Billy the Kid

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Billy the Kid
Billy the Kid corrected.jpg
Billy the Kid circa 1880
Born Henry McCarty
September 17, 1859
New York City
Died July 14, 1881(1881-07-14) (aged 21)
Fort Sumner, New Mexico
Cause of death Gunshot wound from Sheriff Pat F. Garrett
Resting place Old Fort Sumner Cemetery
34°24′13″N 104°11′37″W / 34.40361°N 104.19361°W / 34.40361; -104.19361 (Billy the Kid's Gravesite)
Other names William H. Bonney, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim
Occupation Horse rustler, cowboy, gambler, outlaw
Height 5' 8"
Parent(s)
  • Father: Patrick McCarty
  • Stepfather: William Antrim
  • Mother: Catherine Devine
Relatives Brother: Joseph McCarty

Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty; also known as William H. Bonney) (September 17, 1859 – July 14, 1881) was an American Old West gunfighter who participated in New Mexico's Lincoln County War and is known to have killed eight men.[1][2]

His first arrest was for stealing food in late 1875, and five months later he was arrested again for stealing clothing and firearms. His escape from jail two days later and flight from New Mexico Territory into Arizona Territory made him both an outlaw and a fugitive. After murdering a blacksmith during an altercation in August 1877, Bonney became a wanted man in Arizona Territory and returned to New Mexico, where he joined a group of cattle rustlers. He took part in the Lincoln County War and joined the Regulators, making him a well-known outlaw in the region. In April 1878, however, the Regulators killed three men, including Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady and one of his deputies. Bonney and two other Regulators were later charged with killing all three men.

Bonney's notoriety grew in December 1880 the Las Vegas Gazette in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and the New York Sun carried stories about his crimes.[3] He was captured by Sheriff Pat Garrett later that same month, tried and convicted of the murder of Sheriff Brady in April 1881, and was sentenced to hang in May of that year. Bonney escaped from jail on April 28, 1881, killing two sheriff's deputies in the process, and evaded capture for more than two months. Bonney was ultimately shot and killed by Garrett in Fort Sumner on July 14, 1881. Over the next several decades, legends grew that Bonney had not died that night, and a number of men claimed to be him.

Early life[edit]

Henry McCarty was born in New York City on September 17, 1859 to Catherine (née Devine) McCarty. While some historians believe his father's first name to be Patrick, others have doubts as to his true identity. McCarty was baptized eleven days following his birth in the Church of St. Peter.[4] There has been confusion about McCarty's birthplace and birthdate among historians, due, in part, to McCarty giving false information to a census taker during the 1880 U.S. Census.[5][6][7][8] The 1860 U.S. Census shows the McCarty family living in the Manhattan First Ward, although with the surname listed incorrectly as "McCarthy."[9] McCarty had a younger brother, Joseph McCarty, who was born on October 14, 1863. Joseph McCarty later took his stepfather's name and became known as Joseph Antrim.

Historians note that following the death of McCarty's father, Catherine McCarty and her youngest son moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where she met a man named William Henry Harrison Antrim. Sometime later, Antrim, along with McCarty's mother and brother, moved to Kansas in 1870. McCarty joined them there.[10] McCarty's mother married Antrim in March 1873 in Santa Fe, New Mexico; both McCarty and his brother Joseph were witnesses.[11][12] Shortly after, the family moved from Santa Fe to Silver City, New Mexico. McCarty's mother died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1874.[13]

First crimes[edit]

McCarty went to work in a boardinghouse for room and board when Sarah Brown, the establishment's owner, took him in after his mother's death. Leaving the arrangement a year later, McCarty began his criminal career by stealing food on September 16, 1875.[14][15] Ten days later, McCarty and a friend, George Schaefer, took part in the robbery of a Chinese laundry. Having stolen clothing and two pistols, McCarty was charged with theft and put in jail. Escaping two days later by climbing up a chimney, this was the beginning of his life as a fugitive from the law.[14][16] His escape was recorded in the Silver City Herald the next day, the first story published about him. After finding his stepfather, it is believed that Antrim gave McCarty money and told him to leave the area.[16]

Henry Hooker at his Sierra Bonita Ranch, southeast Arizona

Following his escape, McCarty fled to Arizona Territory and was hired as a ranch hand by well-known rancher, Henry Hooker.[17][18] In 1876, McCarty settled in southeastern Arizona, where he worked on ranches and spent time in local gaming houses.[19] During this time, he became acquainted with John R. Mackie, a Scottish-born former cavalry private and criminal.[20] The two men became horse thieves. Stealing horses from local soldiers, McCarty became known as "Kid Antrim" because of his youth, slight build, clean-shaven appearance, and personality.[21][22]

On August 17, 1877, McCarty shot Francis "Windy" Cahill in Arizona after the two had a verbal argument and altercation. Also known as "Frank", Cahill was a blacksmith at Camp Grant, a U.S. Army post in southeastern Arizona's Graham County. Reportedly, Cahill frequently would demean McCarty. The event that led to the blacksmith's death began when, in the midst of a poker game, Cahill called McCarty a pimp. When he retorted by calling Cahill a "son of a bitch", McCarty found himself thrown to the floor and attacked by Cahill. After hitting his opponent while the pair struggled over McCarty's revolver, Cahill was shot by McCarty. A witness was heard to state, in McCarty's defense, "[Billy] had no choice; he had to use his equalizer." Cahill died the following day.[23][24][16]

Following the shooting, McCarty was taken into custody and held in the Camp Grant guardhouse. Escaping before law enforcement could arrive, McCarty fled the area fearing retaliation by Cahill's friends.[25]

Leaving Arizona Territory for New Mexico Territory[26] and on the run following the Cahill murder, McCarty had his horse stolen by Apaches. This forced him to walk miles to the nearest settlement, ending up in Pecos Valley, New Mexico.[27] Once in Pecos Valley, McCarty went to the home of friend and Seven Rivers Warriors gang member, John Jones. By the time he arrived, McCarty was near death as a result of his long trek, but was nursed back to health by Jones' mother.[28][25] Having been given a horse by the Jones family,[25] McCarty next arrived at Apache Tejo, a former army post, where he joined a band of rustlers who raided herds owned by cattle magnate John Chisum.[29] After McCarty was spotted in Silver City by a resident, his involvement with the gang was mentioned in a local newspaper.[29]

At some point in 1877, McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Bonney".[28]

Lincoln County War[edit]

Main article: Lincoln County War
John Tunstall, circa 1870

After his return from Arizona to New Mexico, Bonney went to work for English businessman John Tunstall as a cowboy at his Lincoln County, New Mexico ranch located near Rio Felix, a tributary of the Rio Grande. Along with local lawyer Alexander McSween, Tunstall presented opposition to the economic and political hold over Lincoln County by three businessmen and gunmen: Lawrence Murphy, James Dolan, and John Riley. Since the early 1870s, the trio's influence was, in part, due to their ownership of the beef contract with nearby Fort Stanton and a well-patronized dry-goods store in the town of Lincoln. As the conflict between the two factions escalated, it became known as the Lincoln County War.[30]

When Tunstall was bothered by rustlers who got the local sheriff to attach nearly $40,000 of Tunstall's property and livestock,[31] he changed the focus of Bonney's position from cowboy to guard. In February 1878, local proprietors and law enforcement supporting Dolan, Murphy, and Riley obtained a court order that allowed them to seize horses owned by Tunstall to satisfy an outstanding debt. Refusing to surrender the horses, Tunstall had Bonney take nine of his prime horses to Lincoln for safekeeping. Meanwhile, Lincoln County Sheriff William Brady put together an eighteen-man posse to seize Tunstall's horses.

Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady, 1872

On February 18, 1878, after learning the posse was on his land, Tunstall rode out to protest their presence, encountered the group, and was shot in the head.[32][25] Following Tunstall's murder, Bonney fled with his companions before they could be found by the posse. Bonney was arrested by Brady on February 20, 1878 for disturbing the peace and released two days later.

Soon afterward, Bonney joined the Lincoln County Regulators, a posse led by cowboy and lawman Dick Brewer. On March 9, two of Tunstall's accused murderers, Frank Baker and William Morton, were captured by the Regulators and killed "while trying to escape".[33] On April 1, during an ambush on Sheriff Brady and his deputies, Bonney was shot in the thigh.[34]

Dick Brewer circa 1875

On the morning of April 4, 1878, during a shootout at Blazer's Mill between the Regulators and buffalo hunter Buckshot Roberts, Dick Brewer was killed[35] along with Roberts, Sheriff Brady, and a sheriff's deputy. Warrants were issued for several participants on both sides of the war, with Bonney and two others charged for the killings of Brady, the deputy, and Roberts.[36]

Battle of Lincoln (1878)[edit]

On the night of Sunday, July 14, McSween and the Regulators, by now a group of fifty or sixty men, gathered in Lincoln and stationed themselves there among several buildings.[37] At the McSween residence were Bonney, Florencio Chavez, Jose Chavez y Chavez, Jim French, Harvey Morris, Tom O'Folliard (born Folliard),[38] and Yginio Salazar, among others. Another group led by Marin Chavez and Doc Scurlock positioned themselves on the roof of a saloon. Henry Newton Brown, Dick Smith and George Coe defended a nearby adobe bunkhouse.[39][40]

On Tuesday, July 16, the newly appointed sheriff, George Peppin, sent sharpshooters to kill the McSween defenders at the saloon. Peppin's men retreated when one of the snipers, Charles Crawford, was killed by Fernando Herrera. Peppin then sent a request for assistance to Colonel Nathan Dudley, commandant of Fort Stanton. Dudley wrote a reply to Peppin turning him down.[41]

On Friday, July 19, the actual battle began. The McSween supporters who had been in other buildings were all gathered inside the McSween house. When Deputy Sheriff Jack Long and Buck Powell set fire to the McSween house, the occupants opened fire. After all but one room of the home had been engulfed by flames, Bonney and the others retreated. During the confusion, Alexander McSween was shot and killed by Robert W. Beckwith, who was then shot and killed by Bonney.[42][43]

Outlaw[edit]

Tom O'Folliard at approximately age 15, circa 1875

Bonney and three other survivors of the Battle of Lincoln were near the Mescalero Indian Agency when the agency bookkeeper, Morris Bernstein, was murdered on August 5, 1878. All four were indicted for the murder, despite conflicting evidence that Bernstein had actually been killed by Constable Atanacio Martinez. All of these indictments were later quashed, except for Bonney's.[44]

On October 5, 1878, U.S. Marshal John Sherman informed newly inaugurated Governor Lew Wallace that he held warrants for several men including "William H. Antrim, alias Kid, alias Bonny [sic]" but was unable to execute them "owing to the disturbed condition of affairs in that county, resulting from the acts of a desperate class of men."[45]

Governor Wallace issued an amnesty proclamation on November 13, 1878, which pardoned anyone involved in the Lincoln County War since the Tunstall murder of February 18, 1878. It specifically did not apply to any person who had been convicted of or was under indictment for a crime, and therefore excluded Bonney.[46]

On February 18, 1879, Bonney and friend Tom O'Folliard were in Lincoln when attorney Huston Chapman was shot and his corpse set on fire while Bonney and O'Folliard watched. According to eyewitnesses, the pair were innocent bystanders forced at gunpoint by Jesse Evans to witness the murder.[47] Bonney later wrote Governor Wallace with an offer to provide information on the Chapman murder in exchange for amnesty. Bonney met with Wallace in Lincoln on March 15, 1879, talking for over an hour. Wallace promised Bonney a complete pardon if he would offer his testimony to a grand jury regarding what he knew in regard to the Chapman murder. On March 20, Wallace wrote to Bonney, "to remove all suspicion of understanding, I think it better to put the arresting party in charge of Sheriff Kimbrell [sic] who shall be instructed to see that no violence is used."[48] On March 21, Bonney allowed himself to be "captured" by a posse led by Sheriff George Kimball of Lincoln County. As agreed, Bonney provided a statement about Chapman's murder. Still jailed, weeks passed and Bonney began to suspect he had been used by Wallace and would never be granted the promised amnesty. Bonney escaped the Lincoln County Jail on June 17, 1879.[49]

Bonney avoided further violence until January 10, 1880, when he shot and killed a newcomer to the area, Joe Grant, at Hargrove's Saloon in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.[50] The Santa Fe Weekly New Mexican reported, "Billy Bonney, more extensively known as 'the Kid,' shot and killed Joe Grant. The origin of the difficulty was not learned."[51] According to other sources, after Bonney had been advised that Grant intended to kill him. He walked up to Grant, told him he admired his revolver, and asked to examine it. Grant complied. Before handing the pistol holding only three shells back to Grant, Bonney positioned the cylinder so the next shot would fire on an empty chamber. Again in possession of his weapon, Grant stuck the pistol in Bonney's face and pulled the trigger. After the revolver failed to fire, Bonney drew his own pistol, shooting Grant in the head. A reporter for the Las Vegas Optic later quoted Bonney as saying his encounter with Grant "was a game of two and I got there first."[52]

Charlie Bowdre

Bonney formed a friendship in 1880 with rancher Jim Greathouse, who later introduced him to Dave Rudabaugh. On November 29, 1880, Bonney, Rudabaugh and Billy Wilson ran from a posse led by sheriff's deputy James Carlyle. Cornered at Greathouse's ranch, Bonney let the posse know they were holding Greathouse as a hostage. Carlyle offered to exchange places with Greathouse, and Bonney took him up on the offer. Carlyle later attempted to escape by jumping through a window but was shot three times and killed. The gunfight ended in a standoff when the posse withdrew and Bonney, Rudabaugh, and Wilson rode off.[53]

A few weeks after the Greathouse incident, Bonney, Rudabaugh, Wilson, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, and O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Unknown to Bonney and the group, a posse led by Pat Garrett was waiting for them at the fort. As they approached, the posse opened fire, killing O'Folliard. Bonney and the rest escaped unharmed.[54]

Capture and escape[edit]

On December 23, 1880, Garrett and his posse captured Bonney along with Pickett, Rudabaugh and Wilson at Stinking Springs. The capture followed a siege in which Bowdre was killed. Along with the other three captured, Bonney was taken to Santa Fe. While en route and at Las Vegas, New Mexico on December 27, a lynch mob formed. Bonney was unthreatened by the mob and later told a reporter, "if I only had my Winchester I'd lick the whole crowd."[55][56] The Las Vegas (New Mexico) Gazette ran a story from a jailhouse interview conducted by one of the newspaper's reporters following Bonney's capture. During the interview, Bonney stated, "What's the use of looking on the gloomy side of everything? The laugh's on me this time."[16]

Courthouse and jail, Lincoln, New Mexico

After arriving in Santa Fe, Bonney sent four separate letters over the next three months to Governor Wallace seeking clemency. After Wallace refused to intervene,[57] Bonney went to trial in April 1881 in Mesilla, New Mexico.[58] Following two days of testimony, Bonney was found guilty of Sheriff Brady's murder; it was the only conviction secured against any of the combatants in the Lincoln County War. On April 13, he was sentenced by Judge Warren Bristol to hang, with his execution scheduled for May 13, 1881.[58]

Bonney was moved to Lincoln, where he was held under guard on the top floor of the town courthouse. On the evening of April 28, 1881, Garrett was in White Oaks collecting taxes. Deputy Bob Olinger left the jail to take five other prisoners across the street for a meal, leaving the other deputy, James Bell, alone with Bonney. Bonney requested to be taken outside to use the outhouse located behind the courthouse. On the way back to the jail, Bonney, who was walking ahead of Bell up the stairs to his cell, hid around a blind corner, slipped out of his handcuffs, and surprised Bell, beating him with the loose end of the cuffs. During the ensuing scuffle, Bonney was able to get Bell's revolver. He fatally shot Bell in the back as the deputy made for the stairs to get away.[59]

Marker noting the site where Deputy Olinger (spelled here "Ollinger") was killed by Bonney[60]

While Bonney's legs were still shackled, he was able to get into Garrett's office, where he took a loaded shotgun left behind by Olinger. Waiting at the upstairs window for Olinger to respond to the gunshot that killed Bell, Bonney called out to the deputy, "Look up, old boy, and see what you get". When Olinger looked up, Bonney shot and killed him.[59][61] After about an hour, Bonney was able to free himself from the leg irons with an axe.[62] He obtained a horse and rode out of town. Some stories say that he was singing as he left Lincoln.[61] While Bonney had been the subject of newspaper articles from as far away as New York prior to his escape,[3] starting the day after his escape, he was the inspiration for newspaper articles about him around the world.[16]

Death[edit]

While on the run, Governor Wallace placed a $500 bounty on Bonney's head.[63][64] Almost three months after his escape, Garrett responded to rumors that Bonney was in the vicinity of Fort Sumner. Garrett and two deputies left Lincoln on July 14, 1881 to question one of the town's residents, a friend of McCarty's named Pete Maxwell.[65] Maxwell, son of land baron Lucien Maxwell, spoke with Garrett the same day for several hours. Around midnight, the pair sat in Maxwell's darkened bedroom when Bonney unexpectedly entered the room.[66]

Sheriff Pat Garrett

Accounts vary as to the course of events. The canonical version states that as Bonney entered the room, he failed to recognize Garrett due to the poor lighting. Drawing his revolver and backing away, Bonney asked "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?", Spanish for "Who is it? Who is it?".[66] Recognizing Bonney's voice, Garrett drew his revolver, firing twice. The first bullet struck Bonney in the chest just above his heart. He fell to the floor, gasped for a minute, and died.[66]

Following his death, Bonney's friends made plans to give him a wake. The morning after the shooting, Bonney's body was examined by Justice of the Peace Milnor Rudulf, and a death certificate was issued. Garrett objected to Rudulf's summary of the events surrounding the shooting, feeling it did not depict his role favorably. After Garrett gave his approval to release the body, it was prepared for burial and Bonney was laid to rest at Fort Sumner cemetery next to his friends O'Folliard and Bowdre.[67]

In the weeks following Bonney's death, Garrett felt the need to tell his side of the story. People had begun to claim that Garrett unfairly ambushed Bonney. In response, Garrett called upon his friend, journalist Marshall Upson, to ghostwrite a book for him.[68] The collaboration led to the book The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid,[69] which was first published in April 1882. Although only a few copies sold following its release, the book eventually became a reference for historians who later wrote about Bonney's life.[68]

Rumors of survival[edit]

Over time, legends formed and grew that claimed Bonney was not killed, rather, that Garrett staged the incident and death out of friendship so that the gunman could evade the law.[70] In the years following the shooting, men came forward to claim they were the real Billy the Kid. While most of the claimants were debunked, two have remained topics of discussion and debate.

In 1948, a Central Texas man known as Ollie Partridge Roberts, who went by the nickname "Brushy Bill", began to claim he was Billy the Kid. His claims were summarily dismissed, even by his own family.[71] Hico, Texas, his town of residence, capitalized on the claim by opening a Billy the Kid museum.[72]

John Miller, an Arizona man also claiming to be Billy the Kid, had his story supported by his family beginning in 1938, some time after his death. Buried in the Arizona state-owned Pioneers' Home Cemetery in Prescott, Arizona, his bones and teeth[73] were dug up in May 2005[74] without clearance from the state.[75] DNA samples from the remains were sent to a lab in Dallas, Texas for testing and examination. The intent was to compare Miller's DNA with blood obtained from floorboards in the old Lincoln County courthouse and a bench where it was believed Bonney's body was placed after he was shot.[76] According to a July 2015 article in the Washington Post, however, the lab results were "useless."[73]

In 2004, researchers sought to exhume the remains of Catherine Antrim, McCarty's mother, "so her DNA could be tested and compared with DNA to be taken from the body buried under the Kid's gravestone".[77] As of 2012, her body had not been exhumed.[76]

In 2007,[78] a lawsuit was filed by author and amateur historian Gale Cooper against the Lincoln County Sheriff’s Office pursuant to the state Inspection of Public Records Act to produce records of the results of the 2006 DNA tests and other forensic evidence collected in the Billy the Kid investigations.[79] In April 2012, 133 pages of documents were provided which, "although they offered no conclusive evidence to prove or disprove the generally accepted story of the Kid's death at Garrett's hand,"[78] they did "reveal that the records sought not only exist[ed], but that they could have been easily produced long ago."[76] In 2014, Cooper was awarded $100,000 in punitive damages. The lawsuit ultimately cost Lincoln County a combined amount of nearly $300,000 for the judgement and associated fees.[78]

In February 2015, historian Robert Stahl petitioned a district court in Fort Sumner, asking the state of New Mexico to posthumously issue a death certificate for Bonney.[80] Taking a step further in July 2015, Stahl filed suit in the New Mexico Supreme Court. The suit asked the court to order the state's Office of the Medical Investigator to officially certify Bonney's death under New Mexico state law.[81]

Legacy[edit]

Photographs[edit]

Unretouched original Ferrotype of Billy the Kid, circa 1880

Dedrick ferrotype[edit]

One of the few remaining artifacts of Bonney's life is an iconic 2x3 inch ferrotype taken of Bonney by an unknown portrait photographer sometime in late 1879 or early 1880. The image shows Bonney wearing a vest over a sweater, a slouch cowboy hat on his head and a bandanna around his neck, while holding an 1873 Winchester rifle with the weapon's butt resting on the floor. For years the photo of Bonney was the only one agreed upon by scholars and historians to be authentic.[82] The ferrotype survived due to a friend of Bonney, Dan Dedrick, keeping the image following the outlaw's death. Passed down through Dedrick's family, the image was copied several times and appeared in numerous publications during the 20th century. In June 2011, the original was bought at auction for $2.3 million by billionaire businessman William Koch.[83] At the time of the ferrotype auction, the image became the most expensive item ever sold through Brian Lebel's Annual Old West Show & Auction.[84]

The image, which had been copied and published in various ways over the years, showed Bonney with his holstered Colt revolver on his left side. This fueled the belief that the gunman was left-handed. This belief, however, did not take into account that the method used to make the original ferrotype was to use metal plates that produced reverse images. As a result, the photo showed Bonney's pistol on his left side, leading modern historians to believe he shot with his left hand.[85] In 1954 western historians James D. Horan and Paul Sann wrote that Bonney was "right-handed and carried his pistol on his right hip".[86] The opinion was confirmed by Clyde Jeavons, a former curator of the National Film and Television Archive.[87] Historian Michael Wallis wrote in 2007 that Bonney was ambidextrous.[88]

Detail from a larger photo alleged to show Bonney (left) playing croquet in New Mexico in 1878

Playing croquet[edit]

A tintype purchased in 2010 for $2.00 at a memorabilia shop in Fresno, California, appears to show Bonney and members of the Regulators playing croquet. The photo was reviewed by Old West history and tin-type photo experts in order to authenticate or deny the image's authenticity. Among those consulted in regard to the photo's authenticity was Paul Hutton, an expert on Billy the Kid and a history professor at the University of New Mexico. Jeff Aiello, executive producer at 18THIRTY Entertainment, the company that produced a National Geographic special, Billy The Kid: New Evidence, became convinced during preparation for the show's production that the photo was taken at John Tunstall's ranch, and stated that the schoolhouse in the photo still exists on the site. He speculated that because Tunstall was an Englishman and croquet was a popular game among the English, the croquet set belonged to Tunstall. Kent Gibson, a forensic video and still image expert from Los Angeles, offered his services to Aiello, including the use of facial recognition software, and stated that Bonney is one of the individuals in the image.[89][90]

A few days prior to the October 18, 2015, premiere of Billy The Kid: New Evidence on the National Geographic Channel, the editorial staff at True West Magazine wrote an article presenting the opinions of the photo by various of their writers and researchers, which was summed up as "no one in our office thinks this photo is of the Kid" and the Regulators. These opinions included the following statements: "Without a solid provenance linking a historic photograph to the Kid, it can never be anything more than simply a photo of a goofy-looking juvenile who bears a resemblance to one William H. Bonney", by Mark Lee Gardner; "Aside from lacking any provenance, this photo is from such a long distance that it’s impossible to discern physical attributes, much less facial features", by Bob Utley; "This photo has no more provenance than any of the scores of alleged Billy the Kid images which have appeared on ebay the past 15 years", by John Boessenecker; "The 'proof' they offer is nothing more than wishful thinking, and the historical value of the image is zero", by Frederick Nolan; and "I think the photo is a tempest in a teapot—or worse, it's sheep dip", by Mark Boardman.[90]

In early October 2015, Kagin's, Inc., a California-based numismatic authentication firm, determined the image to be authentic after a number of experts, including those associated with the National Geographic special, examined it for over a year.[91] Kagin's has insured the tintype for $5 million.[92]

Posthumous pardon[edit]

New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson announced he would not be issuing a pardon of Bonney for the murder of Sheriff William Brady. The pardon considered was to be a follow-through on a purported promise made by former Governor Lew Wallace in 1879. Richardson's decision, citing "historical ambiguity", was announced on December 31, 2010, his last day in office.[93]

Grave marker[edit]

Tombstone at Bonney's grave in Fort Sumner, New Mexico

In 1932, Charles W. Foor, at the time an unofficial tour guide at the Fort Sumner Cemetery, spearheaded a drive to raise funds for a permanent marker at the graves of Bonney, O'Folliard, and Bowdre.[94][95]

Gravemarker of Billy the Kid

In the 1940s, Warner Bros. used a Billy the Kid grave marker as a prop in the movie The Outlaw. James N. Warner of Salida, Colorado, donated the marker to the cemetery when it was no longer required for the movie.[96] It was stolen on February 8, 1981, but recovered days later in Huntington Beach, California. New Mexico Governor Bruce King arranged for the county sheriff to fly to California to bring it back to Fort Sumner,[97] where it was re-installed in May 1981. Although both markers are behind iron fencing, a group of vandals entered the enclosure at night in June 2012 and tipped over the stone.[98]

Selected references in popular culture[edit]

Artwork[edit]

Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, and the Regulators by Andy Thomas.
  • Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, and the Regulators; a painting by artist Andy Thomas.[99]

Literature[edit]

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

Stage[edit]

Television and radio[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rasch (1995), pp. 23–35.
  2. ^ Wallis, 2007, pp. 244–245.
  3. ^ a b Robert M. Utley. Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life (1989). pp. 145–146. 
  4. ^ Letter from Rev. James B. Roberts, Church of St. Peter, New York City, to Jack DeMattos, March 24, 1979. 210 Greene Street was within walking distance of the Church of St. Peter.
  5. ^ Nolan, Frederick. The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History (2009), p. 4 and p. 6
  6. ^ Utley, Robert M. High Noon in Lincoln (1987), p. 192.
  7. ^ Rasch, Philip J. "New Light on the Legend of Billy the Kid (1952–53), pp. 1–5.
  8. ^ Rasch, Philip J. and Mullin, Robert N. "Dim Trails: The Pursuit of the McCarty Family" (1953–54), pp. 6–11.
  9. ^ 1860 United States Federal Census for New York City, Manhattan First Ward, enumerated by Assistant Marshal Edward Hogan on June 26, 1860, p. 176.
  10. ^ Wallis (2007), p. 15.
  11. ^ Nolan (2009), p. 7.
  12. ^ Book of Marriages A, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, pp. 35–36.
  13. ^ Nolan, 2009, p.8
  14. ^ a b Billy the Kid History.net Retrieved January 4, 2016
  15. ^ Grant County Herald (Silver City, New Mexico), September 26, 1875.
  16. ^ a b c d e "Timeline: The Life and Legend of Billy the Kid". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved January 17, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Billy the Kid". State of New Mexico. Retrieved January 6, 2016. 
  18. ^ Utley (1989), pp. 10–11.
  19. ^ Wallis (2007), p. 103.
  20. ^ Wallis (2007), p. 107.
  21. ^ Wallis (2007), pp. 110–111.
  22. ^ Utley, (1989), p. 16.
  23. ^ Radbourne, Allan; Rasch, Philip J. (August 1985). "The Story of 'Windy' Cahill". Real West (204): 22–27. 
  24. ^ "This Date in History - August 17, 1877 - Billy the Kid kills his first man". History Channel. Retrieved January 17, 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c d Kathy Weiser-Alexander. "Old West Legends - Billy The Kid - Teenage Outlaw of the Southwest". Legends of America. Retrieved January 17, 2016. 
  26. ^ Wallis (2007), p. 119.
  27. ^ Nolan (1998), p. 77.
  28. ^ a b Wallis (2007), p. 144.
  29. ^ a b Wallis (2007) pp. 123–131.
  30. ^ Nolan,Frederick The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History, 1992 - pp. 23–55.
  31. ^ Nolan, Frederick. The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History, 1992 - p. 188–89.
  32. ^ Utley, Robert M. Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life, 1989 - p. 46.
  33. ^ Utley, Robert M. Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life, 1989 - pp. 56–60.
  34. ^ Nolan, Frederick. The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History, 1992 - pp. 233–249, 549 n. 1.
  35. ^ Rickards, Colin. The Gunfight at Blazer's Mill, 1974 - pp. 36–37.
  36. ^ Wroth, William H. Billy the Kid Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  37. ^ Jacobsen (1994), p. 173.
  38. ^ Gardner, Mark Lee. To Hell on a Fast Horse: The Untold Story of Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett, 2011, pp. 85, 275
  39. ^ Nolan (1992), pp. 312–313.
  40. ^ Utley (1987), p. 87.
  41. ^ Nolan (1992), p. 513.
  42. ^ Nolan (1992), pp. 322–331
  43. ^ Utley (1987), pp. 96–111.
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External links[edit]