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Meitnerium,  109Mt
General properties
Pronunciation /mtˈnɪəriəm/[1] or /ˈmtnəriəm/[2]
myt-NEER-ee-əm or MYT-nər-ee-əm
Meitnerium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Atomic number (Z) 109
Group, period group 9, period 7
Block d-block
Element category unknown, but probably a transition metal[3][4]
Mass number 278
(unconfirmed: 282) (most stable isotope)
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (calculated)[3][5]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2 (predicted)
Physical properties
Phase solid (predicted)[4]
Density near r.t. 37.4 g/cm3 (predicted)[3]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 9, 8, 6, 4, 3, 1(predicted)[3][6][7][8]
Ionization energies 1st: 800.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 1823.6 kJ/mol
3rd: 2904.2 kJ/mol
(more) (all estimated)[3]
Atomic radius empirical: 128 pm (predicted)[3][8]
Covalent radius 129 pm (estimated)[9]
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for meitnerium

Magnetic ordering paramagnetic (predicted)[10]
CAS Number 54038-01-6
Naming after Lise Meitner
Discovery Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (1982)
Main isotopes of meitnerium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct
282Mt[11] syn 67 s? α 278Bh
278Mt syn 4 s α 274Bh
276Mt syn 0.6 s α 272Bh
274Mt syn 0.4 s α 270Bh
| references | in Wikidata

Meitnerium is a chemical element with symbol Mt and atomic number 109. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an element not found in nature that can be created in a laboratory). The most stable known isotope, meitnerium-278, has a half-life of 7.6 seconds, although the unconfirmed meitnerium-282 may have a longer half-life of 67 seconds. The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany, first created this element in 1982. It is named for Lise Meitner.

In the periodic table, meitnerium is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 9 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to iridium in group 9 as the seventh member of the 6d series of transition metals. Meitnerium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium.


Meitnerium was named after the physicist Lise Meitner, one of the discoverers of nuclear fission.


Meitnerium was first synthesized on August 29, 1982 by a German research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt.[12] The team bombarded a target of bismuth-209 with accelerated nuclei of iron-58 and detected a single atom of the isotope meitnerium-266:[13]

+ 58

This work was confirmed three years later at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna (then in the Soviet Union).[13]


Naming ceremony conducted at the GSI on 7 September 1992 for the namings of elements 107, 108, and 109 as nielsbohrium, hassium, and meitnerium

Using Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, meitnerium should be known as eka-iridium. In 1979, during the Transfermium Wars (but before the synthesis of meitnerium), IUPAC published recommendations according to which the element was to be called unnilennium (with the corresponding symbol of Une),[14] a systematic element name as a placeholder, until the element was discovered (and the discovery then confirmed) and a permanent name was decided on. Although widely used in the chemical community on all levels, from chemistry classrooms to advanced textbooks, the recommendations were mostly ignored among scientists in the field, who either called it "element 109", with the symbol of (109) or even simply 109, or used the proposed name "meitnerium".[3]

The naming of meitnerium was discussed in the element naming controversy regarding the names of elements 104 to 109, but meitnerium was the only proposal and thus was never disputed.[15][16] The name meitnerium (Mt) was suggested in honor of the Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, a co-discoverer of protactinium (with Otto Hahn),[17][18][19][20][21] and one of the discoverers of nuclear fission.[22] In 1994 the name was recommended by IUPAC,[15] and was officially adopted in 1997.[16] It is thus the only element named specifically after a non-mythological woman (curium being named for both Pierre and Marie Curie).[23]


Meitnerium has no stable or naturally occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusing two atoms or by observing the decay of heavier elements. Eight different isotopes of meitnerium have been reported with atomic masses 266, 268, 270, and 274–278, two of which, meitnerium-268 and meitnerium-270, have known but unconfirmed metastable states. A ninth isotope with atomic mass 282 is unconfirmed. Most of these decay predominantly through alpha decay, although some undergo spontaneous fission.[24]

Stability and half-lives[edit]

List of meitnerium isotopes
265Mt 2? min α ? unknown
266Mt 1.7 ms α 1982 209Bi(58Fe,n)[12]
267Mt 10? ms α ? unknown
268Mt 21 ms α 1994 272Rg(—,α)[26]
269Mt 0.2? s α ? unknown
270Mt 5.0 ms α 2004 278Nh(—,2α)[27][28]
271Mt 5? s α ? unknown
272Mt 10? s α, SF ? unknown
273Mt 20? s α, SF ? unknown
274Mt 0.44 s α, SF 2006 282Nh(—,2α)[27]
275Mt 9.7 ms α 2003 287Mc(—,3α)[27]
276Mt 0.72 s α, SF 2003 288Mc(—,3α)[27]
277Mt ~5 ms SF 2012 293Ts(—,4α)[29]
278Mt 7.6 s α 2009 294Ts(—,4α)[30]
279Mt 6? min α, SF ? unknown
280Mt unknown
281Mt unknown
282Mt 67 s? α 1998? 290Fl(ee2α)?

All meitnerium isotopes are extremely unstable and radioactive; in general, heavier isotopes are more stable than the lighter. The most stable known meitnerium isotope, 278Mt, is also the heaviest known; it has a half-life of 7.6 seconds. (The unconfirmed 282Mt is yet heavier and appears to have an even longer half-life of 67 seconds.) A metastable nuclear isomer, 270mMt, has been reported to also have a half-life of over a second. The isotopes 276Mt and 274Mt have half-lives of 0.72 and 0.44 seconds respectively. The remaining four isotopes have half-lives between 1 and 20 milliseconds.[24] The undiscovered isotope 281Mt has been predicted to be the most stable towards beta decay;[31] no known meitnerium isotope has been observed to undergo beta decay.[24] Some unknown isotopes, such as 265Mt, 272Mt, 273Mt, and 279Mt, are predicted to have half-lives longer than the known isotopes.[24][25] Before its discovery, 274Mt and 277Mt were predicted to have half-lives of 20 seconds and 1 minute respectively, but they were later found to have half-lives of only 0.44 seconds and 5 milliseconds respectively.[24]

Predicted properties[edit]


Meitnerium is the seventh member of the 6d series of transition metals. Since element 112 (copernicium) has been shown to be a transition metal, it is expected that all the elements from 104 to 112 would continue a fourth transition metal series, with meitnerium as part of the platinum group metals.[20] Calculations on its ionization potentials and atomic and ionic radii are similar to that of its lighter homologue iridium, thus implying that meitnerium's basic properties will resemble those of the other group 9 elements, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium.[3]

Prediction of the probable chemical properties of meitnerium has not received much attention recently. Meitnerium is expected to be a noble metal. Based on the most stable oxidation states of the lighter group 9 elements, the most stable oxidation states of meitnerium are predicted to be the +6, +3, and +1 states, with the +3 state being the most stable in aqueous solutions. In comparison, rhodium and iridium show a maximum oxidation state of +6, while the most stable states are +4 and +3 for iridium and +3 for rhodium.[3] The oxidation state +9, represented only by iridium in [IrO4]+, might be possible for its congener meitnerium in the nonafluoride (MtF9) and the [MtO4]+ cation, although [IrO4]+ is expected to be more stable.[7] The tetrahalides of meitnerium have also been predicted to have similar stabilities to those of iridium, thus also allowing a stable +4 state.[6] It is further expected that the maximum oxidation states of elements from bohrium (element 107) to darmstadtium (element 110) may be stable in the gas phase but not in aqueous solution.[3]

Physical and atomic[edit]

Meitnerium is expected to be a solid under normal conditions and assume a face-centered cubic crystal structure, similarly to its lighter congener iridium.[4] It should be a very heavy metal with a density of around 37.4 g/cm3, which would be the second-highest of any of the 118 known elements, second only to that predicted for its neighbor hassium (41 g/cm3). In comparison, the densest known element that has had its density measured, osmium, has a density of only 22.61 g/cm3. This results from meitnerium's high atomic weight, the lanthanide and actinide contractions, and relativistic effects, although production of enough meitnerium to measure this quantity would be impractical, and the sample would quickly decay.[3] Meitnerium is also predicted to be paramagnetic.[10]

Theoreticians have predicted the covalent radius of meitnerium to be 6 to 10 pm larger than that of iridium.[32] For example, the Mt–O bond distance is expected to be around 1.9 Å.[33] The atomic radius of meitnerium is expected to be around 128 pm.[8]

Experimental chemistry[edit]

Meitnerium is the first element on the periodic table whose chemistry has not yet been investigated. Unambiguous determination of the chemical characteristics of meitnerium has yet to have been established[34][35] due to the short half-lives of meitnerium isotopes[3] and a limited number of likely volatile compounds that could be studied on a very small scale. One of the few meitnerium compounds that are likely to be sufficiently volatile is meitnerium hexafluoride (MtF
), as its lighter homologue iridium hexafluoride (IrF
) is volatile above 60 °C and therefore the analogous compound of meitnerium might also be sufficiently volatile;[20] a volatile octafluoride (MtF
) might also be possible.[3] For chemical studies to be carried out on a transactinide, at least four atoms must be produced, the half-life of the isotope used must be at least 1 second, and the rate of production must be at least one atom per week.[20] Even though the half-life of 278Mt, the most stable known meitnerium isotope, is 7.6 seconds, long enough to perform chemical studies, another obstacle is the need to increase the rate of production of meitnerium isotopes and allow experiments to carry on for weeks or months so that statistically significant results can be obtained. Separation and detection must be carried out continuously to separate out the meitnerium isotopes and have automated systems experiment on the gas-phase and solution chemistry of meitnerium, as the yields for heavier elements are predicted to be smaller than those for lighter elements; some of the separation techniques used for bohrium and hassium could be reused. However, the experimental chemistry of meitnerium has not received as much attention as that of the heavier elements from copernicium to livermorium.[3][34][36]

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory attempted to synthesize the isotope 271Mt in 2002–2003 for a possible chemical investigation of meitnerium because it was expected that it might be more stable than the isotopes around it as it has 162 neutrons, a magic number for deformed nuclei; its half-life was predicted to be a few seconds, long enough for a chemical investigation.[3][37] However, no atoms of 271Mt were detected,[38] and this isotope of meitnerium is currently unknown.[24]

An experiment determining the chemical properties of a transactinide would need to compare a compound of that transactinide with analogous compounds of some of its lighter homologues:[3] for example, in the chemical characterization of hassium, hassium tetroxide (HsO4) was compared with the analogous osmium compound, osmium tetroxide (OsO4).[39] In a preliminary step towards determining the chemical properties of meitnerium, the GSI attempted sublimation of the rhodium compounds rhodium(III) oxide (Rh2O3) and rhodium(III) chloride (RhCl3). However, macroscopic amounts of the oxide would not sublimate until 1000 °C and the chloride would not until 780 °C, and then only in the presence of carbon aerosol particles: these temperatures are far too high for such procedures to be used on meitnerium, as most of the current methods used for the investigation of the chemistry of superheavy elements do not work above 500 °C.[35]

Following the 2014 successful synthesis of seaborgium hexacarbonyl, Sg(CO)6,[40] studies were conducted with the stable transition metals of groups 7 through 9, suggesting that carbonyl formation could be extended to further probe the chemistries of the early 6d transition metals from rutherfordium to meitnerium inclusive.[41][42]


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