Billy the Kid
|Billy the Kid|
Billy the Kid posing for a ferrotype photograph
September 17, 1859
New York City
|Died||July 14, 1881
Fort Sumner, New Mexico
|Cause of death||gunshot wound|
|Other names||William H. Bonney, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim|
|Occupation||Horse rustler, cowboy, gambler, outlaw|
|Relatives||Brother: Joseph McCarty|
Henry McCarty (September 17, 1859 – July 14, 1881), better known as Billy the Kid, and also as William H. Bonney, was a 19th-century gunman who participated in the Lincoln County War and became a frontier outlaw in the American Old West. According to legend, he killed twenty-one men, but it is now generally believed that he killed eight. He killed his first man on August 17, 1877.
McCarty was 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) tall with blue eyes, blonde or dirty blonde hair, and a smooth complexion. He was described as being friendly and personable at times, and as lithe as a cat. Contemporaries described him as a "neat" dresser who favored an "unadorned Mexican sombrero". These qualities, along with his cunning and celebrated skill with firearms, contributed to his paradoxical image as both a notorious outlaw and a folk hero.
He was relatively unknown during most of his lifetime but was catapulted into legend in 1881 when New Mexico's governor, Lew Wallace, placed a price on his head. In addition, the Las Vegas Gazette (Las Vegas, New Mexico) and the New York Sun carried stories about his exploits. Other newspapers followed suit. Several biographies written about the Kid after his death portrayed him in varying lights.
- 1 Early Life in New York City
- 2 Indianapolis, Indiana
- 3 Wichita, Kansas
- 4 New Mexico
- 5 First major crimes
- 6 Lincoln County War
- 7 Lew Wallace and amnesty
- 8 Pat Garrett
- 9 Escape from Lincoln
- 10 Death
- 11 Notoriety
- 12 Firsthand accounts of character
- 13 Ferrotype
- 14 Left-handed or right-handed?
- 15 People who claimed to be Billy the Kid
- 16 Posthumous pardons considered
- 17 Grave marker theft and locations
- 18 Selected references in popular culture
- 19 See also
- 20 Notes
- 21 References
- 22 External links
Early Life in New York City
The birth of Billy the Kid remains the subject of continued debate. Robert M. Utley, one of the leading Billy the Kid researchers paid tribute to three historians who had "tracked Billy the Kid through public records and stripped away much of the myth." Utley cited the work of Philip J. Rasch, as well as Robert N. Mullin, who co-authored a later landmark article with Rasch. Finally, Utley cited an article by Jack DeMattos, written in 1980, which was the first one to provide documentary evidence of Billy the Kid's birth, baptism, and residence in New York City.
The story of Billy the Kid began on June 15, 1851 when 21 year-old Patrick McCarty married 20 year-old Catherine Devine. The ceremony was performed at the Church of St. Peter at 16 Barclay Street in New York City. The Rev. M.A. Madden performed the ceremony. The first of three children born to this union was Bridget McCarty in 1853. The second, and most celebrated, of the McCarty children was born at 210 Greene Street, in New York City, on September 17, 1859. He was christened Henry McCarty on September 28, 1859 at the same church where his parents had been married. His godparents were Thomas Cooney and Mary Clark.
The next documentation concerning the future "Billy the Kid," and his family was provided on June 26, 1860 when they were enumerated on the census for that year by Assistant Marshal Edward Hogan of New York City. Although Hogan misspelled their surnames as "McCarthy," rather than "McCarty," there is no doubt that these Manhattan First Ward residents were the same McCarty family who resided at 210 Greene Street. They were listed as: Patrick McCarthy [sic], age 30, born Ireland; Catherine McCarthy [sic], age 29, born Ireland; Bridget McCarthy [sic], age 7, born New York and Henry McCarthy [sic], age 1 born New York.
The 1860 New York City Directory did manage to get the family's surname correct. That directory (which only recorded the head of a household's name) listed "Patrick McCarty, day laborer, as living at 210 Greene Street." The surname spelling was confused again in the 1863 New York City Directory, which listed "Patrick McCarthy" [sic] as living at 210 Greene Street. This was also the last listing for the father of Billy the Kid.
The final McCarty child was born at 210 Greene Street on October 14, 1863. He was born Joseph McCarty, but later took his step-father's surname and was known for most of his life as "Joseph Antrim." He was routinely identified by historians as Billy the Kid's "older brother." That theory was based on a death certificate that suggested he was born in 1854, rather than the correct year of 1863. That theory persisted for years, until other documents were uncovered that proved the 1863 birth date was the correct one. One of the earliest supporting documents was an 1880 U.S. Census record in which Joseph Antrim gave his age as seventeen and his birthplace as New York. On an 1885 Colorado State Census for Arapahoe County, Joseph Antrim gave his age as 21, which he still was in the summer of 1885 when the census was taken.
Shortly after the birth of his third child, Patrick McCarty died. The cause of his death has not yet been learned. All that is known is that he was last listed in the 1863 New York City Directory. The following year marked the only appearance of his widow as being the head of a family living at 210 Greene Street. In that 1864 city directory, she was clearly listed as "Catherine McCarty, widow of Patrick."
No solid documentation has been yet uncovered for the McCarty family's exact whereabouts between late 1864 (when they were last listed in New York City) and the summer of 1870 (when they turned up in Kansas). Some historians have suggested an 1868 Indianapolis residence, due to a city directory listing of "Catherine McCarty, widow of Michael" living at 199 North East Street recorded that year. However, it seems unlikely for this person to be Billy the Kid's mother, considering the New York listing for her as the "widow of Patrick".
The first time that the McCarty family can be located again with any certainty is August 10, 1870 when they settled in Kansas. On September 12, 1870 Mrs. Catherine McCarty was given title to a vacant lot in Wichita. During February 1871 William Henry Harrison Antrim was given title to lots adjoining those of Mrs. Catherine McCarty in Wichita. Then, on March 25, 1871, Mrs. McCarty paid $200 for a quarter section of land at the going price of $1.25 per acre. To support her claim, Antrim submitted a sworn statement that read in part: "I have known Catherine McCarty for 6 years last past; that she is a single woman over the age of twenty-one years, the head of a family consisting of two children and a citizen of the United States."
The first of two interesting questions that this statement raises concerns Antrim claiming to have known Catherine McCarty "for six years last past." If true, that would date their relationship from 1864 - the year that Catherine McCarty was listed as a "widow" in the New York City Directory. Whether they actually met in New York City, or someplace else, is still not known. All that is certain is that Catherine McCarty was 33 years-old in 1864, while William Henrry Harrison Antrim was only 22 years-old. The difference in their ages didn't seem to concern either one of them.
The next question concerns Catherine McCarty being "the head of a family consisting of two children" in Kansas, when we know she was the parent of three in New York City. The missing family member is Bridget McCarty, who would have been 18 years-old at the time Antrim gave his statement. Bridget's whereabouts (and possible fate) are lost someplace within the six-year gap (1864-1870) of the McCarty family history that still hasn't been accounted for. Either an early death, or early marriage, might explain her failure to appear in any subsequent records concerning Billy the Kid.
The relationship of Antrim and Mrs. McCarty continued in Kansas, if only on a business level. On June 28, 1871 Antrim deeded to Catherine McCarty his lots on Wichita's Chisholm Street, along with a building on Court Street. Mrs. McCarty finally disposed of all her Wichita holdings on August 25, 1871. Henry J. Cook, the man who bought her property, would recall years later that after Mrs. McCarty and her two sons left Wichita, they "then resided in New Orleans, La." However, if the McCarty family did go to New Orleans, no record of their residence there has been found, and their exact whereabouts during the next nineteen months still remain unknown.
Both the McCarty family and Antrim next turn up on March 1, 1873 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. On that date, William Henry Harrison Antrim married Catherine Devine McCarty at Santa Fe's First Presbyterian Church. They were married by a minister named David F. McFarland. The witnesses were Harvey Edmonds, Mrs. A.R. McFarland, her daughter Katie, and the bride's two sons, 13 year-old Henry and 9 year-old Joseph, who was called "Josie." Shortly after the ceremony, the family moved from Santa Fe to Silver City, New Mexico. Eighteen months after her second marriage, on September 16, 1874, Catherine Devine McCarty Antrim died. The only known obituary for Billy the Kid's mother appeared three days later:
"Died in Silver City, on Wednesday the 16th inst., Catherine, wife of William Antrim, aged 45 years. Mrs. Antrim and her husband and family came to Silver City about one year and a half ago, since which time her health has not been good, having suffered from an affliction of the lungs. For the last four months she has been confined to her bed. The funeral occurred from the family residence on Main Street, at 2 o'clock on Thursday."
Exactly one year after his mother's death, and just one day before his sixteenth birthday, Henry McCarty had his first known run-in with the law. A Silver City newspaper gave this report of the event:
"Henry McCarty, who was arrested on Thursday [September 16, 1875] and committed to jail to await the action of the Grand Jury upon the charge of stealing clothes from Charley Sun and Sam Chung, celestials, sans cues, sans joss sticks, escaped from prison yesterday through the chimney. It's believed that Henry was simply the tool of "Sombrero Jack," who done the stealing while Henry done the hiding. Jack has skinned out."
First major crimes
According to some accounts, McCarty eventually found work as an itinerant ranch hand and shepherd in southeastern Arizona. In 1876, McCarty settled in the vicinity of the Fort Grant Army Post in Arizona where he worked on ranches and tested his skills at local gaming houses.
During this time, he became acquainted with John R. Mackie, a Scottish-born ex-cavalry private with a criminal bent. The two men supposedly became involved in the risky, but profitable, enterprise of horse thievery. McCarty, who stole from local soldiers, became known by the name of "Kid Antrim". Biographer Robert M. Utley writes that the nickname arose because of McCarty's slight build and beardless countenance, his young years, and his appealing personality.
The future "Billy the Kid" managed to keep out of the news for nearly two years. His next press clipping would come from Arizona, where he killed his first documented victim, Frank P. Cahill, on August 17, 1877. He was exactly one month shy of his eighteenth birthday. A Tucson paper gave this account of the killing:
"Austin [sic] Antrim shot F.P. Cahill near Camp Grant on the 17th instant, and the latter died on the 18th. Cahill made a statement before his death to the effect that he had some trouble with Antrim during which the shooting was done ... The coroner's jury found that the shooting 'was criminal and unjustifiable,' and that 'Henry Antrim, alias Kid, is guilty thereof.' The inquest was held by M.L. Wood, J.P., and the jurors were M. McDowell, Geo. Teague, T. McCleary, B.E. Norton, Jas. L. Hunt and D.H. Smith."
In fear of Cahill's friends, McCarty fled the Arizona Territory and entered into New Mexico Territory. He eventually arrived at the former army post of Apache Tejo, where he joined a band of cattle rustlers who raided the sprawling herds of cattle magnate John Chisum. During this period McCarty was spotted by a resident of Silver City, and the teenager's involvement with the notorious gang was mentioned in a local newspaper. McCarty rode for a time with the gang of rustlers known as the Jesse Evans Gang, but then turned up at Heiskell Jones's house in Pecos Valley, New Mexico.
According to this account, Apaches stole McCarty's horse, forcing him to walk many miles to the nearest settlement, which happened to be Jones's home. When he arrived, the young man was supposedly near death, but Mrs. Jones nursed him back to health. The Jones family developed a strong attachment to McCarty and gave him one of their horses. At some point in 1877, McCarty began to refer to himself as "William H. Bonney".
Lincoln County War
In 1877, McCarty (now widely known as William Bonney) moved to Lincoln County, New Mexico, and was hired by Doc Scurlock and Charlie Bowdre to work in their cheese factory. Through them he met Frank Coe, George Coe and Ab Saunders, three cousins who owned their own ranch near the ranch of Richard M. Brewer. After a short stint working on the ranch of Henry Hooker, McCarty began working on the Coe-Saunders ranch.
Late in 1877, McCarty, Brewer, Bowdre, Scurlock, the Coes and Saunders, were hired by John Tunstall, an English cattle rancher, banker and merchant, and his partner, Alexander McSween, a prominent lawyer, to drive and guard cattle due to their proficiency with firearms.
The conflict known today as the Lincoln County War had erupted between the established town merchants, Lawrence Murphy and James Dolan, and competing business interests headed by Tunstall and McSween. Before the arrival of Tunstall and McSween, Murphy and Dolan presided over a monopoly of Lincoln County's cattle and merchant trade; their far-reaching operation was known locally as "The House", after a large mansion in Lincoln that served as Murphy and Dolan's headquarters. There was also an ethnic element to the House's conflict with Tunstall; Murphy and Dolan, both Irish immigrants, were strongly opposed to an Englishman like Tunstall cutting into their business.
Events turned bloody on February 18, 1878, when Tunstall was spotted while driving a herd of nine horses towards Lincoln, and was murdered by a posse composed of William Morton, Tom Hill, Frank Baker, Jesse Evans and Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady – who had been sent to attack McSween's holdings. After murdering Tunstall, the gunmen shot his prized bay horse dead. "As a wry and macabre joke on Tunstall's great affection for horses, the dead bay's head was then pillowed on his hat", writes Frederick Nolan, Tunstall's biographer. Although members of the House sought to frame Tunstall's death as a "justifiable homicide", evidence at the scene suggested that Tunstall attempted to avoid a confrontation before he was shot down. Tunstall's murder enraged McCarty and the other ranch hands.
McSween, who abhorred violence, took steps to punish Tunstall's murderers through legal means, obtaining warrants for their arrests from the local justice of the peace, John B. Wilson. Tunstall's men formed their own group called the Regulators. After being deputized by Brewer — Tunstall's foreman, who had been appointed a special constable and given a warrant to arrest the murderers of Tunstall - the Regulators proceeded to the Murphy-Dolan store. Two of the wanted men, Bill Morton and Frank Baker, attempted to flee, but were captured on March 6. Upon returning to Lincoln, the Regulators reported that Morton and Baker had been shot on March 9, near Agua Negra during an alleged escape attempt. During their journey to Lincoln, the Regulators killed one of their members, a man surnamed McCloskey, whom they suspected of being a traitor.
On the day that McCloskey, Morton, and Baker were slain, Governor Samuel Beach Axtell arrived in Lincoln County to investigate the ongoing violence. The governor, accompanied by James Dolan and associate John Riley, proved hostile to the faction now headed by McSween. The Regulators "went from lawmen to outlaws". Axtell refused to acknowledge the so-called "Santa Fe Ring", a group of corrupt politicians and business leaders led by U.S. Attorney Thomas Benton Catron. Catron cooperated closely with the House, which was perceived as part of the notorious "ring".
The Regulators planned to settle a score with Sheriff William J. Brady, who had arrested McCarty and fellow deputy Fred Waite in the aftermath of Tunstall's murder. At the time Brady arrested them, the two men were trying to serve a warrant on him for his suspected role in looting Tunstall's store after the Englishman's death, as well as against his posse members for the murder of Tunstall. On April 1, the Regulators (Jim French, Frank McNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Brown, and McCarty/Bonney) ambushed Sheriff Brady and his deputy, George W. Hindman, killing them both in Lincoln's main street.
McCarty was shot in the thigh while attempting to retrieve a rifle that Brady had seized from him during an earlier arrest. With this move, the Regulators disillusioned many former supporters, who came to view both sides as "equally nefarious and bloodthirsty". The connection between McSween and the Regulators was ambiguous, however. McCarty was loyal to the memory of Tunstall, though not necessarily to McSween. Jacobsen doubts whether McCarty and McSween were acquainted at the time of Brady's death. According to a contemporary newspaper account, the Regulators disclaimed "all connection or sympathy with McSween and his affairs" and expressed their sole desire was to track down Tunstall's murderers.
On April 4, in what became known as the Gunfight of Blazer's Mills, the Regulators sought the arrest of Buckshot Roberts, a former buffalo hunter whom they suspected of involvement in the Tunstall murder. Roberts refused to be taken alive, although he suffered a severe bullet wound to the chest. During the gun battle, he shot and killed the Regulators' leader, Dick Brewer. Four other Regulators were wounded in the skirmish. The incident had the effect of further alienating the public, as many local residents "admired the way Roberts put up a gutsy fight against overwhelming odds."
Killing of Frank McNab and after
After Brewer's death, the Regulators elected Frank McNab as captain. For a short period, the Regulators benefited from the appointment of Sheriff John Copeland, who proved sympathetic to their cause. Copeland's authority was undermined by the House, which recruited members from among Brady's former deputies. On April 29, 1878, a posse including the Jesse Evans gang and the Seven Rivers Warriors, under the direction of former Brady deputy, George W. Peppin, engaged McNab, Ab Saunders and Frank Coe in a shootout at the Fritz Ranch. They killed McNab, severely wounded Saunders and captured Frank Coe, though Coe managed to escape from custody a short time later.
The next day the Regulators took up defensive positions in the town of Lincoln, where they traded shots with Dolan's men as well as U.S. cavalrymen. The only casualty was Dutch Charley Kruling, a House gunman wounded by a rifle slug fired by George Coe. By shooting at US government troops, the Regulators gained a new set of enemies. On May 15, the Regulators tracked down Seven Rivers Warriors gang member Manuel Segovia, the suspected murderer of Frank McNab, and killed him. Around the time of Segovia's death, the Regulators gained a new member, a young Texas "cowpoke" named Tom O'Folliard, who became McCarty's close friend and constant companion.
The Regulators' position worsened when the governor, in a quasi-legal move, removed Copeland and appointed House ally George Peppin as sheriff. Under indictment for the Brady killing, McCarty and the other Regulators spent the next several months in hiding and were trapped, along with McSween, in McSween's home in Lincoln on July 15 by members of the House and some of Brady's men. On July 19, a column of U.S. cavalry soldiers entered the fray. Although the soldiers were ostensibly neutral, their actions favored the Dolan faction. After a five-day siege, the posse set McSween's house on fire. McCarty and the other Regulators fled. The posse shot McSween when he escaped the fire, essentially marking the end of the Lincoln County War.
Lew Wallace and amnesty
In the Autumn of 1878, the president appointed Lew Wallace, a former Union Army general, as Governor of the New Mexico Territory. In an effort to restore peace to Lincoln County, Wallace proclaimed an amnesty for any man involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. McCarty, who had fled to Texas after his escape from McSween's house, was under indictment, but sent Wallace a letter requesting immunity in return for testifying in front of the Grand Jury. In March 1879, Wallace and McCarty met in Lincoln County to discuss the possibility of a deal. McCarty greeted the governor with a revolver in one hand and a Winchester rifle in the other. After taking several days to consider Wallace's offer, McCarty agreed to testify in return for amnesty.
The arrangement called for McCarty to submit to a token arrest and a short stay in jail until the conclusion of his courtroom testimony. Although McCarty's testimony helped to indict John Dolan, the district attorney—one of the powerful "House" faction leaders—disregarded Wallace's order to set McCarty free after his testimony. After the Dolan trial, McCarty and O'Folliard escaped on horses supplied by friends.
For the next year and a half, McCarty survived by rustling, gambling, and taking defensive action. In January 1880, he reportedly killed a man named Joe Grant in a Fort Sumner saloon. Grant, who did not realize who his opponent was, boasted that he would kill "Billy the Kid" if he ever encountered him. In those days people loaded their revolvers with only five rounds, with the hammer down on an empty chamber. This was done to prevent an accidental discharge should the hammer be struck. The Kid asked Grant if he could see his ivory-handled revolver and, while looking at the weapon, rotated the cylinder so the hammer would fall on the empty chamber when the trigger was pulled. He told Grant his identity. When Grant fired, nothing happened, and McCarty shot him. When asked about the incident later, he remarked, "It was a game for two, and I got there first."
Other versions of this story exist. One biographer, Joel Jacobsen, recounts the story as described in Utley, describing Grant as a "drunk" who was "making himself obnoxious in a bar". "The Kid" is described as rotating the cylinder "so an empty chamber was beneath the hammer". In Jacobsen's recounting of the incident, Grant tried to shoot McCarty in the back. "As [McCarty] was leaving the saloon, his back turned to Grant, he heard a distinct click. He spun around before Grant could reach a loaded chamber. Always a good marksman, he shot Grant in the chin."
In November 1880, a posse pursued and trapped the Kid's gang inside a ranch house owned by his friend James Greathouse at Anton Chico in the White Oaks area. James Carlysle of the posse entered the house under a white flag, in an effort to negotiate the group's surrender. Greathouse was sent out to act as a hostage for the posse. At some point in the evening, Carlyle evidently decided the outlaws were stalling. According to one version, Carlyle heard a shot that had been fired accidentally outside. Concluding that the posse had shot down Greathouse, he chose escape, crashed through a window and was fired upon and killed. Recognizing their mistake, the posse became demoralized and scattered, enabling McCarty and his gang to slip away. McCarty vehemently denied shooting Carlyle, and later wrote to Governor Wallace, claiming to be innocent of this crime and others which had attributed to him.
During this time, McCarty became acquainted with an ambitious local bartender and former buffalo hunter named Pat Garrett. Popular accounts often depict McCarty and Garrett as "bosom buddies", but there is no evidence that they were actual friends. Garrett was elected as sheriff of Lincoln County in November 1880, running on a pledge to rid the area of rustlers. In early December, he assembled a posse and set out to arrest McCarty, at that time known almost exclusively as "Billy the Kid." The Kid then carried a $500 bounty on his head that had been authorized by governor Lew Wallace.
The posse led by Garrett fared well, and his men closed in quickly. On December 19, McCarty barely escaped a midnight ambush in Fort Sumner, which left Tom O'Folliard dead, one member of the gang. On December 23, the Kid was tracked to an abandoned stone building located in a remote location known as "Stinking Springs" (near present-day Taiban, New Mexico). While McCarty and his gang were asleep inside, Garrett's posse surrounded the building and waited for sunrise. The next morning, a cattle rustler named Charlie Bowdre stepped outside to feed his horse. He was mistaken for McCarty and was shot down by the posse.
Soon afterwards, somebody from within the building reached for the horse's halter rope, but Garrett shot and killed the horse, whose body blocked the building's only exit. As the lawmen began to cook breakfast over an open fire, Garrett and McCarty engaged in a friendly exchange, with Garrett inviting McCarty outside to eat, and McCarty inviting Garrett to "go to hell." Realizing that they had no hope of escape, the besieged and hungry outlaws finally surrendered and were allowed to join in the meal.
Escape from Lincoln
The Kid was transported from Fort Sumner to Las Vegas, where he gave an interview to a reporter from the Las Vegas Gazette. Next, the prisoner was transferred to Santa Fe, where he sent four separate letters over the next three months to Governor Wallace seeking clemency. Wallace refused to intervene, and the Kid's trial was held in April 1881 in Mesilla. On April 9, after two days of testimony, the Kid was found guilty of the murder of Sheriff Brady, the only conviction ever secured against any of the combatants in the Lincoln County War. On April 13, he was sentenced by Judge Warren Bristol to hang.
With his execution scheduled for May 13, the Kid was removed to Lincoln, where he was held under guard by two of Garrett's deputies, Bob Olinger and James Bell, on the top floor of the town courthouse. On April 28, while Garrett was out of town, the Kid killed both guards and escaped. Bell reportedly showed the Kid respect and "never, by word or action, did he betray his prejudice if it existed".
Olinger reportedly treated the Kid badly. Olinger's favorite weapon and tool of choice when tormenting the Kid was his double-barreled shotgun. He had loaded it with 18 buckshot and was overconfident in his abilities as a guard. On April 28, 1881, Olinger left the prison for lunch, leaving his shotgun in Bell's custody. The Kid got his hands on a gun somehow and shot Bell, fatally wounding him. How the gun came into the Kids's possession is unclear and various theories have been floated. He himself would later claim he never wanted to kill Bell but the other man stood in the way of his escape. Olinger heard the shot and came running. The Kid fetched Olinger's shotgun, positioned himself at the window overlooking the courtyard, and prepared for Olinger's arrival. Then he emptied the gun into Olinger, fatally wounding him as well. The site of these killings is preserved in Lincoln County with the hole in the wall where Bell was shot on display as well as a plaque where Olinger was gunned down. The Kid scooped up Ollinger's 10-gauge double-barrel shotgun. Both barrels had been fully loaded with buckshot earlier by Ollinger himself. The Kid waited at the upstairs window for his second guard, who had been across the street with some other prisoners, to respond to the gunshot and come to Bell's aid. As Ollinger came running into view, the Kid leveled the shotgun at him, called out "Hello Bob!", and shot him dead. His escape was delayed for an hour while he worked himself free of his leg irons with an axe. Then he mounted a horse and rode out of town, reportedly singing. The horse returned two days later.
Sheriff Pat Garrett responded to rumors that McCarty was lurking in the vicinity of Fort Sumner almost three months after his escape. Garrett and two deputies set out on July 14, 1881, to question one of the town's residents, a friend of McCarty's named Pete Maxwell (son of land baron Lucien Maxwell). Close to midnight, Garrett and Maxwell sat talking in Maxwell's darkened bedroom when McCarty unexpectedly entered the room.
There are at least two versions of what happened next. One version suggests that, as the Kid entered, he failed to recognize Garrett in the poor light. McCarty drew his revolver and backed away, asking "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?" (Spanish for "Who is it? Who is it?"). Recognizing McCarty's voice, Garrett drew his own revolver and fired twice, the first bullet striking McCarty in the chest just above his heart, although the second one missed and struck the mantel behind him. McCarty fell to the floor, gasped for a minute, and died.
In the second version, McCarty entered carrying a knife, evidently heading for a kitchen area. He noticed someone in the darkness, and uttered the words, "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?" at which point he was shot and killed. The popularity of the first story persists and portrays Garrett in a better light, although some historians contend that the second version is probably the accurate one.
Garrett allowed the Kid’s friends to take his body across the plaza to the carpenter's shop to give him a wake. The next morning, a Justice of the Peace, Milnor Rudulph, viewed the body and made out the death certificate, but Garrett rejected the first one and demanded that another one be written more in his favor. The Kid's body was then prepared for burial, and was buried at noon at the Fort Sumner cemetery between O'Folliard and Bowdre.
In his book Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life, Robert Utley told the story of Pat Garrett's book effort. In the weeks following the Kid's death, Garrett felt the need to tell his side of the story. Many people had begun to talk about the unfairness of the encounter, so Garrett called upon his friend Marshall Ashmun (Ash) Upson to ghostwrite a book with him. Upson was a roving journalist who had a gift for graphic prose. Their collaboration led to a book entitled The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid, which was first published in April 1882. The book originally sold few copies; it eventually proved to be an important reference for historians who would later write about the Kid's life.
Like many gunfighters of the "Old West", Billy the Kid enjoyed a reputation built partly on exaggerated accounts of his exploits. McCarty was credited with the killing of between 15 and 26 men, depending on varying sources. Wallis has speculated that the Dolan faction created the Kid's image to distract the public's attention from their activities and those of their influential supporters in Santa Fe, notably the regional political leader Thomas Benton Catron.
The notoriety that McCarty gained during the Lincoln County War effectively doomed his appeals for amnesty. A number of the Regulators faded away or secured amnesty, but McCarty could not accomplish either. His negotiations with governor Lew Wallace (a famed Civil War general and author of the novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ) for amnesty came to nothing. A string of negative newspaper editorials referred to him as "Billy the Kid". When a reporter reminded Wallace that the Kid was depending on the governor's intervention, the governor supposedly smiled and said, "Yes, but I can't see how a fellow like him can expect any clemency from me."
Firsthand accounts of character
Various accounts recorded by friends and acquaintances describe him as fun-loving and jolly, articulate in both his writing and his speech, and loyal to those for whom he cared. He was fluent in Spanish, popular with Latina girls, an accomplished dancer, and well loved in the territory's Hispanic community. "His many Hispanic friends did not view him as a ruthless killer but rather as a defender of the people who was forced to kill in self-defense", Wallis writes. "In the time that the Kid roamed the land he chided Hispanic villagers who were fearful of standing up to the big ranchers who stole their land, water, and way of life."
One of the few remaining artifacts of McCarty's life is a 2x3 inch ferrotype taken by an unknown photographer sometime in late 1879 or early 1880. It is the only image of McCarty that scholars agree is authentic. The ferrotype survived because after Billy's death, Dan Dedrick, one of Billy's rustler friends, held onto the picture and passed it down in his family. The ferrotype appeared in several copied forms before the original was made public in the mid-1980s by Stephen and Art Upham, descendants of Dedrick. It was displayed for several years in the Lincoln County Heritage Trust Museum before it was withdrawn again.
The ferrotype sold at auction on June 25, 2011, in a three-day Western show. It was purchased for $2.3 million by billionaire William Koch, some six times the estimate. It was the most expensive piece ever sold at Brian Lebel's Annual Old West Show & Auction, and the seventh most expensive photograph ever sold.
The photograph of The Kid, commonly known as the Upham tintype – after its longtime owner Frank Upham – was the subject of intense study by experts in the late 1980s. Their detailed findings were presented at a symposium held in 1989. The experts concluded that the Colt revolver carried by McCarty was probably not his primary weapon, since his holster is not the type normally associated with gunslingers. Rather, it is a common holster, with a safety strap across the top to keep the six-shooter from bouncing out. McCarty's main weapon appears to be the Winchester Carbine held in his hand in the ferrotype.
In August 2013, a tintype photograph was released that appears to be of McCarty and his friend Dan Dedrick. Recently, the photo was forensically compared to the existing tintype and one forensic investigator deemed the figure in the photo to indeed be the infamous outlaw, with Dedrick to his right.
Left-handed or right-handed?
It was widely assumed throughout much of the 20th century that the Kid was left-handed, largely due to a photograph in which he appears to be wearing a gun belt with a holster on his left side, but further examination revealed that as all Winchester Model 1873 rifles were made with the loading gate on the right side of the receiver, the "left-handed" photograph is in fact a mirror image.
In 1954 western historians James D. Horan and Paul Sann announced that McCarty was actually "right-handed and carried his pistol on his right hip." More recently, in response to a story from The Guardian that used an uncorrected McCarty ferrotype, Clyde Jeavons, a former curator of the National Film and Television Archive, cited their work and added:
You can see by the waistcoat buttons and the belt buckle. This is a common error which has continued to reinforce the myth that Billy the Kid was left-handed. He was not. He was right-handed and carried his gun on his right hip. This particular reproduction error has occurred so often in books and other publications over the years that it has led to the myth that Billy the Kid was left-handed, for which there is no evidence. On the contrary, the evidence (from viewing his photo correctly) is that he was right-handed: he wears his pistol on his right hip with the butt pointing backwards in a conventional right-handed draw position.
A second look at the ferrotype appears to confirm Jeavon's position. The prong on the belt buckle points the wrong way, and the buttons on the Kid's vest are on the left side, the side reserved for ladies' blouses. The convention for men's wear is that buttons go down the right side.
Wallis wrote in 2007 that McCarty was ambidextrous. This observation seems to be supported by contemporaneous newspaper accounts reporting that Billy the Kid could shoot handguns "with his left hand as accurately as he does with his right" and that "his aim with a revolver in each hand, shooting simultaneously, is unerring."
People who claimed to be Billy the Kid 
Legends grew over time that Billy the Kid was not killed that night, but that Garrett, a known friend of the Kid's, may have staged it all so the Kid could escape the law. In 2004, researchers sought to exhume the remains of Catherine Antrim, McCarty's mother, "so her DNA could be tested and compared with DNA to be taken from the body buried under the Kid's gravestone". Ultimately, the case was bogged down in the courts, "much to the delight of New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson, who knows all too well the value of Billy as a cultural icon and a draw for tourists".
Brushy Bill Roberts
In 1949, a paralegal named William Morrison located a man in Central Texas known as Ollie Partridge Roberts (nicknamed Brushy Bill), who admitted in private to being Billy the Kid and challenged the popular account of McCarty as shot to death by Pat Garrett in 1881. Brushy Bill later claimed that Ollie Partridge Roberts was an assumed name which accounted for the discrepancies in birth dates and physical appearance between Ollie Roberts and Billy the Kid. Although his story was refuted by mainstream historians, the town of Hico, Texas (Brushy Bill's residence), has capitalized on the Kid's infamy by opening the "Billy The Kid Museum". Brushy Bill's story was further promoted by the 1990 film Young Guns II, as well as a 2011 episode of Brad Meltzer's Decoded on the History Channel. Robert Stack did a segment on Brushy Bill in early 1990 on the NBC television series Unsolved Mysteries. Numerous books have also been published since 1950 advancing Brushy's claim. On October 31, 2014 new information was published purporting to support certain aspects of Brushy Bill's story, which included military and genealogical records and a new photographic comparison of a young Brushy Bill with a Billy the Kid ferrotype image.
Another individual who allegedly claimed to be Billy the Kid was John Miller, whose family supported his claim in 1938, some time after Miller's death. Miller was buried at the state-owned Pioneers' Home Cemetery in Prescott, Arizona. Tom Sullivan, a former sheriff of Lincoln County, and Steve Sederwall, a former mayor of Capitan, disinterred the bones of John Miller in May 2005. Though Sederwall and Sullivan believed the exhumation was allowed, official permission had not been given. DNA samples from the remains were sent to a lab in Dallas, Texas, to be compared with traces of blood obtained from a bench that was believed to be the one upon which McCarty's body was placed after he was shot to death. The two investigators had searched for McCarty's physical remains since 2003. They started in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had eventually ended up in Arizona. To date, no DNA test results have been made public. As of 2008, a lawsuit is pending against officials in Lincoln County that would, if successful, publicize the results of those tests along with other evidence that Sullivan and Sederwall collected.
Posthumous pardons considered
In 2010, the governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson, considered a posthumous pardon for the Kid, who had been convicted for killing Sheriff William Brady. The pardon was considered to be a follow-through on a purported promise made by former Governor Lew Wallace in 1879. On December 31, 2010, his last day in office, Richardson announced on Good Morning America his decision not to issue the pardon, citing "historical ambiguity" surrounding the conditions of Lew Wallace's pardon.
Grave marker theft and locations
According to Garrett, the Kid was interred at Fort Sumner's old military cemetery the day after he was killed, between his fallen companions, Tom O'Folliard and Charlie Bowdre. After the Kid's burial, someone took a plain board, stenciled letters on it, and jammed it into the soft earth at the head of his grave to mark it. This marker remained at least until the early part of 1882 before it was stolen or shot to pieces.
Pete Maxwell[who?] placed the next marker and used a four-foot-long, wooden slat removed from the parade-ground picket fence near his home. A one-foot length was cut off and hammered onto the longer piece to form a cross, and the words "Billy The Kid (Bonney) July 14, 1881" were placed on the horizontal crosspiece. After Maxwell sold the old fort to the New England Livestock Company, one of the Board of Directors (a fellow named Chauncey from Boston), that visited Fort Sumner in the late 1880s took the marker claiming he was taking it back east to a museum. It was never recovered.
In 1889 and 1904 the Pecos River floods over took the cemetery and all the markers were washed away. The latter flood inundated the cemetery under four feet of muddy water until the cemetery had no grave markers left of any kind. For over two decades the Kid's grave thus remained unmarked, its exact location in the small one-acre cemetery unknown. However, relying upon advice from former nearby residents to pick out the walls, corner, and cemetery entrance, they were able to approximate the grave location.
In 1932, Charles W. Foor, the unofficial tour guide of the cemetery, spearheaded the drive to raise funds for a marker. Although the edges are damaged, this large white marker has never been stolen. It serves as a memorial monument noting three individuals buried in the cemetery, O'Folliard, Bowdre, and Bonney.
Eight years later, Warner Bros. used a Billy the Kid grave marker as a prop in the movie The Outlaw. James N. Warner of Salida, Colorado, donated the marker to the cemetery when it was no longer required for the movie. The individual grave marker was placed as a foot stone with a pointed top. This marker was stolen and recovered twice. It was first stolen in August 1950, and not recovered until 25 years later, in May 1976, in a field on a ranch near Granbury, Texas. Local resident Joe Bowlin brought it back, and it was ceremoniously re-installed that June.
It was stolen again in February 8, 1981, but recovered days later in Huntington Beach, California. New Mexico Governor Bruce King arranged for the Sheriff of the county seat to fly to California to bring it back to Fort Sumner, where it was re-installed in May 1981. A short time later, the village, which owned the cemetery at the time, erected a steel cage to protect the grave site, preserved the chipped-away white headstone, and placed Billy's individual footstone in shackles, to discourage further vandalism and theft. The cemetery is located 34° 24.253′ N, 104° 11.593′ W, about three and a half miles (5,5 km) south of State Highway 60 on Route 212. The stolen tombstone became the inspiration for the World's Richest Tombstone Race, held during Fort Sumner's Old Fort Days Celebration every June.
On June 16, 2012, a group of vandals entered the cage at night and tipped over the stone.
Selected references in popular culture
Billy the Kid has been the subject and inspiration for many popular works, including:
- "The Disinterested Killer Bill Harrigan," by Jorge Luis Borges.
- Billy The Kid (1958), a serial poem by Jack Spicer.
- Billy the Kid (1962), an episode in the ongoing adventures of Lucky Luke by Goscinny and Morris.
- El bandido adolescente ("The teenage outlaw") (1965), a biography written by Spanish author Ramón J. Sender.
- Lincoln County War (1968), the definitive history of the Lincoln County War, by Maurice G. Fulton.
- The Collected Works of Billy the Kid: Left-handed Poems, by Michael Ondaatje, 1970 Governor General's Award-winning biography in the form of experimental poetry.
- The Illegal Rebirth of Billy the Kid (1991) is a science fiction novel by Rebecca Ore.
- Anything for Billy 1988 is a novel by Larry McMurtry.
- Lucky Billy: a novel about Billy the Kid (2008), is a novel by John Vernon, a professor at Binghamton University.
- The novels, Inferno and Escape from Hell, by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, feature interactions between the novels' contemporary main characters traversing Dante's Inferno and Billy the Kid.
- Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel he is first introduced in the Sorceress and is there until the end of the Enchantress by Michael Scott
- Billy the Kid and the Vampyres of Vegas ebook by Michael Scott
- Billy the Kid, a 1911 silent film directed by Laurence Trimble and starring Tefft Johnson. All copies are believed to be lost.
- Billy the Kid, 1930 widescreen film directed by King Vidor and starring Johnny Mack Brown as Billy and Wallace Beery as Pat Garrett
- Billy the Kid Returns, 1938: Roy Rogers plays a dual role, Billy the Kid and his dead-ringer lookalike who shows up after the Kid has been shot by Pat Garrett.
- Billy the Kid, 1941 remake of the 1930 film, starring Robert Taylor and Brian Donlevy
- Bob Steele and Buster Crabbe played Billy the Kid in a series of 42 western films from 1940 through 1946, released by Poverty Row studio Producers Distributing Corporation. Some of the titles include Blazing Frontier, The Renegade, Cattle Stampede, and Western Cyclone (1943). In a 1952 film, Allan "Rocky" Lane goes after Billy the Kid's lost treasure.
- The Outlaw, Howard Hughes' 1943 motion picture starring Jack Buetel as Billy and featuring Jane Russell in her breakthrough role as the Kid's fictional love interest.
- I Shot Billy the Kid, a 1950 film directed by William Berke and starring Don "Red" Barry as Billy.
- The Kid from Texas (1950) starring Audie Murphy as Billy the Kid
- The Law vs. Billy the Kid (1954, Columbia Pictures Corporation) starring Scott Brady as the Kid, James Griffith as Pat Garrett, Betta St. John as Nita Maxwell, and Alan Hale, Jr. as Bob Ollinger
- The Left Handed Gun, Arthur Penn's 1958 motion picture based on a Gore Vidal teleplay, starring Paul Newman as Billy and John Dehner as Garrett
- The Boy from Oklahoma (1954), with Tyler MacDuff in the role of Billy the Kid
- One-Eyed Jacks (1961), is the only film directed by Marlon Brando, who also played its lead character, Rio. This story is from an adaptation by Rod Serling of a Charles Neider novelization of Billy the Kid's life, with a later revision by Sam Peckinpah among others.
- Billy the Kid vs. Dracula (1966), directed by William Beaudine, has Count Dracula, played by John Carradine, traveling to the Old West, where he takes a shine to Billy's fiancee and tries to turn her into a vampire. Chuck Courtney co-stars as Billy.
- I'll Kill Him and Return Alone, a 1967 "spaghetti Western" directed by Julio Buchs, starred Peter Lee Lawrence as Billy and Fausto Tozzi as Pat Garrett.
- Chisum (1970), set during the Lincoln County War, was directed by Andrew V. McLaglen and stars Geoffrey Deuel as Billy and Glenn Corbett as Pat Garrett.
- Dirty Little Billy (1972), set during Billy's early years as a criminal, starred Michael J. Pollard.
- Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, Sam Peckinpah's 1973 motion picture with Kris Kristofferson as Billy, James Coburn as Pat Garrett, and with a soundtrack by Bob Dylan, who also appears in the movie
- Young Guns, Christopher Cain's 1988 motion picture starring Emilio Estevez as Billy and Patrick Wayne as Pat Garrett
- Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure (1989) features Billy the Kid (played by Dan Shor) as the "Historical Figure" that Bill and Ted pick up in the Old West.
- Gore Vidal's Billy the Kid, Gore Vidal's 1989 film starring Val Kilmer as Billy and Duncan Regehr as Pat Garrett
- Young Guns II, Geoff Murphy's 1990 motion picture starring Emilio Estevez as Billy and William Petersen as Pat Garrett
- Purgatory, Uli Edel's 1999 made-for-TV movie starring Donnie Wahlberg as Deputy Glen/Billy The Kid
- Requiem for Billy the Kid, Anne Feinsilber's 2006 motion picture starring Kris Kristofferson.
- BloodRayne 2: Deliverance featured a vampiric Billy the Kid as the film's main antagonist, played by Zack Ward.
- Birth of a Legend, a 2011 film in two parts based on Frederick Nolan's book The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History directed by Andrew Wilkinson
- "P.A.L.S." - by Ankh Angel/Frank R.J. Chessar – A # 1 Hit On Internet Radio's S.C.
- "Billy the Kid", a folksong in the public domain, was published in John A. Lomax and Alan Lomax's American Ballads and Folksongs album, and also their Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads album. Members of the Western Writers of America chose it as one of the Top 100 Western songs of all time.
- "Billy the Kid" folksong sung by Woody Guthrie, recorded by Alan Lomax in 1940 for the Library of Congress (#3412 B2), with a melody Guthrie later used for his song "So Long, it's Been Good to Know You". He also recorded it in 1944 for Moe Asch's Asch/Folkways label (MA67).
- Aaron Copland's "Billy the Kid", a ballet that premiered in 1938.
- On his album Piano Man (1973), Billy Joel performs a song titled "The Ballad of Billy the Kid", which was intended to be a western-themed ballad rather than an account of the life of Bonney or any other outlaw; the title refers in part to a bartender Joel was friendly with.
- Bob Dylan's album Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, soundtrack of the 1973 film by Sam Peckinpah.
- Jon Bon Jovi's album, Blaze of Glory, was used as part of the soundtrack for Young Guns II, and featured the song "Billy Get Your Guns".
- Marty Robbins' song "Billy the Kid" from the album Gunfighter Ballads & Trail Songs Volume 3.
- Ry Cooder recorded the folk song "Billy the Kid", on the album Into The Purple Valley, with his own melody and instrumental. It was also on Ry Cooder Classics Volume II.
- Tom Petty wrote the song "Billy the Kid", released on his 1999 album Echo.
- Another "Billy The Kid", was written by Robert W. Marr in 2010 when New Mexico Governor, Bill Richardson talked of pardoning the outlaw. The song has the line, "With a slap in the face to those who had died. To hell with the death and the tears that were cried."
- Dia Frampton's "Billy the Kid," on the 2011 album Red
- Charlie Daniels recorded the song "Billy the Kid" on his 1976 album High Lonesome. Chris LeDoux also covered the song on his album Haywire.
- Joe Ely recorded the song "Me and Billy the Kid" on his 1987 album Lord of the Highway.
- Planet Of Zeus recorded the song "Woke Up Dead (William H. Bonney)" on their 2008 album Eleven The Hard Way.
- Running Wild recorded the song "Billy the Kid" on their 1991 album Blazon Stone.
- Joseph Santley's 1906 Broadway play, co-written by Santley, in which he also starred
- Michael McClure's 1965 play The Beard recounts a fictional meeting between Billy the Kid and Jean Harlow.
- Michael Ondaatje's 1973 play, The Collected Works of Billy the Kid.
- Billy the Kid - His Life in Music, 2013, presented by Livestock
Television and radio
- The Gunsmoke radio show had an episode titled "Billy the Kid", broadcast on April 2, 1952. It purports to tell of Billy the Kid's first murder as a runaway boy and credits Matt Dillon with giving him the "Billy the Kid" moniker.
- The CBS radio series Crime Classics told the story of Billy the Kid in its October 21, 1953 episode entitled "Billy Bonney - Bloodletter." The episode featured Sam Edwards as Billy the Kid and William Conrad as Pat Garrett.
- Richard Jaeckel played The Kid in a 1954 episode of the syndicated television series Stories of the Century.
- Robert Blake starred as The Kid in the 1966 episode "The Kid from Hell's Kitchen" of the syndicated western series, Death Valley Days. He sets out to avenge the death of his friend John Tunstall played by John Anderson.
- The Simpsons Treehouse of Horror 13 2002. He is depicted as the leader of a group of corpses who rise from the graves to take over Springfield after the citizens have destroyed all their guns.
- The NBC series The Tall Man ran from 1960 to 1962, starring Clu Gulager as Billy and Barry Sullivan as Pat Garrett.
- The Nickelodeon game show Nick Arcade featured a spoof of Billy The Kid in the "Slurpy Gulch" area named "Silly The Kid", a baby who would say "Let's Dance" at the team who lands on him.
- Nickelodeon's Legends Of The Hidden Temple had an episode during season 2 titled "The Snakeskin Boots Of Billy The Kid". The episode itself is notable because the episode had the first temple win for the "Purple Parrot's", one of the teams on the show.
- The 2004 Discovery Channel Quest, Billy the Kid: Unmasked, investigated the life and death of Billy the Kid through forensic science.
- American Experience, Billy the Kid, aired on PBS January 9, 2012
- The 2014 series "Gunslingers" on American Heroes Channel aired an episode devoted to Billy the Kid on July 27, 2014.
- Wallis (2007), pp. 244–245
- Michael Wallis (2007), p. 114
- Wallis (2007), p. 129
- Rasch (1995), p. 126
- Utley (1989), p. 15
- Utley (1989), pp. 145–146
- Utley, Robert M. High Noon in Lincoln: Violence on the Western Frontier, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1987 - p. 192.
- Rasch, Philip J."New Light on the Legend of Billy the Kid," New Mexico Folklore Record 7 (1952-53), pp. 1-5.
- Rasch, Philip J. and Mullin, Robert N. "Dim Trails: The Pursuit of the McCarty Family," New Mexico Folklore Record 8 ( 1953-54) pp. 6-11.
- DeMattos, Jack, "The Search for Billy the Kid's Roots - Is Over!" Real West (No. 167), January 1980 - pp. 26-28, 59-60.
- Letter from Rev. James B. Roberts, Church of St. Peter, New York City, to Jack DeMattos, March 24, 1979. The Church of St. Peter is located in lower Manhattan, close to the World Trade Center and a short distance from the Brooklyn Bridge.
- 1860 United States Federal Census, Manhattan First Ward, June 26, 1860, p. 176. Greene Street is located in lower Manhattan, close to the section now called "Little Italy." It is also located within walking distance of The Church of St. Peter, where Billy the Kid was baptized.
- 1860 New York City Directory, p. 533.
- 1863 New York City Directory, p. 541.
- 1880 United States Federal Census, Silverton,Colorado - June 1, 1880. In fact, Joseph Antrim was still four months shy of turning seventeen on the date the census was taken.
- Joseph McCarty Antrim would turn twenty-two later that year on October 14, 1885.
- 1864 New York City Directory, p. 537.
- This person did not appear in any other year's Indianapolis directory.
- Deed Records of Sedgwick County, Kansas. Book A, p. 414.
- Koop, Waldo E. Billy the Kid: Trail of a Kansas Legend. The Trail Guide (Vol. IX, No. 3) Kansas City Posse of Westerners, September, 1964, pp. 7-8.
- Cook wrote this on July 18, 1892, as part of a notarized statement he gave to Registrar of Deeds, S.L. Barrett, while having trouble proving his unencumbered title to the city lots he purchased from Mrs. McCarty for $445.
- Book of Marriages A, Santa Fe County, New Mexico, pp. 35-36.
- Silver City Mining Life, September 19, 1874.
- Grant County Herald (Silver City, New Mexico) - September 26, 1875.
- Wallis (2007), p. 95
- Wallis (2007), p. 103
- Wallis (2007), p. 107
- Wallis (2007), pp. 110–1
- Utley (1989), p. 16.
- Arizona Citizen (Tucson), August 22, 1877.
- Wallis (2007), p. 119
- Wallis (2007), pp. 123–31
- Frederick Nolan (June 1, 2003). The West of Billy the Kid. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-8061-3104-7. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Wallis (2007), p. 144
- Wallis (2007), p. 159
- Weiser, Kathy. "Josiah Gordon "Doc" Scurlock — Cowboy Gunfighter". Legends of America. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- Wroth, William H. "Billy the Kid". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- Wallis (2007), pp. 193–199.
- Billy the Kid, American Experience at pbs.org; accessed April 28, 2015.
- Utley (1989), p. 46
- Nolan (1965), p. 272
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 87–90
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 107–08
- Wallis (2007), pp. 200–201
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 111–112
- Burns (1953/1992), pp. 89–90
- "Chronology of Billy the Kid". Shadows of the Past, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 44–45
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 51–52
- "Sheriff William Brady". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- "Deputy Sheriff George Hindman". The Officers Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Wallis (2007), p. 202
- Jacobsen (1994), p. 133
- Wallis (2007), p. 203
- Burns (1953/1992), pp. 97–98
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 144–145
- Wallis (2007), pp. 204-206.
- Caldwell, C.R. (2008). Dead Right — The Lincoln County War. Clifford, Caldwell. p. 108. ISBN 0-615-17152-4.
- Wallis (2007), pp. 209–213
- Wallis (2007), pp. 213–215
- "Billy the Kid". New Mexico Tourism. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- Wallis (2007), p. 225
- Wallis (2007), pp. 227–8
- Wallis (2207), pp. 228–229
- Wallis (2007), pp. 233-234
- Jacobsen (1994), pp. 217–218
- Wallis (2007), pp. 235–38
- "Deputy Sheriff James Carlysle". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Jacobsen (1994), p. 222
- Utley (1989), p. 147
- Jacobsen (1994), p. 226
- Wallis (2007), p. 239
- Wallis (2007), pp. 240–241
- Wallis (2007), p. 242
- Wallis (2007), pp. 243–244
- Utley, Robert Marshall. Billy the Kid: a Short and Violent Life. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1991.
- "Deputy Sheriff James W. Bell". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- "Deputy Marshal Robert Olinger". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Burns (1953/1992), pp. 248–49
- Jacobsen, p. 232
- Wallis (2007), pp. 245-246
- Wallis (2007), p. 247
- O'Toole, Deborah. "Billy the Kid: Myths and Truths". tripod.com. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- "Last Days". aboutbillythekid.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- Utley (1989), pp. 198–199
- Wallis (2007), p. 220
- Utley (1989), pp. 197, 203
- Garrett (1882), p. xxiv, Intro. by J.C. Dykes
- Wallis (2007), pp. 236–237
- "Chronology of the Life of Billy the Kid and the Lincoln County War, Part 2". angelfire.com. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Mark Boardman. "The Holy Grail for Sale". True West Magazine. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- Tripp, Leslie (26 June 2011). "Billy the Kid photograph fetches $2.3 million at auction". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- BBC News – Billy the Kid portrait fetches $2.3m at Denver auction. Bbc.co.uk (June 26, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-08-01.
- Moore, S. Derrickson (August 17, 2013). "Newly unveiled photo appears to be Billy the Kid and friend". Las Cruces Sun-News. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- Moore, S. Derrickson (October 5, 2013). "Forensic detective says Billy the Kid photo is real deal". Las Cruces Sun-News. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
- Taken outside Beaver Smith's Saloon in Old Fort Sumner, probably in late 1879 or early 1880, the image was published in the first volume of G. B. Anderson's History of New Mexico: Its Resources & People in 1907. The photographer employed a tripod-mounted, box camera with a four-tube lens set that took four identical photographs at the same time. The image shown on this page came from the upper-left hand lens and is known as the 1907 halftone. It had been retouched to eliminate scratches and the original is now lost. The extant unretouched tintype taken by the lower-right hand lens, known as the Upham-Dedrick tintype, contains more detail and shows a hand holding a board to reflect light onto the subjects unlit side and has the thumbprints of the photographer on the bottom edge. Other details not shown clearly in the 1907 halftone include the holster having a strap to prevent the gun from falling out while riding and Billy wearing a "gambler's pinky ring," so called because it could be used as an aid to cheating at three-card monte. His shirt appears to have a design (a nautical anchor?) but it may be a necklace.
- "Billy the Kid's Famous Photo". NewMexico.org – Tourism Department. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Horan and Sann (1954), p. 57
- Qtd. in Mayes, Ian (March 3, 2001). "I kid you not". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Shirt (patent application)". #: Free Patents Online. July 24, 2003. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- Goode, Stephen (June 10, 2007). "The fact and fiction of America's outlaw". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
Billy loved to sing and had a good voice, those who knew him claimed. ... He was ambidextrous and wrote well with both hands.
- ""Billy The Kid" : His Recent Escape in the Face of a Score of Armed Men". Warren sheaf. (Warren, Minnesota). June 29, 1881. (reprinting an article from the Denver Tribune)
- "Welcome to Billy the Kid legend!". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- Wallis (2007), p. xiv.
- "Brushy Bill Roberts and Billy the Kid – The Complete Facts". TheSignSyndicate.com. May 31, 2006.
- "The Real Kid". Soft-Parade.com.
- Texas Department of Transportation, Texas State Travel Guide, 2008, pp. 200–201
- C.L. Sonnichsen and William V. Morrison, Alias Billy the Kid, University of New Mexico Press.
- Daniel A. Edwards. Billy the Kid: An Autobiography, Creative Texts Publishers.
- Banks, Leo W. "A New Billy the Kid?". Tucson Weekly. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Associated Press (October 24, 2006) "2 won't face charges in Billy the Kid quest, Deseret News via FindArticles.com; retrieved 2008-08-29.
- Associated Press (August 28, 2008) Lawsuit seeks DNA evidence for 1881 death of Billy the Kid, foxnews.com; retrieved 2008-08-29.
- "No pardon for Billy the Kid". CNN. December 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- Wallis (2007), pp. 249–250
- Old Fort Sumner Cemetery profile, Newmexico.org; accessed April 28, 2014.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- "Hico Validates Life of Billy the Kid" The J-TAC (Stephenville, Texas), Vol. 148, No. 10, Ed. 1, texashistory.unt.edu, November 3, 1994.
- The Historical Marker Database.
- "Billy the Kid tombstone". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- Lohr, David (June 30, 2012). "'Billy the Kid' tombstone in New Mexico vandalized". Fort Sumner, N.M.: Huffington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- Wallis (2007), p. xvi.
- Buster Crabbe's filmography at the Internet Movie Database
- "Tyler MacDuff credits". IMDb. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Billy the Kid at the Internet Movie Database
- "AnkhAngel - Billy Bonney's P.A.L.S.".
- MacMillan, (1934), p. 137
- MacMillan, (1938), pp. 140–141. From Jim Marby, recorded in 1911, Library of Congress E659098.
- Western Writers of America (2010). "The Top 100 Western Songs". American Cowboy. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014.
- Liner notes, p. 63, number 3, "Billy the Kid" media.smithsonianfolkways.org. Retrieved 2010-01-07
- Gamboa, Glenn (August 6, 2012). "Billy Joel talks about his top Long Island songs". Newsday.
- 1972 Reprise K44142
- Japan 1992 P-Vine PCD 2541
- Gunsmoke radio show "Billy the Kid", first broadcast May 26, 1952
- "Stories of the Century: "Billy the Kid", January 30, 1954". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- ""The Kid from Hell's Kitchen" on Death Valley Days". Internet Movie Data Base. October 20, 1966. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Video: Billy the Kid - Watch American Experience Online - PBS Video". PBS Video. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- Adams, Ramon F.. A Fitting Death for Billy the Kid. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960.
- Burns, Walter Noble. The Saga of Billy the Kid. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1926.
- DeMattos, Jack. The Search for Billy the Kid's Roots, Real West (No. 160), November 1978.
- DeMattos, Jack. The Search for Billy the Kid's Roots - is Over!, Real West (No. 167), January 1980.
- Dykes, Jefferson C. Billy the Kid: The Bibliography of a Legend. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico Press,1952.
- Edwards, Harold L. Goodbye Billy the Kid. College Station, TX: Creative Publishing Co., 1995. ISBN 1-57208-000-0
- Fable, Edmund, Jr. The True Life of Billy the Kid, The Noted New Mexican Outlaw. Denver, CO: The Denver Publishing Co., 1881. A facsimile edition was published by The Creative Publishing Company of College Station, TX in 1980. ISBN 0-932702-11-2
- Gardner, Mark Lee. To Hell On a Fast Horse. New York, William Morrow, 2010. ISBN 978-0-06-136827-1
- Garrett, Patrick Floyd. The Authentic Life of Billy the Kid. Santa Fe, NM: New Mexican Printing and Publishing Co., 1882. A leather-bound facsimile edition was published by Time-Life in 1981, as part of their 31-volume "Classics of the Old West" series of books. ISBN 0-8094-3581-0
- Jacobsen, Joel. Such Men as Billy the Kid: The Lincoln County War Reconsidered. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8032-7606-0
- Keleher, William A. Violence in Lincoln County 1869-1881. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1957.
- Klasner, Lily. My Girlhood Among Outlaws. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8165-0354-0
- Koop, Waldo E. Billy the Kid: Trail of a Kansas Legend. The Trail Guide (Vol. IX, No. 3), Kansas City Posse of Westerners, September, 1964.
- Nolan, Frederick. The Life & Death of John Henry Tunstall. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1965.
- Nolan, Frederick. The West of Billy the Kid. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3082-2
- Nolan, Frederick. The Lincoln County War: A Documentary History (Revised Edition). Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-86534-721-2
- Rasch, Philip J. New Light on the Legend of Billy the Kid. New Mexico Folklore Record 7 (1952-53).
- Rasch, Philip J. and Mullin, Robert N. Dim Trails: The Pursuit of the McCarty Family. New Mexico Folklore Record 8 (1953-54)
- Rasch, Philip J. Trailing Billy the Kid. Stillwater, OK: Western Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-935269-19-3
- Rasch, Philip J. Gunsmoke in Lincoln County. Stillwater, OK: Western Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-935269-24-X
- Rasch, Philip J. Warriors of Lincoln County. Stillwater, OK: Western Publications, 1998. ISBN 978-0-935269-26-0
- Tuska, Jon. Billy the Kid: A Handbook. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983 ISBN 0-8032-9406-9
- Utley, Robert M. High Noon in Lincoln: Violence on the Western Frontier. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1987 ISBN 0-8263-0981-X
- Utley, Robert M. Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8032-9558-8
- Wallis, Michael. Billy the Kid: The Endless Ride. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. ISBN 0-393-06068-3
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- Works by or about Billy the Kid in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Ruidoso is Billy the Kid Country Ruidoso Tourism
- Billy the Kid Territory – guide by New Mexico Tourism Department
- Peterson, Barbara Tucker and Louis Hart. "Billy the Kid: The Great Escape." Wild West magazine. August 1998.
- Nolan, Frederick. "The Hunting of Billy the Kid." Wild West magazine. June 2003.
- Leighton, David. "Tucson Street is Named After Billy the Kid." Arizona Daily Star, Oct. 22,2013
- About Billy the Kid
- Turk, David S. "Billy the Kid and the U.S. Marshals Service." Wild West Magazine. February 2007 (issued December 2006)
- "William "Billy The Kid" Bonney". Legendary Outlaw. Find a Grave. January 1, 2001. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Billy the Kid — An American Experience Documentary