Voronezh Oblast

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Voronezh Oblast
Воронежская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 51°03′N 40°09′E / 51.050°N 40.150°E / 51.050; 40.150Coordinates: 51°03′N 40°09′E / 51.050°N 40.150°E / 51.050; 40.150
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Central[1]
Economic region Central Black Earth[2]
Established June 13, 1934
Administrative center Voronezh
Government (as of March 2011)
 - Governor Alexey Gordeyev[3]
 - Legislature Oblast Duma
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 52,400 km2 (20,200 sq mi)
Area rank 51st
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 2,335,380
 - Rank 22nd
 - Density[6] 44.57/km2 (115.4/sq mi)
 - Urban 63.7%
 - Rural 36.3%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-VOR
License plates 36
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Voronezh Oblast (Russian: Воро́нежская о́бласть, Voronezhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It was established on June 13, 1934. Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh. Its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census.[5]

Voronezh Oblast is the birthplace of Pavel Cherenkov, co-recipient of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Geography

Voronezh Oblast is located in the central belt of the European part of Russia, in a very advantageous strategic location, transport links to the site going to the industrial regions of Russia. Within the radius (12 hours of driving 80 km/h) 960 kilometers around Voronezh more than 50% of the population Russia, and 40% in Ukraine live.[citation needed] Regions neighbors include Rostov-on-Don, Volgograd, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Saratov, Tambov, Kursk, Lugansk.

The area of the region - 52.4 thousand sq. km, which is about one third of the whole area of Central Black Earth Region region.[citation needed] The length of the region from north to south - 277.5 km, and from west to east - 352 km.

Climate

The climate in the region - temperate continental with an average January temperature of -5 ° -4 °C, in July + 25 ° + 30 °C and with an average annual temperature of +5,0 °C in the north of the region up to +6,5 °C to south. Rainfall of 600 mm in the northwest to 450 mm in the southeast. Much of the area is steppe, among the predominant soil fertile soil black earth. The region has 738 lakes and ponds in 2408, in 1343 the river flows over 10 km long. The main river - Don, 530 of its 1 870 km flows through the area, forming a pool area of 422,000 square kilometers.

Main rivers

Administrative divisions

Voronezh region map.svg

Economy

The structure of Voronezh Oblast the industrial-agrarian. As part of the industry is dominated by mechanical engineering, power engineering, food industry, processing industry of agricultural raw materials. They account for 4/5 of the total volume of industrial output. Industry specialization of the region is the food industry (27%), second place is occupied by engineering and metalworking (23%), third place - power (18%).

Industry of the region specializes in the production of machine tools, oil and gas equipment, rocket engines, metal bridge structures, press-forging and mining equipment, electronic equipment, passenger aircraft Airbus

Agriculture

A lake near Voronezh

Voronezh Oblast is a major supplier of agricultural products. For the first time in the history of farming region in 2011 produced record crops: sugar beet (factory) - 6 million. 992 thousand. Tons (3.9 times more than in 2010) and sunflower - 1 million. 002 thousand tons (2, 4 times more than in 2010) 2014 Voronezh Oblast ranked first in Russia in terms of gross harvest of potatoes in farms of all categories have been collected 1.757 million tons of potatoes.

In general, the profile of agriculture - with crops of sunflowers and grain crops, dairy and beef cattle, pigs. Beet, sugar beet industry in Voronezh Oblast in terms of gross production of sugar beets and making sugar beet is one of the largest in the country. In 2014, sugar mills were produced 495.1 ths. Tons of sugar.

Milk production in Voronezh Oblast in 2013 increased by 1.8% - up to 755,700. tons. In 2014, it increased by 4.2% to ↗788 000 tons, according to this indicator Voronezh Oblast takes first place in the Central Federal District. Milk yield per cow dairy herd in 2014 increased by 10.9% and amounted to 5545 kg.

Sights

Вход в церковь Сицилийской иконы Божьей Матери.JPG

Kostyonki, It is known for high concentration of cultural remains of anatomically modern humans from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic era. The first and oldest camp rights in Europe. A layer of Campanian volcanic ash from about 40,000 years ago has been found above some of the finds, showing that "unknown humans" inhabited the site before this. The earliest directly dated human remains from this site are dated to 32,600 ± 1,100 14C years and consist of tibia and fibula, with traits classifying the bones to European early modern humans.

In 2009, DNA was extracted from the remains of a male hunter-gatherer who lived 40,000 years BP and died aged 20–25. His maternal lineage was found to be U2. He was buried in an oval pit in a crouched position and covered with red ochre.

Politics

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Voronezh CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Voronezh Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Voronezh Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Demographics

Population: 2,335,380 (2010 Census);[5] 2,378,803 (2002 Census);[9] 2,469,766 (1989 Census).[10]

  • Births (2012): 25 374 (Birth rate: 10.9)
  • Deaths (2012): 36 174 (Death rate: 15.6)[11]
  • Total fertility rate:[12]

2009 - 1.37 | 2010 - 1.36 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.45 | 2013 - 1.44 | 2014 - 1.48(e)

Ethnic composition (2010):[5]

  • Russians - 95.5%
  • Ukrainians - 1.9%
  • Armenians - 0.5%
  • Romani people - 0.2%
  • Others - 1.9%
  • 110,749 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[13]

Religion






Circle frame.svg

Religion in Voronezh Oblast (2012)[14][15]

  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Spiritual but not religious (22%)
  Atheist (6%)
  Other or undeclared (7%)

According to a 2012 official survey[14] 62% of the population of Voronezh Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, and 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians. In addition, 22% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist, and 7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Voronezh Oblast. Alexey Vasilyevich Gordeyev, Governor of Voronezh Oblast (Russian)
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  12. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  13. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  14. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  15. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

External links