|Southeastern Nigeria, southwestern Cameroon|
The majority are threatened with extinction. The largest of these languages by far is the Tiv language for which the group is named; it had 2 million speakers in 1991. The second largest is the Bitare language; it had 110,000 speakers in 2000. Most apart from Tiv are extremely poorly known, and the next best, Esimbi, has not even been demonstrated to be Tivoid.
Following Blench (2010), Tivoid languages fall into three branches, though North Tivoid languages are almost unattested. The names in parentheses are dialects per Ethnologue, separate languages per Blench:
- Central Tivoid
- A: Tiv–Iyive–Otank, Ceve (Oliti), Evant
- B: Caka (Batanga, Asaka), Ipulo (Olulu), Eman (Amanavil)
- Mesaka (Ugarə)
- North Tivoid
- Batu (Afi, Kamino), Abon, Bitare, ? Ambo
SIL Ethnologue lists three additional languages, Manta, Balo and Osatu, based on an old, provisional assignment of Blench; Blench (2010) states they are instead in the Southwest Grassfields (Western Momo) family.
Menchum, traditionally classified as Grassfields, may also be a Grassfields language or closer to Tivoid.
Names and locations (Nigeria)
|Language||Cluster||Alternate spellings||Own name for language||Endonym(s)||Other names (location-based)||Other names for language||Exonym(s)||Speakers||Location(s)|
|Abon||Abong||Abõ||Abõ||Abon||Ba’ban||Only spoken in Abong town||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Abong town (east of Baissa)|
|Batu cluster||Batu||25,000 (SIL)||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, several villages east of Baissa, below the Mambila escarpment|
|Amanda–Afi cluster||Batu||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Batu Amanda and Batu Afi villages|
|Angwe||Batu||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Batu Angwe village|
|Kamino||Batu||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Batu Kamino village|
|Emane||Amana||No proof of permanent communities in Nigeria||Cross River State, Obudu LGA; and in Cameroon|
|Evant||Avande, Evand, Ovande||Balagete, Belegete||Cross River State, Obudu LGA and in Cameroon|
|Iceve cluster||Iceve||Banagere, Iyon, Utse, Utser, Utseu||5,000 in Nigeria, 7,000 in Cameroon (1990 est.)||Cross River State, Obudu LGA and in adjacent Cameroon|
|Ceve||Iceve||Icheve, Becheve, Bacheve, Bechere,||Iceve||Baceve||Ochebe, Ocheve (names of founding ancestor)||Cross River State, Obudu LGA and mainly in adjacent Cameroon|
|Maci||Iceve||Matchi||Maci||Kwaya, Olit, Oliti||Cross River State, Obudu LGA|
|Iyive||Uive||Yiive||Ndir||Asumbo (Cover term used in Cameroon)||2,000||Benue State, Kwande LGA, near Turan; and in Cameroon (several villages in Manyu Département)|
|Otank||Utanga, Otanga||2,000 (1953 Bohannan); 2,500 (SIL)||Cross River State, Obudu LGA; Benue State, Kwande LGA|
|Tiv||Tív, Tivi||Munshi (not recommended)||800,000 (1952); 1,500,000 (1980 UBS)||Benue State, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya and Katsina Ala LGAs; Nasarawa State, Lafia LGA; Taraba State, Wukari, Takum, Bali LGA; and in Cameroon|
|Ugarә||Binangeli, Messaka||5000 (1994 est.)||Cassetta & Cassetta (1994): ‘Probably 75‒80% of Ugare speakers live on the Cameroon side of the border, in the Akwaya subdivision of Cameroon’s Southwest Province.’|
|Bitare||Njwande, Yukutare||3,700 in Cameroon (1987 SIL); 3,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL)||Taraba State; Sardauna LGA, near Baissa; and in Cameroon|
|Ambo||A single village east of Baissa||Taraba State, Sardauna LGA|
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tivoid". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Blench, Roger (2010). "The Tivoid Languages" (PDF). p. 13.
- Blenh, Roger (2010). "Classification of Momo and West Momo" (PDF).
- Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
- Blench, Roger. 2010. The Tivoid Languages
- Blench, Roger. 2016. The Tivoid Languages: overview and comparative word list.
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