From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Broadcast areaProvidence, Rhode Island
FormatWBRU: Modern rock
WBRU360: Urban contemporary
OwnerBrown Broadcasting Service, Inc.
First air date
1936 (as The Brown Network)
February 21, 1966 (as an over-the-air station)
September 1, 2017 (as internet-only station)
January 7, 2018 (on 101.1 LPFM)
Last air date
August 31, 2017 (on 95.5 FM)
Call sign meaning
BRown University
WebcastWBRU/WBRU360 radio players

WBRU is an internet radio station based in Providence, Rhode Island. The station is owned and operated by Brown Broadcasting Service,[1] an independent non-profit organization, and is primarily staffed by students from Brown University.[2]

Formerly an FM modern rock radio station that broadcast at 95.5 FM in the Rhode Island area, WBRU currently broadcasts two online stations with different genres on each: indie and alternative on WBRU and an urban contemporary format on WBRU360, named after its long-time Sunday program, The 360° Experience in Sound.[3] Since January 2018, WBRU's urban contemporary programming has been rebroadcast on Providence low-power FM station 101.1 FM, which is owned by another Brown University-affiliated group and has the call sign WBRU-LP.[4]

WBRU has its origins in The Brown Network, which was founded in 1936 as one of the earliest amateur college radio broadcasters. By the time that the Brown Broadcasting Service organization was founded in 1962, radio broadcasting on the Brown University campus had turned from a hobbyist activity to a more serious enterprise. The organization purchased a commercial FM license in 1965 and aired its first broadcast on WBRU-FM on February 21, 1966.[5] The station aired with a progressive rock format in the 1960s and 1970s, added new wave music into its playlist in the early 1980s, and switched to its current modern rock format in 1988. From 1966 to 2017, WBRU aired on the 95.5 FM frequency in the Providence market. In August 2017, Brown Broadcasting Service sold the 95.5 license to Educational Media Foundation and WBRU was replaced on that frequency by WLVO, a Christian adult contemporary station, at midnight on September 1, 2017.[6] Although its primary alternative rock programming is no longer available on an over-the-air radio station, WBRU itself continues to be operated by BBS, and offers both its alternative rock and urban contemporary programming as an online-only programming provider.[7]



WBRU traces its origin to "The Brown Network", a low-power carrier current station that broadcast at 570 kHz on the AM band, and whose signal was limited to the Brown campus. (At this time, the two National Broadcasting Company (NBC) radio networks were known as the "Red Network" and the "Blue Network".) This first-ever carrier current station[8] was established 1936 by George Abraham[9] and David W. Borst.[10] Abraham had originally installed an intercom system between his and Borst's dormitory rooms. The intercom links were first expanded to additional locations, and then replaced by distributed low-powered radio transmitters, which fed their signals into various buildings' electrical wires, allowing nearby radio receivers to receive the transmissions.[11] Abraham originally conceived of the idea as a way to share his record collection and serve as a personal disk jockey for his friends. By the next year, he had installed wires through the trees on campus in order to connect to a number of buildings, assigning students in individual dormitories to act as "section managers" who would receive the signal and retransmit it throughout the rest of their building. After being recognized as an extra-curricular activity, The Brown Network was assigned a studio and control room located in the Faunce House student union building.

The New England Hurricane of 1938 destroyed most of the distribution wires, and Borst and Abraham were forced to move the wires into the steam tunnels beneath the campus. On November 3, 1939, David Sarnoff, the president of the Radio Corporation of America (whose son attended Brown) made a broadcast over The Brown Network. On February 17–18, 1940 an organizing convention for the Intercollegiate Broadcasting System (IBS) was held at Brown, attended by representatives from twelve colleges with existing or proposed carrier current stations. Abraham was elected the IBS Chairman, and Borst the Technical Manager. IBS's role was defined as a medium for the exchange of ideas and programs, in addition to working to attract national advertising contracts for the member stations. The first IBS intercollegiate broadcasts began on May 9, 1940, with a five-part series that was carried by stations located throughout New England at Brown, Harvard, Williams, and Wesleyan universities, in addition to the Universities of Connecticut and Rhode Island.[12]

In 1945, student journalists began to use the WBRU call letters on air, which had been coined by undergraduate Stephen Plimpton.[5]

The '60s and '70s[edit]

In 1962, the Brown Broadcasting Service (BBS) was established as a separate entity from the University and in 1965, the BBS purchased a commercial FM license (WPFM) from a company that was "bankrupt".[13] BBS was then split into two stations: "WBRU-AM" and WBRU FM. WBRU-AM continued to broadcast locally as a carrier current station (distributed through Brown's electrical system) and operated as the training station for WBRU FM.

Brown Broadcasting Service began broadcasting over WBRU at the 95.5 frequency on February 21, 1966; The first program to be transmitted from the new station was a panel show which discussed the Peace Corps.[5]

By the mid-'60s WBRU was considered an alternative station in that much of the music was folk and rock. Joni Mitchell, Richie Havens, Joan Baez had a home on this station and were not yet on mainstream radio. After 1966 much of the music format was not mainstream. The station was considered an "Underground Rock Music Station" similar to Boston's WBCN. The station's playlist featured artists such as Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention, The Fugs, Pearls Before Swine, Phil Ochs, Country Joe & The Fish and other left-leaning rock acts that were not typically played on mainstream radio.

During the 1970s, WBRU broadcast at 20,000 watts on 95.5 FM and established itself as the principal progressive rock (aka, album-oriented rock or AOR) station in Rhode Island and southern New England. Attempts to boost the signal to 50,000 watts with a transmitter on the Sciences Library failed because of the interference it caused to sensitive scientific equipment, but the station was making plans to move its transmitter to the WPRO-FM transmitter location and increase power to 50,000 watts. This could not be done until 2009 because public TV station WSBE-TV's analog TV antenna currently occupies the tower space where WBRU plans to put its broadcast antenna. WSBE is locating its digital antenna at the WJAR antenna tower in Rehoboth, Massachusetts.

Switch to alternative format[edit]

Logo used from the early 2000s until late 2009

In 1988, WBRU switched its format to modern rock and has remained in that format ever since, although leaning towards playing newer artists and artists of the indie rock genre.

Logo used from the early 2010 through August 31, 2017

WBRU was also frequently named one of the best radio stations in the country by numerous trade magazines such as Billboard and Rolling Stone (which named it best radio station in the country in a medium size market three years in a row, the only radio station ever to achieve that).

The station is part of the Providence music scene, and has been instrumental in introducing to the area alternative bands such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and countless other important bands.[citation needed] It was among the first radio stations in the United States to play Ben Folds Five and Talking Heads. Kurt Cobain's last radio interview before his death was on WBRU.

Between April 17 and April 21, 2006, WBRU played their entire music catalog by title from A-Z, starting at 5:30 p.m. with "About a Girl" by Nirvana on the 17th and ending around 11:15 on the 21st with "Zombie" by The Cranberries. The songs ranged from new music (by such bands as Panic! at the Disco and Zox), 1980s and 1990s pop rarely played by the station (such as Right Said Fred's "I'm Too Sexy") and classic punk (i.e. Sex Pistols and New York Dolls).

On June 15, 2006, the station began streaming live online.

2017 frequency sale and end of over-the-air broadcasting on 95.5 FM[edit]

In March 2017, the station's board of directors passed a resolution to begin seeking a buyer for the station, after 60 years of being owned and operated by the independent non-profit Brown Broadcasting Service organization.[2] Many student members and alumni of the station were opposed to the resolution.[2]

On August 25, 2017, it was announced that Brown Broadcasting Service had sold the 95.5 FM terrestrial frequency to Educational Media Foundation, a Christian music broadcaster, which planned to take over the frequency on September 1.[14] The WBRU call letters and brand were not included as part of the sale, and Brown Student Radio applied to the FCC to transfer the call letters to its low-power radio station.[15] In a statement on its website, WBRU announced that it would continue operations with two online radio stations, with 24/7 feeds for both its traditional modern rock format (WBRU) and its 360 Degree Experience in Sound hip hop and R&B program (WBRU360).[7]

WBRU aired for the last time on 95.5 FM at 11:59 p.m. on August 31 and was replaced on that frequency by Educational Media Foundation's K-Love Christian adult contemporary network.[6] The final song played on 95.5 WBRU before the changeover was "Fell in Love with a Girl" by The White Stripes,[16] followed by a final sign-off by programing director DJ Chilbo. One minute later, at midnight on September 1, WBRU was relaunched as an online-only station, with the first song played being "Welcome To Paradise" by Green Day.[16] Although the sale had not been completed by the time WBRU ceased broadcasting on 95.5FM, Educational Media Foundation opted to lease the frequency until the deal was approved.[17]

In 2017, WBRU General Manager Kishanee Hathotuwegama noted that the issues driving the sale were not primarily financial, FM radio was no longer was the way young people were listening to their music, an existential issue for a station staffed by volunteer college students.[18] The sale was controversial, particularly with a contingent of older alumni. Hathotuwegama and the student leadership of the station sent a letter asking those alumni to stop trying to derail the sale and let the current and future students use the funds from the sale to take the workshop in a direction "that maintains the spirit that WBRU encompasses."[19]

Brown University and its president, Christina Paxson, opposed the sale of the signal and license. In April 2017, Paxson e-mailed the station's board asking them to reconsider their plan and offered financial assistance to the station.[20] In October, well after Brown Broadcasting Service had signed a purchase and sale agreement for the station,[21] Paxson asked the board to consider an informal proposal from earlier in the year to sell the license to Rhode Island Public Radio instead.[22]

The day of WBRU's final broadcast on FM radio, former student staff member Tucker Hamilton alleged that the sale of the station's license was coerced; Hamilton and other members of a WBRU alumni group asked Rhode Island attorney general Peter Kilmartin to block the sale to Educational Media Foundation.[23] According to the attorney general's office, they met "with alumni and their attorney as a courtesy, but as our attorneys explained, Rhode Island statute and regulation does not give the attorney general any legal authority to intervene, as is the case in nearly all private sales."[24] The Federal Communications Commission approved the sale of the 95.5 FM license to Educational Media Foundation on October 24, 2017.[25] The transfer was finalized on November 4.[26]

In January 2018, the WBRU callsign was transferred to a low-power Providence-based station located at 101.1 MHz and operated by the non-profit Brown Student and Community Radio group and the Providence arts and event space, AS220.[27] The group and its station are not affiliated with the current WBRU online station or Brown Broadcasting Service, but they have made an arrangement with both to rebroadcast WBRU's urban contemporary online stream over the air.[27] The low-power station continues to air WBRU programs on a permanent basis, including the 360° Experience in Sound on Sunday-Tuesday.[27] The indie and alternative programming continues to run as a 24/7 online radio stream through the station's website and mobile app. Both the WBRU[28] and WBRU360[29] stations are listed in most online radio directories, including TuneIn.

Brown Student Radio (BSR)[edit]

In 1997, WBRU's carrier-current AM station split off and became Brown Student Radio (BSR), broadcasting initially on WELH/88.1, under a license owned by The Wheeler School and online [1]. In 2003, BSR added a community radio element to its mission, incorporating community members as programmers and volunteers alongside students. In August 2011 BSR lost their air time on WELH and became an internet-only station.[30] In January 2015, BSR was granted an FCC license for an LPFM station WPVD-LP on 101.1FM in Providence, in conjunction with Providence Community Radio and AS220.[31] The Brown Student Radio station adopted the callsign WBRU-LP on September 1, 2017.[32] The LPFM radio station went on the air on January 3, 2018.[33]


88 Benevolent St., the building from which WBRU broadcasts and is headquartered

95.5 WBRU was operated and run on a commercial basis. Its Program Director prior to the FM sale[34] was Wendell Clough, who had been at the station for over a decade and was known by the on-air name "Wendell Gee", after the R.E.M. song of the same name.[35] Its General Sales Manager was Jim Corwin, the former Vice President/Market Manager of Clear Channel Communications radio stations in Providence.

Programming and formats[edit]

While an over-the-air station, WBRU aired a modern rock format six days a week, featuring alternative rock and other related genres, such as indie rock and punk rock. On Sundays, the station switched formats to hip hop and urban contemporary in a day-long program called The 360 Degree Experience in Sound.[36] As an online-only station, WBRU now carries two separate, 24/7 feeds, one for each format.[3]

Buddy FM prank[edit]

On March 29, 2006, WBRU claimed to be sold to Initech (a reference to the 1999 film Office Space) and changed the format of the station from alternative rock to "Buddy FM" - a variety hits format similar to the Jack format that had emerged at stations around the country.[37][38] WBRU "signed off" on 4:57PM March 31, 2006, cutting out 10 seconds before the end of what they proclaimed to the final song played by the station, Good Riddance (Time of Your Life)" by Green Day and was replaced by dead air until 5:02PM, switching to "Buddy FM" with "The Sign" by Ace of Base. The hoax was complete with telling radio sweepers done in-studio. Some examples included: "Buddy FM: hits of the '70s '80s '90s and today... and the 1940s... and the 1850s...", and mentions that the station was "fun for the whole family" after which the station played "Me So Horny" by 2 Live Crew. Local network television affiliates WJAR and WLNE-TV reported that WBRU had been sold without gaining confirmation about the story.

It was later found out to be an April fools joke, and, as of noon on April 1, 2006, WBRU had "regained" control of their radio station and began playing their normal playlist once again. As the climax for the joke, Rich Lupo, the owner of Providence rock club Lupo's Heartbreak Hotel, claimed on air that he had "purchased" the station from "Initech" and given it back to the WBRU DJs.[38] Later that day, the station's DJs confirmed that the entire stunt had been an elaborate April Fools' joke.[38]

World premieres[edit]

In 2006, WBRU was the first U.S. radio station to play "Supermassive Black Hole" by British band Muse and played the Beck single "Cellphone's Dead" before its release until Interscope Records filed a cease and desist order against the station.

In 2007, WBRU premiered the Smashing Pumpkins new single "Tarantula" only 15 minutes after KROQ-FM world premiered it, becoming only the second station in the country to play it and the first to play it twice when they played it a second time immediately afterwards.

In 2008, WBRU was the first station in the country to air "I Will Possess Your Heart" by Death Cab For Cutie, which it did at approximately 1:30 p.m. on March 18, 2008.[39]

In 2009, WBRU was the first station to debut Say Anything's new single "Hate Everyone." The single premiered at approximately 3:30 p.m. on August 17, 2009. The band's lead singer Max Bemis also premiered the song "Crush'd," playing acoustic in studio.[40]

In 2013, WBRU was the first station to play Macklemore's "Thrift Shop" as reported by Billboard Magazine.[41]

Timeline of notable events[edit]

  • 1936 - First broadcast of the Brown Network
  • 1940 - The newly formed Intercollegiate Broadcasting System holds its first meeting at Brown
  • 1948 - The Outlet Company's WJAR-FM signs on 95.5 (May 10)
  • 1950 - According to the 1950 Broadcasting Yearbook, WJAR-FM broadcasts at 20 kW
  • 1953 - The FCC cancels the license for WJAR-FM at The Outlet Company's request (January 19)[42]
  • 1955 - Plantation Broadcasting Corporation is granted the license at 95.5 for WPFM (May 25) [43]
  • 1962 - Brown Broadcasting Service (BBS) is established as a corporation independent from Brown University
  • 1963 - The first BBS/WBRU constitution is written
  • 1965 - Brown Broadcasting Service, Inc. buys 95.5 WPFM for $30,000 [44] and changes the call letters to WBRU[45]
  • 1966 - Brown Broadcasting Service begins broadcasting on 95.5 WBRU (February 21)[46]
  • 1969 - WBRU is the first progressive rock station in the market
  • 1971 - Attempts to broadcast at 50,000 watts failed due to interference with sensitive scientific equipment
  • 1974 - WBRU is granted tax-exempt status
  • 1975 - First paid professionals are hired
  • 1976 - Station receives first Gold Record for airplay of Bruce Springsteen's "Born to Run."
  • 1979 - WBRU moves its studio from Faunce House to 88 Benevolent Street, its current location
  • 1981 - Competitor 94.1 WHJY signs on (October)
  • 1982 - Due to low ratings, WBRU abandons its free-form format and hires the consulting firm of Burkhart, Abrams, Michaels, Douglas & Associates to "develop a new AOR approach"[47]
  • 1984 - Elvis Costello stops by with a box of records and plays DJ for an hour
  • 1985 - WBRU is the first radio station shouted-out in Fishbone's single "? (Modern Industry)"[48]
  • 1988 - WBRU adopts a modern-rock format, called "The Cutting Edge of Rock" (September)[49]
  • 1992 - Student station members reverse a decision which would turn WBRU into an NPR affiliate
  • 1993 - WBRU wins first place in the Rolling Stone Readers' Poll for best medium-sized market
  • 1994 - WBRU wins first place again in the Rolling Stone Readers' Poll
  • 1995 - 99.7 WDGE signs on and becomes a direct competitor with WBRU (June)
  • 1995 - WBRU wins first place again in the Rolling Stone Readers' Poll
  • 1999 - 99.7 WDGE officially signs off (due to WBRU's dominance in the market) and is replaced by WHKK
  • 1999 - Station members vote unanimously against a joint sales agreement with Capstar Broadcasting Company
  • 2000 - WFNX, a Boston station, extends into Providence to compete with WBRU on 103.7 (then WWRX)
  • 2002 - 100.3 WZRI becomes rock WKKB (October 31)[50]
  • 2004 - 103.7 WWRX/WFNX signs off in Providence
  • 2005 - 100.3 WKKB becomes a Spanish station (February 1)[51]
  • 2006 - As a three-day April Fools' Day hoax, WBRU pretends to be bought-out by "Initech" who change the station's format to "Buddy FM"
  • 2006 - On June 15, WBRU begins to stream live on the web
  • 2006 - The station plays its entire catalog from A-Z
  • 2007 - As its annual April Fools' Joke, the station was stuck in a time warp - 1995; and all music played was recorded before the date.
  • 2008 - Station plays its entire catalog from A-Z again.
  • 2008 - Red Sox games air live on WBRU when WEEI broadcasts Boston Celtics playoff games instead
  • 2017 - Brown Broadcasting Service sells the 95.5 FM frequency, WBRU becomes an online-only station (September 1)
  • 2018 - 101.1 WBRU-LP signs on (January 3)

Concert Promotion[edit]

WBRU Annual Rock Hunt[edit]

The radio station holds a battle of the bands, the WBRU Annual Rock Hunt, which began around 1980 and was held most years since:

Past Winners of the WBRU Annual Rock Hunt[edit]

  • 1980: The DC Tenz
  • 1981: The Mundanes (featuring band member John Linnell, later of They Might Be Giants)
  • 1982: The Schemers
  • 1983: Critical Few
  • 1984: no competition
  • 1985: MX [52]
  • 1986: The Dames[52] (featuring band member Gail Greenwood, later of Belly and L7)
  • 1987: Coat of Arms
  • 1988: That'll Learn Ya
  • 1989: Bop Harvey
  • 1990: Jungle Dogs
  • 1991: Superbug
  • 1992: The Phobics
  • 1993: Angry Salad
  • 1994: John Monopoly
  • 1995: Blairs Carriage
  • 1996: Comic Book Super Heroes
  • 1997: The Agents
  • 1998: The L.U.V.'s
  • 1999: no competition
  • 2000: no competition
  • 2001: M-80
  • 2002: Monty Are I
  • 2003: Zox
  • 2004: The Lingo
  • 2005: Sasquatch and the Sick-A-Billys
  • 2006: The Sleazies
  • 2007: Triangle Forest
  • 2008: It Was The Best Of Times
  • 2009: Fairhaven
  • 2010: The Wandas
  • 2011: VulGarrity
  • 2012: Roz Raskin and the Rice Cakes
  • 2013: Torn Shorts
  • 2014: The Rare Occasions
  • 2015: Public Alley
  • 2016: Le Roxy Pro
  • 2017: Call Security
  • 2018: no competition

WBRU Summer Concert Series[edit]

Every summer the station puts on the WBRU concert series. The shows usually feature a popular band and a few local acts opening up. Initially, there were about 10 shows per year which were free to the public and paid for by sponsor booths, but in recent years the station has started charging for these concerts and has reduced the number of shows to 3 per year. In 2010, the station resumed free single artist Summer Concert Series concerts in addition to the multiple band for-pay concerts. Past concert series [53] include:

WBRU Birthday Bash[edit]

The station also has their Birthday Bash concerts in November to celebrate the station's anniversary. Although 95.5 WBRU first aired in February 1966 and Birthday Bash concerts are promoted with an anniversary date that dates to that year (i.e. 2016 as the station's 50th anniversary), the November date instead celebrates the first broadcasts made on its Brown Network ancestor in November 1936. From 2007 to 2010, the Birthday Bash was split from one concert to multiple concerts throughout November. Previously, the only time it was split was in 2001 where two concerts were held. Past Birthday bashes include:[65]

News department[edit]

WBRU has a full news department, with sports news and entertainment news divisions. For 2007, they won the Massachusetts/Rhode Island Associated Press awards in the college division for Best Web Site, Best Investigative Reporting, Best Breaking News, Best Feature Reporting, Best Continuing Coverage, Best Sports Program, and Best Use of Sound, and the award for News Station of the Year.[73]

Notable alumni[edit]

WBRU staff members have gone on to excel in a variety of areas. They include:


Call sign Frequency City of license FID ERP (W) HAAT Class FCC info
WBRU-LP 101.1 FM Providence, Rhode Island 196244 100 25.32 m (83 ft) L1 LMS


  1. ^ Mitchell, Martha. (2003). "WBRU." Encyclopedia Brunoniana.
  2. ^ Schwartzapfel, Beth. (January/February 2006). "Radio Heads." Brown Alumni Magazine.


  1. ^ "Non-Profit Explorer - Brown Broadcasting Service Inc". propublica.com. Pro Publica. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Smith, Andy. "WBRU radio station may be going up for sale soon". providencejournal.com. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Future WBRU: What To Expect | 95.5 WBRU". 95.5 WBRU. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  4. ^ Kalunian, Kim (2018-01-12). "WBRU programming returns to FM airwaves, for now". WPRI. Retrieved 2018-08-24.
  5. ^ a b c Mitchell, Martha. "Encyclopedia Brunoniana | WBRU". www.brown.edu. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b Smith, Andy. "Listeners tune in as WBRU tunes out". providencejournal.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Updates | 95.5 WBRU". 95.5 WBRU. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  8. ^ Carrier current transmissions had been used since the late 1910s for electrical companies to transmit telemetry and telephony over their high-voltage distribution lines, but this appears to be the first time it was used to set up a broadcasting station.
  9. ^ "Dr. George Abraham, Ph.D" Archived 2016-11-30 at the Wayback Machine (collegebroadcasters.us)
  10. ^ "David W. Borst" Archived 2016-11-30 at the Wayback Machine (collegebroadcasters.us)
  11. ^ The Gas Pipe Networks: A History of College Radio 1936-1946 by Louis M. Bloch, Jr., 1980, pages 11-13.
  12. ^ Bloch (1980), pages 14-29.
  13. ^ Tannenwald, Peter. "WBRU Reunion June 24-25, 2005". youtube.com. 22:14 in. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 4 August 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  14. ^ Venta, Lance (25 August 2017). "EXCLUSIVE: Educational Media Foundation To Acquire WBRU Providence - RadioInsight". RadioInsight. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  15. ^ Bender, John. "WBRU Could Soon Be Home For Contemporary Christian Rock". Rhode Island Public Radio. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  16. ^ a b Nunes, Rachel (1 September 2017). "End of an era: WBRU off the airwaves". WPRI 12 Eyewitness News. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  17. ^ Borowski, Kyle (24 October 2017). "FCC approves WBRU FM signal sale to Christian nonprofit". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  18. ^ Smith, Andy (2 March 2017). "WBRU considering sale of radio station". Providence Journal. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  19. ^ Borowski, Kyle (2017-09-26). "WBRU alums contest sale of FM signal". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved 2023-04-24.
  20. ^ "Emails: Brown prez offered loan to WBRU in bid to avoid FM signal sale". WPRI 12 Eyewitness News. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  21. ^ "WBRU Programming Leaves FM in Advance of $5.63 Million License Sale to EMF". Radio Survivor. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  22. ^ "Brown prez urges WBRU to consider alternative to current sale". WPRI 12 Eyewitness News. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  23. ^ GoLocal Live; August 31, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  24. ^ Borowski, Kyle (2017-09-26). "WBRU alums contest sale of FM signal". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  25. ^ Kalunian, Kim (24 October 2017). "FCC approves sale of 95.5 FM license". WPRI 12 Eyewitness News. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  26. ^ Heim, R.J. (3 November 2017). "95.5 WBRU transfer finalized". WJAR. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  27. ^ a b c "WBRU programming returns to FM airwaves, for now". WPRI 12 Eyewitness News. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  28. ^ "Live WBRU". TuneIn. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  29. ^ "Live WBRU360". TuneIn. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  30. ^ "Brown Student Radio Station BSR to Go Online-Only August 1". 25 July 2011.
  31. ^ Ahlquist, Steve (November 13, 2015). "New low-power FM community radio station coming to Providence". RIfuture.org. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  32. ^ "WBRU-LP". fccdata.org. Rec Broadcast Services. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  33. ^ Smith, Andy (14 January 2018). "WBRU programming returns to radio airwaves". Providence Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  34. ^ "ALTFACTS: BRUNEW". Motif Magazine. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  35. ^ "Wendell | 95.5 WBRU". 95.5 WBRU.
  36. ^ Fenton, Josh. "GoLocalProv | Business | Brown's WBRU to Be Sold to National Christian Radio Group". GoLocalProv. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  37. ^ "WBRU back in its original groove". Archived from the original on 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2008-04-03.
  38. ^ a b c "WBRU Abducted By Buddy FM". All Access. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  39. ^ "WBRU First to Play New Death Cab for Cutie Single". Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  40. ^ Max Bemis [@maxbemis] (November 4, 2010). "Playing at wbru 95.5 providence live at around 3:30. U can listen at wbru.com. Will probably play Crush'd and Woe" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  41. ^ "Macklemore & Ryan Lewis Crash Radio With 'Thrift Shop' – Billboard". Billboard.
  42. ^ "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting-Telecasting. January 26, 1953. p. 90. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  43. ^ "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting-Telecasting. May 30, 1955. p. 115. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  44. ^ "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting. April 26, 1965. p. 74. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  45. ^ "For the Record" (PDF). Broadcasting. August 9, 1965. p. 78. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  46. ^ Edmonston, Jack. "The History of WBRU FM". WBRU, Brown University 1960s Memories. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  47. ^ "Format Turntable". Billboard. 11 September 1982. p. 53. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  48. ^ Fishbone. "? (Modern Industry)". youtube.com. Fishbone. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  49. ^ "WBRU Gains 'The Edge'" (PDF). No. 756. Radio & Records. 23 September 1988. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  50. ^ "Z100 WZRI Becomes Rock WKKB - Format Change Archive". Format Change Archive. 2002-10-31. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  51. ^ "WKKB Becomes Latina 100.3 - Format Change Archive". Format Change Archive. 2017-01-30. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  52. ^ a b Two Years of Rock Hunting. 95.5 WBRU/Big Bubble Records/Heartbreak Hits. c. 1986. p. back cover.
  53. ^ "WBRU Concert Series Bands". Retrieved 2008-04-24.[dead link]
  54. ^ "WBRU-FM - the Second WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series Show". Archived from the original on 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  55. ^ "WBRU-FM - the Third WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series Show". Archived from the original on 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  56. ^ "Announcing the First 2010 WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series Show! - WBRU-FM". Archived from the original on 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
  57. ^ "The Free WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series Shows - WBRU-FM". Archived from the original on 2010-06-29. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
  58. ^ "The WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series with Coheed and Cambria - WBRU-FM". Archived from the original on 2010-09-04. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  59. ^ "BRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concerts | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
  60. ^ "Dunkin' DownLow | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
  61. ^ "SUMMER CONCERT SERIES | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2013-05-03.
  62. ^ "2015 WBRU Dunkin' Donuts Summer Concert Series! | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2015-05-07.
  63. ^ "SUMMER CONCERT SERIES LINEUP | 95.5 WBRU". 95.5 WBRU. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  64. ^ "SCS18 Lineup | WBRU". WBRU. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  65. ^ "WBRU Birthday Bash Bands". Archived from the original on 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  66. ^ "WBRU-FM - the WBRU Fortieth Birthday Bash". Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
  67. ^ "WBRU Dunkin' Donuts 41st B-day Bash | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
  68. ^ "WBRU's 42nd Birthday Bash! | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2011-10-01.
  69. ^ "Birthday Bash | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2010-10-08.
  70. ^ "2014 WBRU Birthday Bash | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  71. ^ "95.5 Wbru Birthday Bash | 95.5 Wbru". Archived from the original on 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  72. ^ "2016 Birthday Bash Lineup! | 95.5 WBRU". Archived from the original on 2016-08-25.
  73. ^ "Associated Press announces broadcast awards for 2007". The Boston Globe. March 12, 2008.
  74. ^ "Former SiriusXM Exec Ben Harvey Named President of Sony's Palm Tree Records: Exclusive". Billboard. March 5, 2019.
  75. ^ Smith, Andy (12 June 2016). "The Low Anthem gives Providence's Columbus Theater some band aid". The Providence Journal. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  76. ^ "All of It with Alison Stewart Launching Monday, September 17th". WNYC. September 10, 2018.

External links[edit]