Luhansk Oblast

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Luhansk Oblast
Луганська область
Luhanska oblast[1]
Coat of arms of Luhansk Oblast
Nickname(s): 
Eastern gate of Ukraine,[2][3] dawn of Ukraine,[4][5][6] Луганщина (Luhanshchyna), Луганьfsieve (Luhan)
Luhansk in Ukraine (claims hatched).svg
Coordinates: 48°55′N 39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E / 48.92; 39.02Coordinates: 48°55′N 39°01′E / 48.92°N 39.02°E / 48.92; 39.02
Country Ukraine
(de jure)
Established3 June 1938
Administrative centerCoat of arms of Luhansk.svg Luhansk (de jure)
none or unknown (de facto, due to Russo-Ukrainian War)
Government
 • GovernorSerhiy Haidai[7]
 • Oblast council124 seats
 • ChairpersonValerij Holenko (Party of Regions[8])
Area
 • Total26,684 km2 (10,303 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)[9]
 • TotalDecrease 2,121,322
 • RankRanked 7th
Demographics
 • Official language(s)Ukrainian
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
91-94
Area code+380-64
ISO 3166 codeUA-09
Vehicle registrationBB
Raions18
Cities (total)37
• Regional cities14
Urban-type settlements109
Villages792
FIPS 10-4UP14
Websiteloga.gov.ua

Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian: Луга́нська о́бласть, romanizedLuhanska oblast; also referred to as Luhanshchyna, Ukrainian: Луга́нщина) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Luhansk. The oblast was established in 1938 and bore the name Voroshilovgrad Oblast (Ukrainian: Ворошиловградська область, romanizedVoroshylovhradska oblast, until 1958 and again 1970 to 1991[10]) in honor of Kliment Voroshilov. Its population is estimated as 2,121,322 (2021 est.)[9]

Important cities within the oblast include Alchevsk, Antratsyt, Brianka, Kirovsk, Krasnyi Luch, Krasnodon, Lysychansk, Luhansk, Pervomaisk, Rovenky, Rubizhne, Sverdlovsk, Sievierodonetsk, and Stakhanov.

The war in Donbas and the subsequent 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine has seen 95%[11] of the oblast come under the control of the Luhansk People's Republic and Russia, with the administrative center relocated to Sievierodonetsk, which was captured in June by Russian forces.[12][13][14]

Geography[edit]

A topographic map of Luhansk Oblast

Luhansk Oblast is located in eastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,700 km2), comprises about 4.42% of the total area of Ukraine.

Its length from north to south is 250 km. Its width from east to west is 190 km. The oblast has the longest segment of the Ukrainian international border with Russia among other regions (see State Border of Ukraine) consisting of 746 km (464 mi).

The abutting Russian oblasts are Belgorod Oblast to the north, Voronezh Oblast to the northeast, Rostov Oblast to the east. Abutting Ukrainian oblasts are Kharkiv Oblast to the west, and Donetsk Oblast to the south.

The region is located in the valley of the Siversky Donets river, which splits the region approximately in half. The southern portion of the region is elevated by the Donetsk Ridge which is located closer to the southern border. The highest point is Mohyla Mechetna (367 m (1,204 ft)) which is the highest point of Donetsk Ridge.

The left bank of the Siversky Donets river is part of the Starobilsk Plain. To the north this transforms into the Central Russian Upland.

Adjacent subdivisions[edit]

north

Belgorod Oblast, Russia

northeast

Voronezh Oblast, Russia

east

Rostov Oblast, Russia

south

Donetsk Oblast

west

Kharkiv Oblast

History[edit]

A monument to Don Cossacks in Luhansk. "To the sons of glory and freedom"

The oblast originated in 1938 as Voroshylovhrad (Russian: Voroshilovgrad) Oblast after the Donetsk Oblast was split between Voroshylovhrad and Stalino (today Donetsk Oblast) oblasts. After the invasion by Nazi Germany in 1941 the region came under a German military administration, due to its proximity to frontlines. It was occupied at the end of 1942 as part of Case Blue German offensive directed towards Stalingrad.

Soon after the battle of Stalingrad, the Luhansk region (at that time Voroshilovgrad) again became center of military operations during the Soviet counter-offensive operation Little Saturn in the spring of 1943. In the summer of 1943 the region was liberated from the Nazi Germany Armed Forces. During the Soviet era the Oblast bore its current name between 1958 and 1970.

During the fateful March Referendum of 1991, 70.16% of all Ukrainians voted to remain a part of the Soviet Union as a sovereign republic, while only 27.99% voted 'no'.[15] In the December 1991 referendum (after the August coup ended all hope of a restored Union), 83.86% of votes in the oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine.

In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language becoming an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for Russian to be an official language on a regional level. The referendum was annulled by the Kyiv government.[16][17]

On 8 April 2014, following the annexation of Crimea by Russia, pro-Russian separatists occupying the Luhansk Oblast administrative building planned to declare the independence of the region as the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic, after other pro-Russian separatists declared Donetsk People's Republic in the Donetsk Oblast (7 April 2014). When the Luhansk Parliamentary Republic ceased to exist, the separatists declared the Luhansk People's Republic on 27 April 2014. They held a disputed referendum on separating from Ukraine on 11 May 2014. The legitimacy of the referendums was not recognized by any government.[18] Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal.[19] Subsequently, the war in Donbas started.

As a result of the war in Donbas, Luhansk insurgents control the southern third of the oblast, which includes the city of Luhansk, the region's most populous city and the capital of the oblast. Due to this, most oblast government functions have moved to Sievierodonetsk, which forces of the Government of Ukraine recaptured in July 2014. Many universities located in the occupied areas have moved to government-controlled cities such as Sievierodonetsk, Starobilsk or Rubizhne.[20][21] A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 5.7% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 84.1% did not support the idea, and the rest were undecided or did not respond. Insurgent-controlled areas were not polled.[22]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian ground forces entered Luhansk Oblast by crossing the Russian border and as of 26 May 2022 controlled 95% of the region.[23]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Map of the administrative subdivisions of the Luhansk Oblast.
English Name Local Name Type Area
(km2)
Population
Census 2001
Population
Estimate
1 Jan 2012
Admin.ctr
Alchevsk Алчевськ city of regional significance 49 119,193 112,071 Alchevsk
Antratsyt Антрацит city of regional significance 61 90,835 78,482 Antratsit
Antratsitivsky Антрацитівський (район) raion 1,662 36,971 31,454 Antratsit
Bilokurakynsky Білокуракинський (район) raion 1,436 23,807 19,858 Bilokurakyne
Bilovodsky Біловодський (район) raion 1,597 27,559 24,459 Bilovodsk
Brianka Брянка city of regional significance 64 61,357 54,085 Brianca
Kirovsk Кіровськ city of regional significance 35 45,012 36,708 Kirovsk
Krasnodon Краснодон city of regional significance 77 118,168 104,640 Krasnodon
Krasnodonsky Краснодонський (район) raion 1,386 32,846 29,983 Krasnodon
Krasnyi Luch Красний Луч city of regional significance 154 145,129 125,166 Krasnyi Luch
Kreminsky Кремінський (район) raion 1,627 51,927 42,357 Kreminna
Luhansk Луганськ city of regional significance 286 503,248 466,627 Luhansk
Lutuhynsky Лутугинський (район) raion 1,057 73,914 67,977 Lutuhyne
Lysychansk Лисичанськ city of regional significance 96 133,258 120,785 Lysychansk
Markivsky Марківський (район) raion 1,166 19,002 15,991 Markivka
Milovsky Міловський (район) raion 971 17,415 15,696 Milove
Novoaidarsky Новоайдарський (район) raion 1,536 28,451 25,618 Novoaidar
Novopskovsky Новопсковський (район) raion 1,623 38,322 35,271 Novopskov
Perevalsky Перевальський (район) raion 807 87,383 72,387 Perevalsk
Pervomaisk Первомайськ (Міськрада) city of regional significance 89 80,622 70,581 Pervomaisk
Popasniansky Попаснянський (район) raion 1,325 50,559 41,232 Popasna
Rovenky Ровеньки city of regional significance 217 91,712 84,366 Rovenky
Rubizhne Рубіжне city of regional significance 34 65,322 60,750 Rubizhne
Sievierodonetsk Северодонецьк city of regional significance 58 129,752 120,264 Sieverodonetsk
Slovianoserbsky (raion) Слов'яносербський (район) raion 1,113 62,125 55,462 Slovianoserbsk
Stakhanov Стаханов city of regional significance 92 108,266 92,818 Stakhanov
Stanychno-Luhansy Станично-Луганський (район) raion 1,896 52,762 49,732 Stanychno-Luhanske
Starobilsky Старобільський (район) raion 1,582 57,755 47,765 Starobilsk
Svativsky Сватівський (район) raion 1,739 43,069 37,652 Svatove
Sverdlovsk Свердловськ city of regional significance 84 110,159 99,024 Sverdlovsk
Sverdlovsky Свердловський (район) raion 1,132 14,574 12,210 Sverdlovsk
Troitsky Троїцький (район) raion 1,633 25,704 21,205 Troitske
Total Oblast Луганська (Область) oblast 26,683 2,546,178 2,272,676 Luhansk

Like the rest of the provinces in Ukraine, Luhansk Oblast has a double jurisdiction. The oblast is predominantly administrated by the Luhansk Oblast State Administration, headed by the governor of the oblast, who is appointed by the President of Ukraine. The province has a representative body, the provincial council, which is headed by its chairman and elected by popular vote.

The province is primarily divided into 18 raions (districts), and 37 cities, including 14 cities of regional significance. The administrative center is Luhansk. These raions are listed below with their areas and populations.[24]

The province's secondary division consists of various municipalities. Those municipalities may consist of one or more populated places. The municipalities are administratively subordinate to the raion in which they are located, with the exception of 14 cities subordinated directly to the oblast. The city of Luhansk is subdivided into its own four city-districts (boroughs).

All subdivisions are governed by their respective councils (radas).

Cities[edit]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Luhansk Oblast
Source?
Rank Raion Pop.
Luhansk
Luhansk
Alchevsk
Alchevsk
1 Luhansk Luhansk* 425,848 Sievierodonetsk
Sievierodonetsk
Lysychansk
Lysychansk
2 Alchevsk Alchevsk* 114,624
3 Sievierodonetsk Sievierodonetsk* 121,000
4 Lysychansk Lysychansk* 103 459
5 Krasnyi Luch Krasnyi Luch* 82,765
6 Stakhanov Stakhanov* 76,492
7 Sverdlovsk Sverdlovsk* 64,503
8 Rubizhne Rubizhne* 63,474
9 Antratsyt Antratsyt* 54,640
10 Rovenky Rovenky* 47,852
* regional municipalities

Demographics[edit]

City Day in Lysychansk
A map of Luhansk Oblast and former Slavo-Serbia (1753–64).

The population is largely Russian-speaking, although ethnic Ukrainians constitute a majority (58.0%). Among the minorities are native Russians (39.1%), Belarusians (0.8%), and others (1.4%). Ukrainians constitute the majority in all raions except for Stanytsia-Luhanska Raion and Krasnodon Raion, both of which are east of Luhansk. Ethnic Russians also constitute the majority in regionally significant cities, such as Krasnodon, Sverdlovsk, Krasnyi Luch and Stakhanov.

In the 2001 Ukrainian Census, more than 68.8% of the population considered themselves Russian speakers, while 30.0% considered themselves Ukrainian speakers. The Russophone population predominates in the southern portion of the region and around the city of Luhansk, while the northern region is less populated, mostly agricultural and Ukrainophone.

Its population (as of 2004) of 2,461,506 constitutes 5.13% of the overall Ukrainian population. The Luhansk Oblast rates fifth in Ukraine by the number of its inhabitants, having an average population density of 90.28/km2. About 87% of the population lives in urban areas, while the remaining 13% reside in agricultural areas. According to the national census, 54% of the population are Ukrainians and 42% are Russians.

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 12.3% Increase (male 143,272/female 134,803)
15-64 years: 71.4% Decrease (male 768,544/female 838,639)
65 years and over: 16.3% Steady (male 117,782/female 248,914) (2013 official)

Median age[edit]

total: 42.1 years Increase
male: 38.2 years Increase
female: 45.9 years Increase (2013 official)

Economy[edit]

Economically the region is connected with the Donets Basin.

Extracting industry[edit]

  • Lysychansk Coal
  • Luhansk Coal
  • Sverdlov Anthracite
  • Anthracite
  • Pervomaisk Coal
  • Rovenky Anthracite
  • Donbas Anthracite

Machine building[edit]

Luhanskteplovoz

Metallurgy[edit]

Chemical and oil refinery[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

The oblast has post industrial sites which run off building material into surrounding land. Yakymchuk 2018 finds feral stands of Triticum aestivum have colonised several of these sites.[25]

Power generation[edit]

Transport[edit]

Through the region pass two major European routes E50 and E40. There are 24 Russo-Ukrainian international border checkpoints of various entry.

Rail transportation is administered by the Donetsk Railway.

There is also its regional airport Luhansk International Airport with its own carrier.

Education[edit]

Dal's house in Luhansk

Specialized[edit]

Points of interest[edit]

Mścichowski Palace (remnants)

The following sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. p. 20. ISBN 978-966-475-839-7. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  2. ^ Oda, UA: LG, 2007, archived from the original on 5 August 2008.
  3. ^ Umoloda, Kyiv, UA.
  4. ^ Oda, UA: LG, 1930, archived from the original on 24 May 2011.
  5. ^ "Territory", 70 years, UA: LG, 14 March 2008 [1977], archived from the original on 24 May 2011, retrieved 17 September 2008.
  6. ^ "70 years", Calendar, UA: LG, 11 April 2008, archived from the original on 24 May 2011, retrieved 17 September 2008.
  7. ^ "Zelensky explains move to change Luhansk region's governor". UNIAN. 28 October 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  8. ^ Владимир Николаевич ПРИСТЮК [Vladimir nikolaevich Pristyuk] (in Russian), Luhansk Oblast Council, archived from the original on 24 April 2010.
  9. ^ a b Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  10. ^ Про внесення змін і доповнень до Конституції (Основного Закону) Української РСР | від 19.06.1991 № 1213а-XII
  11. ^ "Russian forces have 'upper hand' in Donbas fighting, Ukrainian officials say". the Guardian. 26 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  12. ^ "Ukrainian troops told to leave Severodonetsk: governor". PolskieRadio.pl. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  13. ^ "Ukrainians Retreat From Key Areas Of Eastern Region As Fighting Enters Fifth Month". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  14. ^ Mayor Says Ukrainian Troops Have 'Almost Left' Sievierodonetsk
  15. ^ Referendum%20in%20the%20Soviet%20Union www.csce.gov
  16. ^ donbass-zabytyj-referendum-1994thekievtimes.ua Archived 5 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Киев уже 20 лет обманывает Донбасс: Донецкая и Луганская области еще в 1994 году проголосовали за федерализацию, русский язык и евразийскую интеграцию" [Kyiv has been deceiving Donbass for 20 years: Donetsk and Luhansk regions voted in 1994 for federalization, the Russian language and Eurasian integration]. www.nakanune.ru.
  18. ^ "Ukraine's Eastern Region Of Luhansk May Now Hold Referendum On Joining Russia". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  19. ^ BBC News 12 May 2014
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Lugansk University. Location, phone, address, contacts". luganskukraine.info.
  22. ^ Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian). 3 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Russian forces have 'upper hand' in Donbas fighting, Ukrainian officials say". the Guardian. 26 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  24. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, Kyiv.
  25. ^ Kobetičová, Klára; Černý, Robert (2019). "Terrestrial eutrophication of building materials and buildings: An emerging topic in environmental studies". Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier. 689: 1316–1328. Bibcode:2019ScTEn.689.1316K. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.423. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 31466168. S2CID 198365229.

External links[edit]