1790 and 1791 United States House of Representatives elections

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1790 and 1791

← 1788 / 1789 April 27, 1790 – October 11, 1791[a] 1792 / 1793 →

All 67 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives[b]
34 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JonathanTrumbull.jpg Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg
Leader Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Frederick Muhlenberg
(changed from "Pro-" to "Anti-")
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Leader's seat Connecticut 4th Pennsylvania 2nd
Last election 37 seats 28 seats
Seats won 39 30[c]
Seat change Increase 2 Increase 2

UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentativesElection1790.svg
Results:
     Pro-Administration      Anti-Administration

Speaker before election

Frederick Muhlenberg
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Trumbull Jr.
Pro-Administration

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 2nd Congress took place in 1790 and 1791, in the middle of President George Washington's first term. While formal political parties still did not exist, coalitions of pro-Washington (pro-Administration) representatives and anti-Administration representatives each gained two seats as a result of the addition of new states to the union. Speaker Frederick Muhlenberg, who had led the Pro-Administrationists in 1789, switched loyalties to the Anti-Administrationists during the tenure of the 1st Congress. He failed to win election to the Speakership as their leader as a result of these elections, and was succeeded by Jonathan Trumbull Jr., who became the 2nd Speaker of the House.

Election summaries[edit]

In this period, each state fixed its own date for congressional general elections, as early as April 27, 1790 (in New York) and as late as October 11, 1791 (in Pennsylvania). Elections to a Congress took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when the Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year). The first session of this Congress was convened in Philadelphia on October 24, 1791.

Kentucky and Vermont became states during the 2nd Congress, adding two seats each.[1] The legislation admitted Vermont was passed at the end of the 1st Congress taking effect on March 4, 1791, the first day of the 2nd Congress, so that Vermont was represented from the start of the Congress, while Kentucky was unrepresented until the 2nd session.

State Type Date ↑ Total
seats
Pro-
Administration
Anti-
Administration
Seats Change Seats Change
Late elections to the First Congress
North Carolina Districts February 1790 5 2 N/A 3 N/A
Rhode Island At-large August 31, 1790 1 1 N/A 0 N/A
General elections to the Second Congress
New York Districts April 27–29, 1790 6 5 Increase2 1 Decrease2
New Hampshire At-large August 30, 1790 3 3 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Virginia Districts September 1, 1790 10 2 Decrease1 8 Increase1
Connecticut At-large September 20, 1790 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Mixed[d] October 4, 1790 6 3 Increase1 3 Decrease1
Massachusetts Districts October 4, 1790[e] 8 7 Increase1 1 Decrease1
South Carolina Districts October 12, 1790 5 3 Increase1 2 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large October 19, 1790 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1790 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District January 3, 1791 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
New Jersey At-large January 26, 1791 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts January 28, 1791 5 2 Steady 3 Steady
Late elections after beginning of Congress
Vermont Districts July 13, 1791[f] 2 0 Steady 2 Increase2
Pennsylvania Districts October 11, 1791 8 4 Decrease2 4 Increase2
Total (Second Congress) 67
[c]
39
56.5%
Increase 2 28[c]
43.5%
Increase 1

House composition[edit]

—---------------------------------

End of the last Congress[edit]

A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A V P P P
Majority→ P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A V P P P P
Majority→ P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P
Key:
A = Anti-Administration
P = Pro-Administration
V = Vacant

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1790 and 1791 during the 1st United States Congress and 2nd United States Congress.

Elections are sorted here by state then district.

1st Congress[edit]

North Carolina and Rhode Island ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789 and May 29, 1790, respectively. The states elected its representatives after their admission. North Carolina would redistrict for the 2nd Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
"Roanoke division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789. First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
John B. Ashe (Anti-Administration) 48.9%
Nathaniel Macon (Anti-Administration) 41.5%
Stephen Moore 8.9%
Parsons[g] 0.7%
North Carolina 2
"Edenton and New Bern division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789. First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
Hugh Williamson (Anti-Administration) 73.9%
Stephen Cabarrus 26.0%
North Carolina 3
"Cape Fear division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789. First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
Timothy Bloodworth (Anti-Administration) 98.4%
Benjamin Smith 1.6%
North Carolina 4
"Yadkin division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789. First member elected March 24, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
John Steele (Pro-Administration)[h]
Joseph MacDowell
Waightstill Avery
North Carolina 5
"Western division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789. First member elected March 24, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
District covered areas beyond the Appalachian Mountains that were ceded to in May 1790 to form the Southwest Territory, but member retained seat for the remainder of term.
John Sevier (Pro-Administration)[h]
Virginia 9 Theodorick Bland Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent died June 1, 1790.
New member elected July 1790.
Anti-Administration hold.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
William B. Giles (Anti-Administration) 54.5%
Thomas Edmunds (Pro-Administration) 45.5%
Rhode Island at-large State ratified the U.S. Constitution May 29, 1790. First member elected August 31, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
Benjamin Bourne (Pro-Administration) 72.7%
Job Comstock 23.2%
James Sheldon 3.4%[i]
Connecticut at-large Pierpont Edwards Pro-Administration 1788 Predecessor declined election.
New member elected December 16, 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Administration) 48.6%
Amasa Learned (Pro-Administration) 23.9%
Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Administration) 13.2%
Tapping Reeve (Unknown) 8.1%
Stephen M. Mitchell (Unknown) 4.1%
James Davenport (Unknown) 1.5%
John Chester (Unknown) 0.7%

2nd Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 Vacant Representative-elect James Townsend (Pro-Administration) died May 24, 1790.
New member elected April 26–28, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Administration) 26.2%
John Vanderbilt (Pro-Administration) 19.2%
Henry Peters (Pro-Administration) 14.5%
Ezra L'Hommedieu (Anti-Administration) 14.2%
Stephen Carman (Anti-Administration) 14.1%
Isaac Ledyard (Pro-Administration) 11.8%
Connecticut at-large Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent-and-Representative-elect resigned March 31, 1791 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 19, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Amasa Learned (Pro-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 3 William Pinkney Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent resigned.
New member elected October 26–29, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated February 5, 1792.
John Francis Mercer (Anti-Administration)
Unopposed

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut elected all five of its representatives at-large on a general ticket on September 20, 1790.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
5 seats
Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner declined to serve and a new member would later be elected in a special election.
Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration) 2,969 votes
Pierpont Edwards (Pro-Administration) 2,239 votes
James Hillhouse (Pro-Administration) 2,035 votes
Jonathan Sturges (Pro-Administration) 1,730 votes
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. (Pro-Administration) 1,720 votes
Tapping Reeve 1,672 votes
Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Administration) 1,658 votes
Amasa Learned (Pro-Administration) 1,463 votes
Stephen M. Mitchell (Pro-Administration) 1,435 votes
Benjamin Huntington 1,372 votes
John Chester 881 votes
James Davenport (Pro-Administration) 786 votes[2]
Benjamin Huntington Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner declined to serve and the incumbent was re-elected in a special election.

There were two subsequent special elections. The first was held to fill the vacancy left by Pierpont Edwards (Pro-Administration) declining to serve and was won by Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Administration). The second was held September 19, 1791 to fill the vacancy left by Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)'s election to the Senate and was won by Amasa Learned (Pro-Administration).

Delaware[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[i]
Delaware at-large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John M. Vining (Pro-Administration) 50.3%
Joshua Clayton (Pro-Administration) 28.9%
Thomas Duff 20.8%

Georgia[edit]

Georgia switched to a conventional district system for the Second Congress. At the time, the districts were not numbered, but are retroactively renumbered as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd respectively here.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia 1
"Southern (or Eastern) District"
James Jackson Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Election was subsequently challenged, the House determined that electoral fraud had occurred, and the seat was declared void.
Anthony Wayne (Anti-Administration) 50.4%
James Jackson (Anti-Administration) 49.5%
Others 0.2%
Georgia 2
"Middle District"
Abraham Baldwin Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Abraham Baldwin (Anti-Administration) 56.2%
Thomas P. Carnes (Anti-Administration)
James Jackson (Anti-Administration) 1.2%
John Jones 0.3%
Georgia 3
"Northern (or Western) District"
George Mathews Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Francis Willis (Anti-Administration) 66.5%
George Mathews (Anti-Administration) 33.5%

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky was admitted during the 2nd Congress and elected its first representatives in 1792.

Maryland[edit]

Under Maryland law for the election for the 1st and 2nd Congresses "candidates were elected at-large but had to be residents of a specific district with the statewide vote determining winners from each district."

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Michael J. Stone Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Philip Key (Pro-Administration) 56.8%
Michael J. Stone (Anti-Administration) 43.2%
Maryland 2 Joshua Seney Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Joshua Seney (Anti-Administration) 57.1%
James Tilghman 42.9%
Maryland 3 Benjamin Contee Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner later resigned due to questions of ineligibility due to his residence[3] and was replaced in a special election by John Francis Mercer (Anti-Administration).
William Pinkney (Pro-Administration) 61.6%
Benjamin Contee (Anti-Administration) 38.4%
Maryland 4 William Smith Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Samuel Sterett (Anti-Administration) 100%
Maryland 5 George Gale Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
William Vans Murray (Pro-Administration) 56.4%
George Gale (Pro-Administration) 43.6%
Maryland 6 Daniel Carroll Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Upton Sheredine (Anti-Administration) 55.5%
Daniel Carroll (Pro-Administration) 44.5%

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts law required a majority for election. This condition was met in four of the eight districts, the remaining four required between 2 and 9 ballots for election.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Fisher Ames (Pro-Administration) 75.1%
Benjamin Austin 16.1%
Thomas Dawes 8.8%
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin Goodhue Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Goodhue (Pro-Administration) 88.8%
Samuel Holten 11.2%
Massachusetts 3 Elbridge Gerry Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Administration) 60.4%
Nathaniel Gorham 39.6%
Massachusetts 4 Theodore Sedgwick Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Administration) 75.0%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Administration) 16.3%
Scattering 8.7%
Massachusetts 5 George Partridge Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1790.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
First ballot (October 4, 1790):
Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Administration) 41.8%
Thomas Davis 37.3%
Joshua Thomas 20.9%

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Administration) 65.3%
Joshua Thomas 27.2%
Thomas Davis 7.5%
Massachusetts 6 George Leonard
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (October 4, 1790):
Walter Spooner 25.5%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 22.6%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 22.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.7%
David Cobb 12.9%

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Walter Spooner 24.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 28.4%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 12.5%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 25.7%
David Cobb 8.6%

Third ballot (January 25, 1791):
Walter Spooner 28.3%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 33.9%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 8.5%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 24.0%
David Cobb 5.3%

Fourth ballot (April 4, 1791):
Walter Spooner 38.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 38.8%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 5.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 15.7%
David Cobb 1.5%

Fifth ballot (July 18, 1791):
Walter Spooner 6.6%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 42.3%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 29.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 21.8%

Sixth ballot (September 8, 1791):%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 42.2%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 41.6%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.2%

Seventh ballot (November 11, 1791):
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 31.6%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 45.0%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 22.2%

Eighth ballot (December 26, 1791):
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 27.7%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 55.6%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.7%

Ninth ballot (April 2, 1792):
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 55.6%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 27.7%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.7%
Massachusetts 7 Jonathan Grout
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (October 4, 1790):
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Administration) 39.1%
Artemas Ward (Pro-Administration) 39.0%
John Sprague 14.5%
Nathan Tyler 7.4%

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Artemas Ward (Pro-Administration) 56.6%
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Administration) 43.4%
Massachusetts 8 George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (October 4, 1790):
George Thatcher (Pro-Administration) 37.2%
William Lithgow 22.3%
Nathaniel Wells 16.1%
Josiah Thatcher 9.2%
William Martin 4.9%
Arthur Noble 3.6%
Daniel Davis 1.8%
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Administration) 1.5%

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
George Thatcher (Pro-Administration) 49.8%
Nathaniel Wells 31.0%
William Lithgow 14.8%
Scattering 4.4%

Third ballot (January 25, 1791):
George Thatcher (Pro-Administration) 49.1%
William Lithgow 39.7%
Nathaniel Wells 11.2%

Fourth ballot (April 4, 1791):
George Thatcher (Pro-Administration) 52.3%
William Lithgow 41.1%
Nathaniel Wells 6.6%

New Hampshire[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
3 seats on a general ticket
Abiel Foster Pro-Administration 1789 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Samuel Livermore (Pro-Administration) 25.1%
Jeremiah Smith (Pro-Administration) 13.1%
Nicholas Gilman (Pro-Administration) 11.8%
John Samuel Sherburne (Anti-Administration) 11.1%
Abiel Foster (Pro-Administration) 8.5%
James Sheafe (Pro-Administration?) 7.8%
Nathaniel Peabody 7.0%
Others 15.5%
Samuel Livermore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected as Pro-Administration.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.

New Jersey[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[i]
New Jersey at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Abraham Clark (Pro-Administration) 19.9%
Jonathan Dayton (Pro-Administration) 13.8%
Elias Boudinot (Pro-Administration) 13.7%
Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Administration) 8.8%
Lambert Cadwalader (Pro-Administration) 7.0%
James Linn 5.5%
Thomas Sinnickson (Pro-Administration) 5.1%
Robert Hoops 4.9%
Thomas Henderson 3.7%
John Witherspoon 2.7%
John Beatty (Pro-Administration) 2.3%
John Sheppard 1.9%
Joseph Ellis 1.7%
Robert Ogden 1.5%
James Schureman (Pro-Administration) 1.5%
John Harring 1.1%
John Hugg 1.1%
Lambert Cadwalader Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
James Schureman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Thomas Sinnickson Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.

New York[edit]

New York's districts were not numbered at the time, therefore the numbering here is retroactive.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 William Floyd Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner died May 24, 1790, before the start of the 2nd Congress. A special election was then held, see above.
James Townsend (Pro-Administration) 35.5%
John Vanderbilt (Pro-Administration) 19.6%
William Floyd (Anti-Administration) 19.1%
Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Administration) 17.0%
Ezra L'Hommedieu (Anti-Administration) 8.8%
New York 2 John Laurance Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John Laurance (Pro-Administration) 98.4%
Melancton Smith (Anti-Administration) 1.6%
New York 3 Egbert Benson Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Egbert Benson (Pro-Administration) 60.8%
Theodorus Bailey (Anti-Administration) 39.2%
New York 4 John Hathorn Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Cornelius C. Schoonmaker (Anti-Administration) 52.1%
Peter Van Gaasbeck (Pro-Administration) 43.7%
John Hathorn (Anti-Administration) 3.5%
Christopher Tappen (Anti-Administration) 0.8%
New York 5 Peter Silvester Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Peter Silvester (Pro-Administration) 58.4%
John Livingston (Anti-Administration) 41.6%
New York 6 Jeremiah Van Rensselaer Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
James Gordon (Pro-Administration) 59.0%
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (Anti-Administration) 41.0%

North Carolina[edit]

Due to the cession of North Carolina's trans-Appalachian territory to form the Southwest Territory, the territory of the old 5th district was lost. North Carolina retained the same number of Representatives, and so it redistricted for the Second Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1
"Yadkin Division"
John Steele
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. John Steele (Pro-Administration) 87.3%
Joseph MacDowell (Anti-Administration) 12.7%
North Carolina 2
"Centre Division"
None (District created) New seat
Anti-Administration gain.
Nathaniel Macon (Anti-Administration)[h]
Alexander Mebane (Anti-Administration)
North Carolina 3 John Baptista Ashe
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan B. Ashe (Anti-Administration)[h]
North Carolina 4
"Albemarle Division"
Hugh Williamson
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Hugh Williamson (Anti-Administration)[j]
Charles Johnson (Anti-Administration)
North Carolina 5
"Cape Fear Division"
Timothy Bloodworth
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
William B. Grove (Pro-Administration) 65.2%
Timothy Bloodworth (Anti-Administration) 34.6%
Benjamin Smith (Pro-Administration) 0.2%

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania had elected its Representatives at-large in the 1st Congress, but switched to using districts in the 2nd Congress. Five incumbents ran for re-election, four of whom won, while three others retired leaving three open seats. Two districts had no incumbents residing in them, while one (the 8th district) had a single representative who declined to run for re-election and one (the 2nd district) had three incumbents, only one of whom ran for re-election.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[4]
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas Fitzsimons
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Fitzsimons (Pro-Administration) 85.1%
Charles Thompson (Anti-Administration) 14.9%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected as Anti-Administration Frederick Muhlenberg (Anti-Administration[k])[h]
Amos Greg (Anti-Administration)
"Dr." Jones
George Clymer
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Henry Wynkoop
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Pennsylvania 3 Peter Muhlenberg
redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Israel Jacobs (Pro-Administration) 61.2%
Peter Muhlenberg (Anti-Administration) 38.8%
Pennsylvania 4 Daniel Hiester
redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Hiester (Anti-Administration)[h]
Pennsylvania 5 None (District created) Pro-Administration gain. John W. Kittera (Pro-Administration)[h]
Pennsylvania 6 None (District created) Anti-Administration gain. Andrew Gregg (Anti-Administration) 51.2%
John Allison (Pro-Administration) 18.3%
James McLean (Anti-Administration) 10.9%
Thomas Johnston (Pro-Administration) 10.3%
William Montgomery (Anti-Administration) 9.3%
Pennsylvania 7 Thomas Hartley
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Hartley (Pro-Administration) 71.1%
William Irvine (Anti-Administration) 28.9%
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Scott
redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
William Findley (Anti-Administration) 65.2%
John Woods (Pro-Administration) 34.8%

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island held elections for the Second Congress on October 18, 1790, about a month and a half after elections for the First Congress due to the late ratification of the Constitution

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration August 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Bourne (Pro-Administration) 56.6%
Paul Mumford 33.0%
James Sheldon 10.1%

South Carolina[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1
"Charleston Division"
William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. William L. Smith (Pro-Administration)[h]
South Carolina 2
"Beaufort Division"
Aedanus Burke Anti-Administration 1788 Retired?
Pro-Administration gain.
Robert Barnwell (Pro-Administration)[h]
South Carolina 3
"Georgetown Division"
Daniel Huger Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Huger (Pro-Administration)[h]
South Carolina 4
"Camden Division"
Thomas Sumter Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Sumter (Anti-Administration)[h]
South Carolina 5
"Ninety-Six Division"
Thomas Tudor Tucker Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Tudor Tucker (Anti-Administration)[h]

Vermont[edit]

Vermont was admitted at the end of the First Congress, with the admission taking effect at the start of the Second Congress. Vermont was entitled to elect two representatives. Vermont law at the time required a majority to win an office. In the 1st district, no candidate won a majority, necessitating a run-off.

District Result Candidates[i]
Vermont 1
"Western Division"
First member elected.
Anti-Administration win.
First ballot (July 13, 1791):
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Administration?) 28.7%
Israel Smith (Anti-Administration) 24.6%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Administration) 22.7%
Samuel Hitchcock 18.1%
Ira Allen 2.3%
Ebenezer Marvin 1.6%
Gideon Olin 1.3%
Others 0.7%

Second ballot (September 6, 1791):
Israel Smith (Anti-Administration) 68.4%
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Administration?) 29.4%
Isaac Tichenor 2.2%
Vermont 2
"Eastern Division"
First member elected.
Anti-Administration win.
Nathaniel Niles (Anti-Administration)[h]
Stephen Jacob
Daniel Buck (Pro-Administration)

Virginia[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Alexander White (Pro-Administration) 93.3%
J.P. Duvall 6.7%
Virginia 2 John Brown Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John Brown (Anti-Administration)[h]
James M. Marshall
Virginia 3 Andrew Moore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Andrew Moore (Anti-Administration)[h]
Virginia 4 Richard Bland Lee Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Bland Lee (Pro-Administration) 62.1%
Arthur Lee 37.9%
Virginia 5 James Madison Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. James Madison (Anti-Administration) 97.8%
James Monroe (Anti-Administration) 2.2%
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Abraham B. Venable (Anti-Administration)[h]
Charles Lintch
Charles Clay
Virginia 7 John Page Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John Page (Anti-Administration)[h]
Meriwether Smith
Francis Corbin
Henry Lee
Virginia 8 Josiah Parker Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Josiah Parker (Anti-Administration) 76.1%
Isaac Avery 23.9%
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. William B. Giles (Anti-Administration) 59.3%
Thomas Edmonds 40.6%
John Mason 0.1%
Virginia 10 Samuel Griffin Pro-Administration 1789 Re-elected as Anti-Administration. Samuel Griffin (Anti-Administration)[l][h]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding states that joined during the Second Congress and a very late run-off election in Massachusetts's 6th congressional district.
  2. ^ 2 more seats were added by the admission of new states after the start of this Congress
  3. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  4. ^ Maryland had six representatives elected by the whole state electorate, who had to choose one candidate from each district.
  5. ^ Massachusetts required a majority for election, additional trials were required in 4 districts, held between November 26, 1790 and April 2, 1792.
  6. ^ A majority was required for election, which was not met in one of the districts necessitating a second election on September 6, 1791
  7. ^ Source does not give first name
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  9. ^ a b c d Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  10. ^ Changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration between the 1st and 2nd Congresses
  11. ^ Changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration between the 1st and 2nd Congresses
  12. ^ Had been Pro-Administration previous election, and would switch back to Pro-Administration in the next election

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 191
  2. ^ "Connecticut 1790 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved March 22, 2018., citing The Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). October 22, 1790.
  3. ^ "Second Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  4. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]