|Southeastern Nigeria, southwestern Cameroon|
The majority are threatened with extinction. The largest of these languages by far is the Tiv language for which the group is named; it had 2 million speakers in 1991. The second largest is the Bitare language; it had 110,000 speakers in 2000. Most apart from Tiv are extremely poorly known, and the next best, Esimbi, has not even been demonstrated to be Tivoid.
Following Blench (2010), Tivoid languages fall into three branches, though North Tivoid languages are almost unattested. The names in parentheses are dialects per Ethnologue, separate languages per Blench:
- Central Tivoid
- A: Tiv–Iyive–Otank, Ceve (Oliti), Evant
- B: Caka (Batanga, Asaka), Ipulo (Olulu), Eman (Amanavil)
- Mesaka (Ugarə)
- North Tivoid
- Batu (Afi, Kamino), Abon, Bitare, ? Ambo
SIL Ethnologue lists three additional languages, Manta, Balo and Osatu, based on an old, provisional assignment of Blench; Blench (2010) states they are instead in the Southwest Grassfields (Western Momo) family.
Menchum, traditionally classified as Grassfields, may also be a Grassfields language or closer to Tivoid.
- Blench, Roger. 2010. The Tivoid Languages
- Blench, Roger. 2016. The Tivoid Languages: overview and comparative word list.
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