8d; 24 ploughs; meadows for 24 ploughs; and some cattle. It rendered £35.[9]

A boundary stone dated 1285 used to stand on the bank of the River Thames in Staines, indicating the western limit of the City of London's jurisdiction over the Thames. The original stone is now located in the Spelthorne Museum[10][11] and a replica is situated in Lammas Park. Although familiarly known as the 'London Stone', it is not to be confused with the more famous – and probably more ancient – London Stone in Cannon Street in the City of London.

The barons assembled at Staines before they met King John at Runnymede in 1215, and Stephen Langton held a consecration there shortly after the sealing of Magna Carta. Kings and other important people must have passed through the town on many occasions: the church bells were rung several times in 1670, for instance, when the king and queen went through Staines. Between 1642 and 1648 during the Civil War, there were skirmishes on Staines Moor and numerous troop movements over Staines Bridge. The parish remained largely agricultural until the mid-19th century.[12]

Modern history[edit]

Boundaries[edit]

St Mary's parish church, which was rebuilt in 1828

In the 19th century the Church of England lost all its secular maintenance and relief functions, of its vestries. However, as local government became unparished, the parish boundary of Laleham remains used in road signs and official naming, notable as its housing has become widely contiguous.

Ashford, receiving from Staines the River Ash, had its boundary running north from the mid-part of Kingston Road, south of which lay part of Laleham which zig-zagged further west.[13]

Laleham remains, as it was in the mid-19th century, a long tranche beginning east of the north-south Sweep's Ditch which runs south to the tip of the Penton Hook peninsula of the River Thames. Spelthorne Borough Council is one of the few Surrey districts divided completely equally in terms of number of councillors per wards yet the population of Laleham is insufficient to elect three councillors. Laleham does share a post town, and has a large sports ground named after Laleham and Staines. It instead forms one half of the ward Riverside [Staines] and Laleham, parts A and D of Spelthorne's 009 division in the United Kingdom Census 2011.[12]

Stanwell in 1896 lost 70 acres (28 ha) with 122 houses, to Staines, north of London Road.[12][14]

Early economy[edit]

Staines was a regular staging post with coaching inns. It was used for an overnight horse change on The Trafalgar Way in 1805, announcing the victory over the combined French and Spanish fleet and the death of Nelson.[15] Samuel Lewis mentions the place in his 1848 Topographical Dictionary of England, saying that "The town, which has been much improved of late, consists principally of one wide street, containing several good houses, terminating at the river."[16]

Industries[edit]

Statue in the High Street commemorating Staines' history of making linoleum

The town was a major producer of linoleum after the formation of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864 by its inventor, Frederick Walton. Linoleum became the main industry of the town and was a major employer in the area until the 1960s. In 1876 about 220 and in 1911 about 350 people worked in the plant. By 1957 it employed some 300 people and in 1956 the factory produced about 2675 m2 of linoleum each week. The term 'Staines Lino' became a worldwide name but the factory was closed around 1970 and is the site is now occupied by the Two Rivers shopping centre, completed about 2000. A bronze statue of two lino workers in Staines High Street commemorates the Staines Lino Factory. The Spelthorne Museum has a display dedicated to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company.

The Lagonda car factory was on the site of Sainsbury's supermarket in Egham Hythe.[17]

Notable events[edit]

The town was the site of the Staines air disaster in 1972, at the time the worst air crash in Britain until the Lockerbie disaster of 1988. (Since the Lockerbie crash was a terrorist act in Scotland, the Staines crash remains England's worst air disaster, and Britain's worst air accident.) The crash was commemorated in June 2004 by the opening of a dedicated garden near the crash site, created at the request of relatives, and the unveiling of a stained glass window at St Mary's Church, where a memorial service was held.[18]

Staines Urban District[edit]

In 1894 the Local Government Act 1894 created the Staines Urban District. This status conferred additional powers and responsibilities compared with the few Rural Districts in Middlesex County Council. In 1965, under the London Government Act 1963, Middlesex, apart from the Staines, Sunbury-on-Thames and Potters Bar Urban Districts, became part of Greater London. Staines and Sunbury were transferred to Surrey and Potters Bar to Hertfordshire. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the Staines Urban District was combined with Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District to form the present-day borough of Spelthorne. Staines remains associated with the historical county of Middlesex through certain cultural and sporting affiliations, and until 1996 for postal purposes.

Staines-upon-Thames[edit]

The town changed its official name to "Staines-upon-Thames" on 20 May 2012.[19]

On 15 December 2011, Spelthorne Borough Council resolved by 25 votes to 4[19] with 6 abstentions (including all the councillors for Staines ward itself)[20][21] to change the name of the town to Staines-upon-Thames, to try to boost the local economy by promoting its riverside location, and reportedly to discourage association with Sacha Baron Cohen's fictional character Ali G, as well as rock band Hard-Fi, who described Staines as "a ghost town".[19][22][23]

The name change proposal originated with Spelthorne Business Forum.[24] 428 responses to a public consultation were in favour and 234 opposed,[25] but there were some public objections,[26] including one from Staines Town Football Club which attempted to present 134 signatures to the council, but they were not received.[19][25] Adopting the name change, the council resolved to call on residents, businesses and public organisations to use the name Staines-upon-Thames, and to call on Surrey County Council and Runnymede Borough Council to use Staines-upon-Thames for all official business.[20] Following a day of celebrations in the town, including a regatta on the river, the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, Dame Sarah Goad DCVO, formally changed the name on 20 May 2012 at 2 pm.[22] Royal Mail adopted the new name in mid-2013,[3] having previously stated that the name would remain as Staines on the Postcode Address File.

Economy[edit]

Proximity to London, Heathrow Airport and the M25 motorway has attracted large company branch offices, including: Bupa (healthcare)[27] and Wood plc (oil & gas).[28] Siemens Building Automation Division and British Gas (part of Centrica) have their national headquarters here.[29] Samsung R&D Institute UK (SRUK), Samsung's UK R&D division, is based in the town.[30]

The town centre is compact save for more niche businesses and leisure-oriented west ends (Church Street and the river's banks). It has a wide pedestrianised High Street where a long market is held every Wednesday, Friday and Saturday. Behind its shops a moderately-sized shopping centre, Elmsleigh Centre faces a retail park, behind the other side. The Two Rivers retail park opened in 2002, its far edge sees the return of the Wraysbury River into Colne. Staines has at least three parades of convenience shops and local professional services. The town has many central restaurants. A range of pubs host live music evenings.

National and local government[edit]

UK parliament[edit]

The town is in the parliamentary constituency of Spelthorne and has been represented at Westminster since May 2010 by Conservative Kwasi Kwarteng.[31][32]

County council[edit]

Councillors are elected to Surrey County Council every four years. The majority of the town is in the "Staines" electoral division, but areas to the southeast of the centre are in the "Staines South and Ashford West" electoral division.[33][34]

Borough council[edit]

Staines is divided between three wards, each of which elects three councillors to Spelthorne Borough Council. The wards are "Staines", "Staines South" and "Riverside and Laleham".[34][35] The Borough of Spelthorne has been twinned with Melun, France since 1990 and with Grand Port, Mauritius since 2009.[36]

Demography and housing[edit]

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households[1]
Staines (ward) 387 844 843 1,439 2 13
Staines South (ward) 197 1,505 702 492 1 2
Spelthorne 009B (riverside north) 174 225 93 365 0 5
Spelthorne 009C (riverside south) 369 96 109 148 1 0

The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares[1]
Staines (ward) 7,861 3,528 24.0% 33.8% 550
Staines South (ward) 7,123 2,899 29.9% 37.7% 131
Spelthorne 009B (riverside north) 1,818 862 37.6% 37.5% 35
Spelthorne 009C (riverside south) 1,662 723 51.5% 39.1% 70

The proportion of households in the town who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).

Transport[edit]

Staines railway station main building, seen from the north

Staines railway station is a stop on all services between London Waterloo station and Weybridge (for the South West Main Line), Reading (for the Great Western Main Line) and Windsor & Eton Riverside. Semi-fast services serve the Waterloo to Reading Line, being the operator's secondary main line. Taxis are available from the station. The bus station is a five-minute walk from the railway station, with services in all directions including to Thorpe Park and Royal Holloway College. Staines-upon-Thames is also a short distance south of Heathrow Airport.

Rail infrastructure projects[edit]

There were proposals to build a new railway line, Airtrack, connecting the South West Main Line and/or London Gatwick to Heathrow Airport's Terminal 5 station. As part of these proposals, the former Staines High Street railway station was to be rebuilt by Two Rivers Shopping Centre and the High Street in the direction of Wraysbury railway station, using a generally unused arc from north to south in the town centre, towards Weybridge on the South West Main Line. In 2011 the Department for Transport announced it had decided that this would not proceed because extra trains would delay road traffic using the level crossing at Egham. The existing Staines station would have an additional platform built instead on the relevant arc.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

The town has the following schools:

  • Our Lady Of the Rosary, a Catholic school, opened in 1893
  • Staines Preparatory School, an independent, ages 3–11 school, opened in 1935
  • Matthew Arnold School, properly opened in 1954, though partially completed premises were also in emergency use during the Second World War
  • Riverbridge Primary School,[37] formed in September 2011 from the merger of three local schools: Kingscroft, Knowle Park and Shortwood, each of which retained its original site; however, the Shortwood site has now closed
  • The Magna Carta School, a technology college with over 1200 students. It was opened in 1957, and is in Egham Hythe, but it has a Staines postal address.
  • The Buckland primary school.

Several other schools have previously existed in the town, including:

  • British School (Staines's first school opened in 1808; date of closure unknown)
  • National Girls' School (1818–c.1825, 1844–1874, 1885–?)
  • National Boys' School (c.1823–c.1830 and 1848–1874)
  • British School of Industry for Girls (pre-1831–?) at The School House in Hale Street[38][39]
  • British Infant School (1833–1874 and 1885–?)
  • Margaret Pope School, a merger and relocation of three previous schools (1874–?) This was as a result of a School Building Grant Application for Miss Pope's school[40]
  • Church of England Infants' School, Stanwell New Road (from 1890, renamed Shortwood in 1900)
  • Duncroft Approved School for Girls (1948-1981)
  • Shortwood County Infant School (renamed from C. of E. Infants' in 1900, merged into Riverbridge 2011)
  • Wyatt Road Infants' School (1896–1974)
  • Kingston Road School[s] (1903–1992 when replaced by Kingscroft; the original plural title denoted that there were separate schools for boys and girls; its site is now occupied by the town's new Police Station)
  • Knowle Park County First School (1974–2011 when merged into Riverbridge)
  • Kingscroft School (replaced and absorbed Kingston Road in 1992, merged into Riverbridge in 2011)

The nearest further education institution to Staines is Brooklands College (formerly Spelthorne College) in neighbouring Ashford, about 3 miles to the east. Royal Holloway, University of London is 3 miles west of the town centre, off the A30 between Egham and Englefield Green.

Margaret Pope was daughter of Dr Robert Pope (Physician to King George III and Princess Amelia)[41] and lived in Staines High Street. Margaret started the Margaret Pope's Educational Charity which still exists as registered charity 311907.[42]

Culture[edit]

Art[edit]

Several artists have been inspired to paint Staines Bridge, including William Bernard Cooke (1778—1855)[43] and Arthur Melville (1855—1904).[44] An engraving of the bridge by William Woolnoth (1780—1837), inspired by a painting by John Preston Neale (1780—1847), is held by the Victoria and Albert Museum.[45]

Film and Television[edit]

Staines is the hometown of the fictional Ali G, created by the actor and comedian Sacha Baron Cohen. The character, who first appeared on The 11 O'Clock Show on Channel 4 in 1998,[46] has been described as a "disaffected wannabe homeboy of the suburbs" by the television producer, Harry Thompson. Baron Cohen has said that Ali G "believes that he is a black hip-hop artist from Staines. He believes his neighbourhood is a rough ghetto, when in fact it's this lovely, leafy, middle-class suburb outside Windsor, where swans swim under the beautiful bridge."[47] Following the successful spin-off television series, Da Ali G Show, the character appeared in the 2002 feature film, Ali G Indahouse. In the film, Ali G is a member of a fictional gang, the West Staines Massive, when his hometown is threated by the expansion of Heathrow Airport. The film concludes with the saving of Staines and the decision to demolish Slough instead.[48][49]

Literature[edit]

William Shakespeare mentions Staines in Act II Scene 3 of Henry V, when Hostess Quickly asks her husband, who is travelling to Southampton, if she can accompany him as far as the town.[50][51] Much of chapters 9–11 of Three Men in a Boat (1889) by Jerome K. Jerome is set in the Staines area, as the main characters travel upriver from Kingston-upon-Thames to Oxford.[52] In Chapter 15 of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds (1897), an artillery unit engages a Martian close to Staines.[53] In John Wyndham's novel The Kraken Wakes (1953), the main characters are stopped in their attempt to reach Cornwall on a dinghy through a flooded England in the "Staines-Weybridge area".[54]

Music[edit]

The indie rock band Hard-Fi was formed in Staines in 2003. Many of the songs from their first album, Stars of CCTV describe their small-town suburban origins.[55] In 2011, lead singer Richard Archer, attracted criticism after describing Staines as a "ghost town".[56][57]

Sport[edit]

Football match between Staines Town (yellow shirts) and Dover Athletic in 2009

Two affiliated senior association football clubs bear the name of Staines, namely Staines Town F.C. (senior status), and Staines Lammas F.C. (intermediate status). Staines Town plays at the newly rebuilt Wheatsheaf Park ground and is a member of Isthmian League Premier Division. Staines Town has a strong rivalry with Hampton & Richmond Borough F.C. Staines Lammas was champion of the Combined Counties League Division One in the 2007–08 season.the club runs various age group teams. Staines also has several successful junior football clubs: Staines Town, Staines Lammas and Staines Albion, as well as girls' clubs Kempton Girls FC — Colne Valley and the U11, one of the best girls' junior clubs in Surrey.

Staines Rugby Football Club[58] used to play at the Lammas (a recreation ground in the town also known as the Ashby Recreation Ground). The club moved to The Reeves (on Snakey Lane, Hanworth) in the 1960s but kept its name. It has teams named Swans, Cobs and Mucky Ducks. The club is in Herts/Middlesex 1 league and has mini and youth sections.

Staines Boat Club is immediately across the bridge in Egham Hythe and competes at a national level.

Staines Hockey Club was formed in 1890, making it one of the oldest hockey clubs in the world. Its early years were very illustrious with several internationals playing for the club and a number of gold medals being won by Staines members in the 1908 Olympic Games. The club is based at Worple Road, Staines - the club has adult and junior teams playing hockey today.[59]

Staines Swimming Club[60] founded in the early 1900s and affiliated to the Amateur Swimming Association is based at Spelthorne Leisure Centre and provides competitive swimming from inter-club level up to national level.

Spelthorne Volleyball Club, also based at Spelthorne Leisure Centre, provides volleyball to a wide range of abilities and age groups.

Clubs in the borough cater to sailing, cricket, hockey, running, rambling, martial arts (jujitsu), rifle & pistol shooting, bowls, chess, bridge, snooker, darts, pool, poker, and a district table tennis league.

The town is also home to TS Thamesis, Staines and Egham Sea Cadet Corps. This is a uniformed youth organisation for young people aged between 10 and 18 years old. It meets at The Lammas.

Historic sports[edit]

Motorcycle speedway racing was staged at a stadium in Wraysbury Road. Events in 1938 and 1939 are well-known, but it is possible that a venue was active from at least 1931, for a team named Staines raced at Caxton Speedway (near Cambridge, 1931 – 1933 inclusive). The stadium was also used for greyhound racing, as well as 'novelty' events such as cheetah racing.

Staines Stadium was famous from 1955 to 1960 during the early days of stock car racing in England, and featured in the 1955 feature film Stock Car among others.[61]

Other sports formerly held in Staines include: boxing (there were weekly programmes off the High Street in the 1930s, and local hearsay suggests bare-knuckle events were held at the Crooked Billet earlier in the 20th century); wrestling (bouts were included in boxing programmes of the 1930s); motorcycle football (a club existed in the 1960s; and American football (a short-lived team called Staines Removers entered the Budweiser League in 1988, but failed to start the season, although they did play some friendly matches at their base on The Lammas).

Notable buildings and landmarks[edit]

Blue Anchor[edit]

Blue Anchor, Market Square

There is thought to have been an inn on the site of the Blue Anchor since the 16th century.[62] The present building dates from the early- to mid-18th century and is constructed in brick. Much of the interior is thought to be original, including the wooden panelling, several fireplaces and at least one of the staircases.[63] Within a few decades of completion, five of the upstairs windows had been bricked up to reduce window tax liability.[62]

Coal Tax posts[edit]

There are three surviving coal-tax posts in the Staines area.[64] These posts marked the limits of the tax jurisdiction of the Corporation of the City of London and were erected under the provisions of the London Coal and Wine Duties Continuance Act 1861.[65] The two posts currently on Wraysbury Road were relocated to their present positions in the second half of the 20th century. The third, a 3 m high (9.8 ft) cast-iron obelisk, is in Thames Street close to the Thames Lodge Hotel.[64]

London Stone[edit]

London Stone

The London Stone is a carved stone pillar, positioned beside the River Thames next to the Lammas Recreation Ground.[66] The first stone was erected by the Corporation of the City of London in 1280 or 1285, following its purchase of the river rights from Richard I. Originally positioned by close to the Market Place, it marked the western boundary of the Corporation's jurisdiction[67] and is thought to have indicated the tidal limit of the Thames in Medieval times.[68] It was moved to its current position in the 17th or 18th century and was replaced by a replica in 1986. The original stone is now held by the Spelthorne Museum at Staines Library.[69]

Town Hall[edit]

The Town Hall, in the Market Place, was designed by John Johnson in the Renaissance style and was completed in 1880.[70] It replaced a medieval market hall, which was closed in 1862.[71] The building is constructed in white brick with stone dressing with a fish-scale slate roof and the clock was manufactured by Gillett & Bland.[70]

The Town Hall was used as the council headquarters until 1976, when Spelthorne Borough council relocated to Knowle Green.[72][73] In the early 1990s, it was used as an arts centre and, in 2004, it became a wine bar.[74] In January 2018, the building was converted into thirteen residential apartments.[75][76]

War Memorial[edit]

War Memorial, Market Square

Staines War Memorial was designed by E. J. Barrett and was installed in the Memorial Gardens in 1920. It takes the form of a statue of the winged figure of Victory and is constructed in Portland stone.[72][77] The names of 196 people who died in the first world war are inscribed on the plinth,[77] beneath which is an inclined stone tablet listing those who died in the second world war.[78] The memorial was moved to the Market Square in 2002.[72]

Parks and open spaces[edit]

Church Lammas[edit]

Lake at Church Lammas

The 8.8 ha (22-acre)[79] Church Lammas is an area of common land to the northeast of the town centre, adjacent to the Lammas Recreation Ground. Between 1988 and 1996, it was the site of a quarry and, after gravel and sand extraction had ceased, the area was landscaped to create a recreational area with three lakes.[80] In 2005, the former quarry operator was awarded the Cooper-Heyman Cup in recognition of its work to ensure that the park iss fully accessible to disabled visitors.[81]

Lammas Recreation Ground[edit]

The 15-acre (6.1 ha) Lammas lands were granted to the town by John Ashby in 1922. The area opened to the public as a recreation ground in September of the same year. Since it had previously been common land, residents received compensation for the removal of their grazing rights.[82]

Market Square and Memorial Gardens[edit]

View towards the "Swan Arches" from the Memorial Gardens, with the Town Hall on the far left

The Memorial Gardens, alongside the River Thames, were first opened in 1897 as the "Town Gardens". They acquired their current name after the first world war when the town war memorial was erected beside the river. In 2002, the Market Square was refurbished and a new gateway, known as the "Swan Arches", was installed to link it to the Memorial Gardens.[72][83]

Staines Moor[edit]

The 511 ha (1,260-acre)[84] Staines Moor, north of the town and east of the M25 motorway, is the largest area of common land in Staines. Until the Commons Registration Act 1965 came into force, any homeowner, whose chimney smoke could be seen from St Mary's Church, was entitled to graze their animals on the moor between April and December each year.[85][86]

Staines Moor is the largest area of alluvial meadow in Surrey[87] and was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1984.[84] Several rare plants are found on the moor such as brown sedge, small water pepper and upright chickweed. The area also provides a habitat for invertebrates including bees, butterflies and moths. Some 217 species of mollusc and 190 species of bird have also been recorded.[88]

Staines Park[edit]

Staines Park at Knowle Green, to the east of the town centre, is a 4.7 ha (12-acre) recreation ground with tennis courts, a bowling green and a children's playground. Since 2019, the park has been legally protected by the charity, Fields in Trust.[89]

Notable residents[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The low is by the Thames at Penton Hook Lock. The high point are places in St Mary's churchyard.
  2. ^ The name Stana is also used in 11th and 13th century copies of charters from the mid-9th century, although there is some doubt as to their authenticity.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density Archived 11 February 2003 at the Wayback Machine United Kingdom Census 2011 Office for National Statistics Retrieved 21 November 2013
  2. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Staines Built-up area sub division (1119885023)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  3. ^ a b "New sectors and localities to 20 July 2012" (PDF). Royal Mail Address Management Unit. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d Gover, Mawer & Stenton 1942, pp. 18–19
  5. ^ a b Mills 2003, p. 432
  6. ^ Excavations at Yeoveney, Near Staines, 1982 Phil Jones, Martin O'Connell and Rob Poulton https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-379-1/dissemination/pdf/vol_80/surreyac080_105-119_jones.pdf Archived 22 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Surrey Archaeological Collections, 99, 129–148, 2016 "Archaeological investigation at Majestic House, High Street, Staines-upon-Thames 2013". Abstract. Chris Ellis, with contributions by Philip L Armitage, Michael Bamforth, Sarah Cobain, E R McSloy and Jacky Sommerville https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-379-1/dissemination/pdf/vol_99/surreyac099_129-148_ellis.pdf Archived 22 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Thacker, Fred. S. (1968) [1920]. The Thames Highway. Vol. II: Locks and Weirs. Newton Abbott: David & Charles. SBN 7153-4233-9.[page needed]
  9. ^ "Middlesex". The Domesday Book Online. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
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