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Muhammad of Ghor

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Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad ibn Sam
Sultan of the Ghurid Sultanate
Shrine of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.JPG
Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.[1]
Sultan of the Ghurid Empire
PredecessorGhiyath ad-Din Muhammad
SuccessorGhor: Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud
Ghazni: Taj ad-Din Yildiz
Lahore: Qutbu l-Din Aibak
Bengal: Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
Multan: Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha
Reign1173–1203 (with his brother Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad)
Reign1203–1206 (as sole ruler)
Born1149
Ghor, Ghurid Empire (present-day Afghanistan)
Died15 March 1206(1206-03-15) (aged 56–57)
Dhamiak, Jhelum District, Ghurid Empire (present-day Pakistan)
Burial
Dhamiak, Jhelum District, present-day Pakistan
HouseGhurid dynasty
FatherBaha al-Din Sam I
ReligionSunni Islam

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad ibn Sam (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1203, and sole ruler from 1203 to his death. He is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Northern India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Mu'izz al-Din along with his brother Ghiyath captured Ghazni and Herat and used them as their base for expeditions in Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. In 1175, Mu'izz crossed the Indus plain through Gomal Pass and captured Multan from its Ismaili Muslim community, and also took Uch (situated between Chenab and Jhelum rivers) by 1176. His forces were routed in the mountainous pass of Gadararaghatta by a coalition of Rajput chiefs, which forced him to change his route for future inroads into India. Hence, Mu'izz pressed upon the Ghaznavids and uprooted them by 1186, conquering Sindh, Peshawar, Lahore and Sialkot. After consolidating his hold in northwest, he penetrated into the north Indian Plain through the Khyber Pass which was under the sway of Rajputs.

In 1191, his forces were defeated by a Rajput Confederacy led by Prithviraj Chauhan near Tarain. However, in 1192, Mu'izz ad-Din returned with a vast army of Turkish mounted archers and defeated the Rajputs on the same battleground and executed Prithviraja shortly afterwards. His victory at Tarain, paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in Indian subcontinent.[2][3] He limited his presence in India afterwards to concentrate on his expansion in the west and left his conquests in India under his slave generals who expanded the influence of the Ghurids to Bengal in the east.

After the death of Ghiyath in 1203, Mu'izz al-Din ascended to the throne as the sole ruler of vast Ghurid empire. Within a year or so in conflict with the Khwarazmian Empire, Mu'izz suffered a sharp reverse near the Oxus river in the Battle of Andhkhud which halted his expansion in Central Asia and resulted in the loss of Merv and most of the Khorasan. Mu'izz raised a vast army and built a bridge across the Oxus to launch a full-scale invasion of Transoxiana to avenge his defeat, although a rebellion in his empire in Punjab forced him to move towards India once more around 1205-1206.

On his way back, Mu'izz was assassinated near the Indus on March 15, 1206, by a group of assassins from the rival Muslim sect while offering evening prayer. After his death, his empire collapsed during the rise of Khawarazmian empire who reached up to the Indus but was eventually swept away by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. Many of Mu'izz's conquered territories in the Indian subcontinent continued to thrive under the Delhi Sultanate which withstood the turmoil in Central Asia caused by the Mongol conquests.

Early life

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region of Khorasan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time.[4] Mu'izz had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn but were later released by the latter's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad.[5] When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath and helped him ascend the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by several Ghurid chiefs; Mu'izz aided Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.

Early campaigns

Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, AH 599-602 / 1171-1206. Ghazni mint.

Ghiyath was then challenged by his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud, who claimed the throne for himself and had allied with Tadj al-Din Yildiz, the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh.[6] However, the coalition was defeated by Ghiyath and Mu'izz at Ragh-i Zar. The brothers managed to kill the Seljuq governor during the battle, and then conquered Zamindawar, Badghis, Gharjistan, and Urozgan. Ghiyath, however, spared Fakhr al-Din and restored him as the ruler of Bamiyan. Mu'izz, after returning from an expedition from Sistan, was shortly awarded Kandahar by his brother. In 1173, the two brothers invaded Ghazni, and defeated the Oghuz Turks who had captured the city from the Ghaznavids. Mu'izz was then appointed as the ruler of Ghazni. [6]

In 1175, the two brothers conquered Herat from its Seljuq governor, Baha al-Din Toghril, and also managed to conquer Pushang. The ruler of Sistan, Taj al-Din Harb ibn Muhammad, shortly acknowledged the sovereignty of the Ghurids, and so did the Oghuz Turks dominating Kirman[disambiguation needed].[4]

During the same period, the Khwarazmian Sultan Shah, who was expelled from Khwarezm by his brother Tekish, took refuge in Ghor and requested military aid from Ghiyath. Ghiyath, however, did not help the latter. Sultan Shah managed to get help from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and began plundering the northern Ghurid domains.

Invasion of India

Indian coinage (Pagoda) of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, on the model of Gahadavala dynasty coinage. Obverse: Lakshmi seated facing. Reverse: legend in Devanagari:
śrima ha/[mi]ra mahama/da sama
"Lord Emir Muhammad (ibn) Sam".[7][8]

Mu'izz expeditions in Indian subcontinent started against the Qarmatians rulers who recovered their hold on Multan after it was ravaged by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Mu'izz defeated them in 1175 and annxed Multan.[9] After the conquest of Multan, Mu'izz captured Uch which was situated south of the confluence of the rivers Chenab and Jhelum. Although his campaign in Uch is not mentioned in detail in the near contemporary accounts, Minhaj mentioned it as part of his empire before his march through the desert. Firishta, a later historian mentions the year of Uch conquest as 1176. It was placed under Malik Nasiurdin Aitam till his defeat in Battle of Andhkhud in 1204, afterwards it was placed under Qubacha.[10]

After capturing Multan and Uch, Ghori turned south towards Rajputana probably to repeat the exploits of Mahmud in the area a century ago. After marching through the desert of Rajputana, his army got exhausted when they reached Mount Abu where his forces were routed near the mountainous pass of Gadararaghatta, by the young Chaulukya ruler Mularaja II; aided by other Rajput chiefs such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha.[11] The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Ghazni.[9] The defeat made Mu'izz change his plans who now concentrated on creating a suitable base in Punjab and northwest for further incursions into India. By 1186, he conquered the entire northwest which included Sindh up to the coast, Peshawar, Lahore and Sialkot from the Ghaznavids and executed the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau-Malik which eventually ended the Ghaznavid dynasty.[12][13]

Mu'izz shortly returned to Ghor, and along with the rulers of Bamiyan and Sistan, aided his brother Ghiyath in defeating the forces of Sultan Shah at Merv in 1190. He also annexed most of the latter's territories in Khorasan.

First Battle of Tarain

In 1191, Mu'izz proceeded towards the Indian subcontinent through the Khyber Pass in modern-day Pakistan and was successful in reaching Punjab. Mu'izz captured a fortress, Bathinda in present-day Punjab state on the northwestern frontier of Prithvīrāj Chauhān's kingdom. After appointing a Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fortress,[14] he received the news that Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai were on their way to besiege the fortress. The two armies eventually met near the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Thanesar in present-day Haryana. The battle was marked by the initial attack of mounted Mamluk archers to which Prithviraj responded by counter-attacking from three sides and thus dominating the battle. Mu'izz mortally wounded Govind Tai in personal combat and in the process was himself wounded, whereupon his army retreated[15] and Prithvīrāj's army was deemed victorious.[16]

According to Rima Hooja and Kaushik Roy, Govind Tal was wounded by Mu'izz and later fought at the second battle of Tarain, where he was killed.[17][18]

Second Battle of Tarain

Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204).
Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".

On his return to Ghor, Mu'izz made preparations to strike again. According to Firishta, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry and infantry (most likely a gross exaggeration).[19] Minhaj-i-Siraj, stated Mu'izz brought 120,000 fully armoured men to the battle in 1192.[19]

Prithviraj had called his banners but hoped to buy time as his banners (other Rajputs under him or his allies) had not arrived. Before the next day, Mu'izz attacked the Rajput army before dawn. Although they were able to quickly form formations, they suffered losses due to surprise attacks before sunrise. The Rajput army was eventually defeated and Prithviraj was taken prisoner and subsequently executed.[16] Following the battle, the entire Chauhan territory of Siwalik came within the grasp of the Ghurids, Mu'izz annexed their territory up to Ajmer (Rajasthan) and up to Hisar and Sirsa in modern-day Haryana. The Ghurids later installed Prithviraja's minor son Govindaraja IV as their puppet ruler on condition of heavy tribute.[20]

Further campaigns

When the State of Ajmer failed to fulfil the tribute demands as per the custom after a defeat, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, in 1193 took over Ajmer[21] and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India.[22] Hindu kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally, his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after the Battle of Chandwar, defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj.[23] Within a year, Mu'izz controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab.[24]

Mu'izz returned west to Ghazni to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkic and Khalaj generals such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Followed by his conquest of Delhi, an army led by Aibak invaded and plundered Anahilapataka in ca. 1195–97.[25]

Conquest of Bayana

Mu'izz returned to Indian frontier again around 1196 to consolidate his hold around present-day Rajasthan. The territory of Bayana at the time was under the control of a sect of Bhatti Rajputs. Mu'izz along with Aibak advanced and besieged Thankar whose ruler Kumarpal was defeated. The event is mentioned in two contemporaneous chronicles of Hasan Nizami and Minhaj-i Siraj Juzjani. Mu'izz placed the fort under the command of Baha-ur din Tughril, who later established Sultankot and used it as his stronghold.[26][27] Following the conquest of Thankar, Mu'izz marched on Gwalior whose Parihar chief accepted his supremacy.[28]

Struggle in Central Asia

In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by Muhammad II of Khwarezm (who took the honorific name 'Ala' al-Din). The Ghurid brothers seized the opportunity and captured Nishapur, Merv, Sarakhas and Tus and reached till Gorgan. During the course of his expeditions, they plundered the stronghold of Ismalis and swept nearly all the Khurasan.[29] However, within a year or so, Muhammad II recaptured Nishapur and some other Ghurid possessions.[5]

Ghiyath died at Herat on 13 March 1203,[30] after months of illness. Taking the advantage of Mu'izz absence from Herat, Muhammad II captured Merv. Mu'izz managed to repel him and then in retaliation pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, their capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, he was chased on his way to Ghur and was defeated near Oxus river in Battle of Andkhud in 1204.[31][32] According to Hasan Nizami and Minhaj-i Siraj Juzjani, the defeat of Mu'izz at Andhkhud was caused due to the betrayal of his generals in the battlefield.[33] Following the disaster of Andhkhud, Mu'izz lost the control of most of the Khurasan.

Mu'izz planned a large scale invasion of Transoxiana to avenge his defeat and build boat bridge across Oxus. However, due to political unrest in Punjab, he turned his attention to India again for his last campaign where he was eventually assassinated.[34]

Final days and death

Muhammad Ghori's tomb within his mausoleum near Jhelum

In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India,[35] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave general Qutb ud-Din Aibak.

Taking advantage of the reverse Mu'izz suffered in Battle of Andkhud, Khokhar tribe with their base in Punjab rebelled by disrupting his communication chain between Lahore and Ghazni. Thus, Mu'izz in his last campaign into India in 1206, brutually crushed the Khokhar rebellion and slaughtered them in large numbers.[36]

On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Dhamiak near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan) where he was assassinated on March 15, 1206, by either the Khokhars or Ismāʿīlīs.[37]

Succession

Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Mu'izz's army and government.

When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Mu'izz retorted:

Bull-and-horseman billon coin of Muhammad of Ghor, with his name inscribed in Sanskrit above the bull Nandi. Minted in Delhi or Bada'un, on the model of previous Chauhan and Pala coinage. Obverse: Stylized recumbent bull with Nagari legend around: sri mahamad sam "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam". Reverse: Stylized horseman with Nagari legend around: sri hamirah "Lord Emir".[38]

"Other monarchs may have one son or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories."[39]

Mu'izz's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:

These slave generals as a token of respect for Mu'izz, continue to call themselves Mu'izziya Sultans of Hind. Even after the death of Mu'izz, they continued minting coinage with his name.[41]

Legacy

During Muizzuddin Ghori's joint reign with brother Ghiyath al-Din Ghori, Ghurid empire reached its pinnacle in terms of territorial expansion where they ruled over a territory which spanned over 3000 km. Muizzuddin's empire streched from Nishapur in eastern Iran to Benares and Bengal in present-day India and from the foothills of the Himalaya south to Sindh (Pakistan).[42]

In the context of Indian history, legacy of Muhmmad Ghori is often compared with the legacy of Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud Ghaznavi as two major invaders on Northern frontier in Medieval India. Mahmud though, was a superior military leader then Ghori as he never suffered a reverse in his military expeditions against Indian as well as Central Asian kingdoms and ruled over a larger realm then him, though Ghori fought with stronger and more organised chiefs in Northern frontier. Despite being less successful in Central Asia, Ghori's success in India were far more significant as his conquests laid the foundation of Muslim rule in heartland of Ganges basin.

He consolidated his conquests by crushing and subduing Rajput chiefs of North India after his triumph over them in 1192, near Taraori. Despite a prolong period of wars and conquests in the north, his religious policies were on a slightly more tolerant side then Mahmud, which is evident from the fact that he employed Hindu Rajputs despite their opposition to Ghurids.[43] However, there were destruction of idols and temples, massacres of civilians during his expeditions in current day Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. He also left behind him a group of his loyal slaves and workers in India who were trained in administration and further consolidated his conquests when he returned to Ghazni.[44][45]

Mu'izz al-Din conquests in Central Asia were short lived and after his death his vast empire disintigerated amidst the rise of Khawarizami empire who reached till Indus by conquering the Ghurid territories in Kabul, Qandhar and Ghazni. His legacy, however continued in Indian subcontinent in Delhi Sultanate whose foundation he laid in twelfth century A.D. The Sultanate was the only major Muslim kingdom that survived amongst the turmoil in Central Asia caused by the Mongol hordes in the thirteenth century.[46][47]

During Mu'izz reign, Ghur became a leading centre of learning and culture. During his reign, he gave grants to various scholars like Maulama Fakharudin Razi who promoted religious teaching in the backward areas of his empire. Mu'izz also contributed in the archietectural aspect of his region, chiefly constructing distinctive kind of Islamic glazed tiles in Ghazni.[46][48]

In popular culture

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b Yasin, Aamir (8 October 2017). "The tomb of the man who conquered Delhi". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  2. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Psychology Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4. The first battle of Tarain was won by the Rajput confederacy led by Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer. But when Muhammad of Ghur returned the following year with 10,000 archers on horseback he vanquished Prithviraj and his army
  3. ^ Sugata Bose; Ayesha Jalal (2004). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. Psychology Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-415-30786-4. It was a similar combination of political and economic imperatives which led Muhmmad Ghuri, a Turk, to invade India a century and half later in 1192. His defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan, a Rajput chieftain, in the strategic battle of Tarain in northern India paved the way for the establishment of first Muslim sultante
  4. ^ a b Bosworth 2001.
  5. ^ a b Nizami 1998, p. 186.
  6. ^ a b Bosworth 1968, p. 112.
  7. ^ Truschke, Audrey (5 January 2021). The Language of History: Sanskrit Narratives of Indo-Muslim Rule. Columbia University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-231-55195-3.
  8. ^ Flood, Finbarr Barry (3 May 2009). Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter. Princeton University Press. pp. 115 Fig.60–116. ISBN 978-0-691-12594-7.
  9. ^ a b Wink 2002, p. 143.
  10. ^ Nizami 1992, p. 156.
  11. ^ Sharma 1959, p. 259.
  12. ^ Bosworth 1968, p. 161-170.
  13. ^ Chandra 2007, p. 68: "In 1173, Shahabuddin, Muhammad (1173-1206 (also known as Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam) ascended the throne at Ghazni, while his elder brother was ruling at Ghur. Proceeding by way of the Gomal pass, Muizzuddin Muhammad conquered Multan and Uchch. In 1178, he attempted to penetrate into Gujarat by marching across the Rajputana desert. But the Gujarat ruler completely routed him in a battle near Mount Abu, and Muizzuddin Muhammad was lucky in escaping alive. He now realised the necessity of creating a suitable base in the Punjab before venturing upon the conquest of India. Accordingly he launched a campaign against the Ghaznavid possessions in the Punjab. By 1190, Muizzuddin Muhammad had conquered Peshawar, Lahore and Sialkot,and was poised fora thrust towards Delhi and the Gangetic doab"
  14. ^ Bosworth 1968, p. 40.
  15. ^ Roy 2016, p. 41.
  16. ^ a b Tucker 2010, p. 263.
  17. ^ Hooja 2006, p. 267-268.
  18. ^ Roy 2016, p. 41-42.
  19. ^ a b Chandra 2006, p. 25.
  20. ^ Sharma 1959, p. 100.
  21. ^ Sharma 1970, p. 201.
  22. ^ Abbasi 1990, p. 8-9.
  23. ^ Roy 2016, p. 42.
  24. ^ Sharma 1966, p. 73.
  25. ^ Sen 1999, p. 327.
  26. ^ Aniruddha Ray 2019, p. 44:"Shihabuddin again came to India in 1195-1196. This time he attacked Biyana, Kumarpal king of Bayana was a Rajput of the Yaddo Bhatti sect. Once the attack of Shihabuddin started, the king went to Thankar and camped there. After some time, he was forced to submitt. Bahauddin Turghil was given the charge of Thankar"
  27. ^ Hooja 2006, p. 276:"Nizami’s Taj-ul-Maasir informs us that in the year 592 of the Hijri calendar (i.e. AD 1196), Muhammad bin-Sam Ghori, and his lieutenant Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched towards Thangar [Tahangarh]. Thereafter, noted Nizami, that centre of idolatry became the abode of [God’s] glory, following the taking of the hitherto impregnable fortress and the defeat of the local ruler, Kunwarpal (Kumarapal), whose life was spared. The administration of the fort and area around it was then conferred on Baha-ud-din Tughril by the Sultan. In a like manner, the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri records that Sultan Ghazi Muizzuddin conquered the fortress of Thankar [Tahangarh] in the country of Bayana, and after dealing with the Rai [i.e. Raja], gave the governance of it into the hands of Baha-ud-din Tughril. The latter improved the condition of the land so much that merchants and men of credit came to it from many parts of Hindustan and Khorasan. To encourage them to settle, they were given houses and goods in the area. Baha-ud-din Tughril later established Sultankot (near Bayana), and made that his military-base and reside"
  28. ^ Nizami 1992, p. 171: "In 592/1195-96 Muizzuddin again carme to India. He attacked Bayana, which was under Kumarapala, a Jadon Bhatti Rajput. The ruler avoided a confrontation at Bayana, his capital, but went to Thankar and entrenched himself there. He vas, howvever, compelled to surrender. Thankar and Vijayamandirgarh were occupied and put under Bahauddin Tughril. Mu'izzuddin - next marched towards Gwalior. Sallakhanapala of the Parihara dynasty, however, acknowledged the suzerainty of Muizzuddin"
  29. ^ Nizami 1998, p. 182.
  30. ^ Mohammad Habib 1992, p. 44:"At this juncture Sultan Ghiyasuddin Ghuri died at Herat on 27 Jamadi I.A. H 599 (13 March A.D 1203)"
  31. ^ Tucker 2010, p. 269.
  32. ^ Ahmed 2011, p. 53-54.
  33. ^ Nizami 1992, p. 178.
  34. ^ Chandra 2006, p. 28.
  35. ^ Biran 2005, p. 70.
  36. ^ Chandra 2007, p. 73: "In the immediate context, however, the defeat of Muizzuddin emboldened many of his opponents in India to rebel. The Khokhars, a warlike tribe in western Punjab, rose and cut off the communications between Lahore and Ghazni. Muizzuddin led his last campaign into India in 1206 in order to deal with the Khokhar rebellion. He resorted to large-scale slaughter of the Khokhars and cowed them down. On his way back to Ghazni, he was killed by a Muslim fanatic belonging to a rival sect"
  37. ^ Haig 1993, p. 410.
  38. ^ Flood, Finbarr B. (20 March 2018). Objects of Translation: Material Culture and Medieval "Hindu-Muslim" Encounter. Princeton University Press. p. 115,Fig. 61. ISBN 978-0-691-18074-8.
  39. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  40. ^ Nizami 1992a, p. 201.
  41. ^ C. E. Bosworth (1968), THE POLITICAL AND DYNASTIC HISTORY OF THE IRANIAN WORLD (A.D. 1000–1217), Cambridge University Press, p. 165, ISBN 978-0-521-06936-6, Such was the quality of Mu'izz al-Din's leadership and loyality that this slave amirs in India continued proudly to call themselves Mu'izzi and to place the dead sultan's name on their coins for some decades after the Ghurid dynasty proper had disappeared
  42. ^ David Thomas (2016). "Ghurid Sultanate". In John Mackenzie (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Empire, 4 Volume Set. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-44064-3. At its peak,the Ghurid empire, or perhaps more accurately the region across which its armies campaigned, briefly stretched for over 3000 km from east to west – from Nishapur in eastern Iran to Benares and Bengal and from the foothills of the Himalaya south to Sind
  43. ^ Jaimal Malik (29 August 2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill. p. 94. ISBN 978-90-474-4181-6. Yet, the Ghorids employed Hindus, especially the Rajputs even though some of them had opposed Muslim expansion.
  44. ^ Chandra 2007, p. 73: "Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam has often been compared to Mahmud of Ghazni. As a warrior, Mahmud Ghazni was mnore successful than Muizzuddin, having never suffered a defeat in India or in Central Asia. He also ruled over a larger empire outside India. But it has to be kept in mind that Muizzuddin had to contend with larger and better organised states in India than Mahmud. Though less successful in Central Asia, his political achievements in India were greater"
  45. ^ Salma Ahmed Farooqui (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. p. 54. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1. Muhmmad's conquest had far reaching result in India-laying down the foundation for subsequent Muslim rule in the land. He not only crushed Rajput power but also consolidated his conquests by providing all resources necessary for continuance of Muslim rule. He left behind a band of trusted workers well trained in the art of administration, who fulfilled his expectations. Muhmmad's political exploits, and his slightly enlightened religious posture, when prepared with Mahmud of Ghazni, prepared the ground for the advancement of Islam in India
  46. ^ a b Aniruddha Ray 2019, p. 48.
  47. ^ Chandra 2007, p. 84.
  48. ^ Nizami 1992, p. 182:"Muizzuddin's contribution to the cultural development of Ghur was not negligible. In fact it was he and his brother, Ghiyasuddin, who brought about a transformation in the culture-pattern of Ghur. He provided facilities to scholars, like Maulana Fakhruddin Razi,to spread religious education in those backward areas and helped in the emergence of Ghur as a centre of culture and learning. He made some note-worthy contribution ín the sphere of architectural traditions also. U. Scretto ascribes a unique type of glazed tile found at Ghazni to the period of Mu'izzuddin"
  49. ^ Sudha Ramachandran (3 September 2005). "Asia's missiles strike at the heart". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 30 October 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  50. ^ "Manav Vij to play Mohammed Ghori in YRF's Prithviraj Chauhan". DB Post. 10 September 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2020.

Sources

Further reading

External links

Muhammad of Ghor
Preceded by Sultan of the Ghurid Sultanate
1173–1206
Succeeded by