Uch

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Uch
اوچ
Town
The tomb of Bibi Jawindi from 1493, the tombs of Nuriya and Baha 'al Halim, mosque of Mahboob Subhani, the mosque at the shrine of Jahaniyan Jahangasht, entry to the shrine of Jahaniyan Jahangasht, exposed interior of the tomb of Baha'al Halim
The tomb of Bibi Jawindi from 1493, the tombs of Nuriya and Baha 'al Halim, mosque of Mahboob Subhani, the mosque at the shrine of Jahaniyan Jahangasht, entry to the shrine of Jahaniyan Jahangasht, exposed interior of the tomb of Baha'al Halim
Uchاوچ‬ is located in Pakistan
Uchاوچ‬
Uch
اوچ
Coordinates: 29°14′N 71°04′E / 29.233°N 71.067°E / 29.233; 71.067Coordinates: 29°14′N 71°04′E / 29.233°N 71.067°E / 29.233; 71.067
Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Bahawalpur District
Population
 • Total 22,000
Time zone PST (UTC+5)

Uch (Urdu: اوچ‎; "Ūch"), frequently referred to as Ūch Sharīf (Urdu: اوچ شریف‎; "Noble Uch"), is an historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley.[1][2] Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries,[2] and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands.[2] Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Uch was previous known by the name of Deogarh ("Stronghold of God") until the 12th century.[1] The origins of the city's current name are unclear. In one legend, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, the renowned Central Asian Sufi mystic from Bukhara, arrived in Uch and converted the daughter of the town's ruler, Sunandapuri. Upon her conversion, Jalaluddin Bukhari requested her to built a fortress which he named Uch, or "High."[1] According to another version of the legend, the princess converted by Bukhari was actually a Buddhist princess named Ucha Rani, and the city's name name derives from her.[3] In another version of then legend, Ucha Rani and her sister Sita Rani, rulers of Uch and Sitapur, both married Bukhari.[3]

However, the local rulers of Uch had long been Muslim by the time of Bukhari's arrival in the mid 1200s, and so the legends' non-Muslim princess is likely a work of fiction.[3]

The name Uch for the area was not universally recognized for quite some time, and the city was not referred to by early Muslim historians by the name Uch.[1] Uch, for example, is likely the town recorded as Bhatia that was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1006.[1]

History[edit]

Early[edit]

Uch may have been founded in 325 BCE by Alexander the Great as the city of Alexandria on the Indus (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἰνδῷ), according to British officer and archaeologist Alexander Cunningham.[1] The city was reportedly settled by natives of the Greek region of Thrace,[4] and was located at the confluence of the Acesines river with the Indus.[5] Uch was once located on the banks of the Indus River, though the river has since shifted its course,[6] and the confluence of the two rivers has shifted approximately 25 miles southwest. The old city of Uch was likely abandoned around 77 CE.[7]

Medieval[edit]

In 712 CE, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Uch. Few details exist of the city in the centuries prior to his invasion. Uch was probably the town recorded as Bhatia that was conquered in 1006 by Mahmud of Ghazni.[1] Following the schism between the Nizari and Musta'li sects of Ismaili Shi'ism in 1094, Uch became a centre of Nizari missionary activity for several centuries,[8] and today the town and surrounding region are littered with numerous tombs of prominent pīrs,[8] as well as pious daughters and wives of those Sufi pirs.[9]

The region around Uch and Multan remained centre of Hindu Vaishnavite and Surya pilgrimage throughout the medieval era.[9] Their interactions with Ismaili tradition resulted in the creation of the Satpanth tradition.[9] Throughout this era, Uch was at the centre of a region that was steeped in both Vedic and Islamic traditions.[9] The city would later become a centre of Suhrwadi Sufism, with the establishment of the order by Bahauddin Zakariya in nearby Multan in the early 1200s.[10]

Muhammad of Ghor conquered Uch and nearby Sultan in 1175 while it was still under the influence of the Ismaili Qarmatians. The town was likely captured from the Soomra dynasty based in Sindh[11] - Sindh's various dynasties had for centuries attempted to keep Uch and Multan under their sway.[12]

Mamluk sultanate[edit]

The mosque of Makhdoom Jahanian was built in the late 1300s,[13] and is embellished with the blue tile-work typical of southern Punjab.
The mosque of Mahboob Subhani is decorated in the region's vernacular style.

Soomra power was eroded by the advance of Nasir ad-Din Qabacha of what would later become the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Qabacha was declared Governor of Uch in 1204. Under his rule, Uch became the principal city of Upper Sindh.[1] Qabacha declared independence for his principality centred on Uch and Multan after the death of Sultan Aybak in 1211,[9] before marching onwards to capture Lahore,[9] thereby placing Qabacha's new Uch Sultanate in conflict with Sultan Iltutmish in Delhi. Qabacha briefly lost control of Uch to Taj al-Din Yildiz, though Uch was quickly returned to Qabacha's rule.[9]

While the power struggle ensued among Qabacha and Iltuthmish, Uch came under further pressure from the Khwarazmian dynasty based in Samarkand that had been displaced by the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan.[9] Following the defeat of his father by the Mongols in the mid 1210s, the last Khwarazmian Sultan, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, sacked and conquered Uch in 1224 after Qabacha refused to aid him in a campaign against Genghis Khan.[9] Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was finally defeated by Genghis Khan in 1224 in a battle at Uch,[9] and was forced to flee to Persia. Khan attacked Multan on his return to Iran in 1224, though Sultan Qabacha was able to successfully defend that city.[9] Despite repeated invasions, the city remained a great centre of Muslim scholarship, as evidenced by the appointment of the renowned Persian historian Minhaj-i-Siraj as chief of the city's Firozi madrasa.[1]

In 1228, Qabacha's forces, weakened by Mongol and Khwarazmian invasions, lost Uch to Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi, and fled south to Bhakkar in Sindh,[9] where he was eventually captured and drowned in the Indus River as punishment.[14] Following the collapse of Qabacha's sultanate at the hands of Mongols and Khwarazmians, and the degradation of Lahore from years of conflict there,[15] Muslim power in north India shifted away from Punjab and towards the safer environs Delhi.[9]

Mongol and Timurid invasions[edit]

The shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari is dedicated to Uch's celebrated 13th century Sufi saint.
The Baha'al Halim and Nuriyas tombs were built in the 14th and 16th centuries, respectively.

One of Uch's most celebrated saints, Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, migrated to Uch from Bukhara in 1244-45. In 1245-46, the Mongols again invaded Uch under Möngke Khan after receiving aid from the local Khokhar tribes.[11] in 1252, forces from Delhi were sent to the region in order to secure Uch from Mongol raiders, though Uch was again raided in 1258.[11] Uch was raided yet again by Mongols in 1304 and 1305.[16] Following the 1305 invasion, Uch came under the governoship of Ghazi Beg, who would later seize Delhi and come to be known as Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, founder of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.[16] Uch was captured in 1398 by Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir, grandson of Tamerlane,[17] allowing Khizr Khan to regain control of the area, before joining with the forces of the elder Tamerlane to sack Delhi and establish the Sayyid dynasty in 1414.

Langah sultanate[edit]

Uch then came under the control of the Langah Sultanate in the early 15th century, founded in nearby Multan by Budhan Khan, who assumed the title Mahmud Shah.[18] During the rule of Shah Husayn Langah, large numbers of Baloch settlers were invited to settle in the region.[18] The city was placed under the jagir governorship of a Samma prince. In the mid 1400s, Muhammed Ghaus, a descendant of the Persian saint Abdul Qadir Gilani, established a Khanqah monastery in Uch, thereby establishing the city as a centre of the Qadiriyya Sufi order which would later become the dominant order of Punjab.[19] Following the death of Shah Husayn, Uch's Samma rulers quickly allied themselves with Baloch chieftain Mir Chakar Rind.[20]

Mughal[edit]

Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, is believed to have visited Uch in the early 1500s, and left behind 5 relics, after meeting with the descendants of Jalaludin Bukhari.[21] In 1525 Uch was invaded by rulers of the Arghun dynasty of northern Sindh,[18] before falling to the forces of Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri in 1540.Mughal Emperor Humayun entered Uch in late 1540, but was not welcomed by the city's inhabitants, and was defeated by the forces of Sher Shah Suri.[22] The city reverted to Arghun rule following the expulsion of Humayun, and the fall of Sher Shah Suri's short-lived empire.[16]

Uch became a part of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Akbar, and the city was a district of Multan province.[1] Under Mughal rule, the city continued to flourish as a centre of religious scholarship.[2] In 1680, the renowned Punjabi poet, Bulleh Shah, who is regarded as a saint by both Sufis and Sikhs, was born in Uch.[23] In 1751, Uch was attacked by Sardar Jahan Khan, general in the army of Ahmad Shah Durrani.[7]

Bahawalapur princely state[edit]

Several of Uch's monuments were damaged in flooding in the early 19th century, leaving their interiors exposed.

Uch came under the control of the Bahawalpur princely state, which declared independence in 1748 following the collapse of the Durrani empire. Bahawalpur had become a vassal of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, before becoming a dependency of the British Empire defined under an 1833 treaty. By 1836, the ruling Abbasi family stopped paying tribute to the Sikhs, and declared independence. Bahawalpur's ruling Abbasi family aligned themselves with the British during the Anglo-Sikh wars, thereby guaranteeing its survival as a princely state.[24]

Flooding in the early 19th century caused serious damage to many of the city's tombs, including structural problems and the deterioration of masonry and finishes.[25]

Modern[edit]

Upon the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Uch had a population of around 2-3,000 people.[26] As part of Bahawalpur state, Uch was acceded to the new Pakistani state, but remained part of the autonomous Bahawalpur state until 1955 when it was fully amalgamated into Pakistan. Uch remains a relatively small city, but is an important tourist and pilgrimage destination on account of its numerous tombs and shrines.

Geography[edit]

Uch is located 84 km away from Bahawalpur. Formerly located at the confluence of the Indus and Chenab rivers, the river shifted course,[6] and is now 25 miles (40 km) from that confluence, which has moved to Mithankot. The city now lies on a large Alluvial plain near south of the Chenab river. To the southeast lay the vast expanses of the Cholistan Desert.

Uch is located on fertile alluvial plains which are now used for agriculture.

Cityscape[edit]

Uch is notable for having retained much of its historic urban fabric in tact.[2] The historic town is divided into three localities: Uch Bukhari, named for the saints from Bukhara, Uch Gilani (or Uch Jilani), named for the saints from Persia, and Uch Mughlia - named for the descendants of Mongol invaders who had settled in that quarter.[27] Monuments are scattered throughout the city, and are connected by narrow lanes and winding bazaars.[2] The most notable collection, called the Uch Monument Complex, is located at the old city's western edge. The old core is next to a large field used as a mela ground,[2] or fair ground for urs festivals dedicated to the town's saints.

Climate[edit]

Uch features an arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters.

Climate data for nearby Multan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.3
(82.9)
32.0
(89.6)
39.0
(102.2)
45.0
(113)
48.9
(120)
52.0
(125.6)
52.2
(126)
45.0
(113)
42.5
(108.5)
40.6
(105.1)
36.0
(96.8)
29.0
(84.2)
52.2
(126)
Average high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
23.2
(73.8)
28.5
(83.3)
35.5
(95.9)
40.4
(104.7)
42.3
(108.1)
39.2
(102.6)
38.0
(100.4)
37.2
(99)
34.6
(94.3)
28.5
(83.3)
22.7
(72.9)
32.6
(90.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
15.4
(59.7)
21.0
(69.8)
27.5
(81.5)
32.4
(90.3)
35.5
(95.9)
33.9
(93)
33.0
(91.4)
31.0
(87.8)
26.4
(79.5)
19.7
(67.5)
14.1
(57.4)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
7.6
(45.7)
13.5
(56.3)
19.5
(67.1)
24.4
(75.9)
28.6
(83.5)
28.7
(83.7)
28.0
(82.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.2
(64.8)
10.9
(51.6)
5.5
(41.9)
17.9
(64.1)
Record low °C (°F) −2
(28)
−1
(30)
3.3
(37.9)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
20.0
(68)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
16.7
(62.1)
8.9
(48)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.1
(30)
−2
(28)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.2
(0.283)
9.5
(0.374)
19.5
(0.768)
12.9
(0.508)
9.8
(0.386)
12.3
(0.484)
61.3
(2.413)
32.6
(1.283)
10.8
(0.425)
1.7
(0.067)
2.3
(0.091)
6.9
(0.272)
186.8
(7.354)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.3 211.6 250.8 273.3 293.5 266.8 265.0 277.6 277.6 274.9 255.0 229.2 3,097.6
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[28]

Uch Monument Complex[edit]

Some of the monuments are undergoing restoration work.

17 tiled funerary monuments and associated structures remain tightly knit into the urban fabric of Uch. The shrines, notably the tombs of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari and his family, are built in a regional vernacular style particular to southern Punjab, with tile work imported from the nearby city of Multan.[29] These structures were typically domed tombs on octagonal bases, with elements of Tughlaq military architecture, such as the addition of decorative bastions and crenellations.[30]

Three shrines built over the course of 200 years are particularly well known, and along with an accompanying 1400 graves form the Uch Monument Complex,[2] a site tentatively inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Cultural Heritage sites.[29] Of the shrines, the first is said to have been built for Sheikh Baha’al-Halim by his pupil, the Suharwardiya Sufi saint Jahaniyan Jahangasht (1307–1383), the second for the latter’s great-granddaughter, Bibi Jawindi, in 1494, and the third for the latter’s architect.

Flooding in the early 19th century caused serious damage to many of the city's tombs, including structural problems and the deterioration of masonry and finishes.[25] As the problems have persisted, the Uch Monument Complex was listed in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, and again in 2000 and 2002.[31] The Fund subsequently offered financial assistance for conservation from American Express.[32]

Parliamentarians[edit]

2013

Syed Ali Hassan Gillani Member National Assembly PML(N)

Makhdoom Syed Iftikhar Hussain Gillani Member Provincial Assembly(BNAP)

2008

Arif Aziz Sheikh Member National Assembly PPPP

Makhdoom Syed Iftikhar Hussain Gillani Member Provincial Assembly PML(Q)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Imperial gazetteer of India: provincial series. Supt. of Govt. Print. 1908. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Uch Monuments". UNESCO Office in Bangkok. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c Khan, Hasan Ali (2016-08-08). Constructing Islam on the Indus: The Material History of the Suhrawardi Sufi Order, 1200–1500 AD. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781316827222. 
  4. ^ The Macedonian Empire, by James R. Ashley p.54
  5. ^ Alexandria (Uch) - Livius.org
  6. ^ a b "Uch Monument". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  7. ^ a b (Firm), Cosmo Publications (2000). The Pakistan gazetteer. Cosmo Publications. ISBN 9788170208822. 
  8. ^ a b MacLean, Derryl N. (1989). Religion and Society in Arab Sind. BRILL. ISBN 9789004085510. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Asif, Manan Ahmed (2016-09-19). A Book of Conquest. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674660113. 
  10. ^ Dasti, Humaira Faiz (1998). Multan, a province of the Mughal Empire, 1525-1751. Royal Book. 
  11. ^ a b c Wink, André (1997). Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest : 11Th-13th Centuries. BRILL. ISBN 9004102361. 
  12. ^ Avasthy, Rama Shanker (1967). The Mughal Emperor Humayun. History Dept., University of Allahabad. 
  13. ^ orientalarchitecture.com. "Asian Historical Architecture: A Photographic Survey". www.orientalarchitecture.com. Retrieved 2018-01-24. 
  14. ^ Dughlt, Mirza Muhammad Haidar (2008-01-01). A History of the Moghuls of Central Asi: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 9781605201504. 
  15. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003-10-16). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521543293. 
  16. ^ a b c Pakistan Quarterly. 1955. 
  17. ^ Imperial gazetteer of India: provincial series. Supt. of Govt. Print. 1908. 
  18. ^ a b c Rafiq, A.Q.; Baloch, N.A. THE REGIONS OF SIND, BALUCHISTAN, MULTAN AND KASHMIR: THE HISTORICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SETTING (PDF). UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1. 
  19. ^ Dehlvi, Sadia (2012-03-05). The Sufi Courtyard: Dargahs Of Delhi. Harper Collins. ISBN 9789350294734. 
  20. ^ Ibbetson, Sir Denzil; Maclagan, Sir Edward (December 1996). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120605053. 
  21. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1969). Travels of Guru Nanak. Publication Bureau, Panjab University. 
  22. ^ Qanungo, Kalika Ranjan (1965). Sher Shah and his times. Orient Longmans. 
  23. ^ Ahmad, Saeed; Aḥmad, Saʻīd (2004). Great sufi wisdom Bulleh Shah, 1680-1752. Adnan Books. 
  24. ^ Organization, Pattan Development (2006). Bahawalpur District: socio-political profile. Pattan Development Organization. 
  25. ^ a b Colin Amery and Brian Curran, Vanishing Histories, Harry N. Abrams, New York, NY: 2001, p. 103.
  26. ^ The Panjab Past and Present. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University. 1969. 
  27. ^ "Uch Sharif". Humshehri. Retrieved 2018-01-24. 
  28. ^ "Multan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  29. ^ a b Burrison, John A. (2017-06-16). Global Clay: Themes in World Ceramic Traditions. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253031891. 
  30. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert (1994). Islamic architecture : form, function, and meaning. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231101332. OCLC 30319450. 
  31. ^ World Monuments Fund - Uch Monument Complex
  32. ^ Rina Saeed Khan, "New York group funds Uch conservation," Pakistan Daily Times, January 16, 2004.

External links[edit]