Wind power in Belgium
Wind power in Belgium depends partially on regional governments (Brussels-Capital Region, Flemish Region, Walloon Region) and partially on the Belgian federal government. Wind energy producers in both the Flemish and Walloon regions get green certificates but not with the same conditions.
By year end 2015 Belgium had 2,229 MW installed capacity of windpower, 1,517 MW of which were land based and 712 MW of offshore wind power producing a total of 5,468 GWh of electricity generation. The percentage of electricity demand met by wind grew to 6.7% by 2015. By the end of 2019 land based wind power is planned to grow by a minimum of 339 MW whilst offshore wind power is planned to increase by around 1,500-1,600 MW.
Several large offshore wind power concessions have been granted, including the Norther windfarm which plans to install 44 of the world's most powerful windturbines in 2019, the MHI Vestas V164 turbines.
On February 8, 2014, due to high winds, 16% of the consumed electricity was generated by wind turbines.
Wind turbines are mainly installed in the Flemish and Walloon Regions and then offshore. Brussels-Capital Region is an urban area which is not particularly suited for large wind turbines. Smaller turbines more appropriate for urban environments are being studied but until today no technology is deemed sufficiently efficient.
- 1 Timeline
- 2 Installed capacity and generation
- 3 Offshore wind farms
- 4 Historical data Flemish region
- 5 Historical data Walloon Region
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Official targets for wind power in Belgium are set at 3,000 MW for land-based wind power and 2,741 MW for offshore wind:and by 2020
The expanding capacity and the intermittent nature of wind power created challenges for grid operator Elia. Requiring accurate wind forecasts and infrastructure changes. In particular transporting the large amounts of electricity generated offshore inland required work. The construction of various 150 kV connections was preparing the electricity grid to connect up 900 MW of offshore wind turbines. By 2016 the Stevin Project aims to expand this further by constructing new high voltage substations in Zeebrugge and Zomergem and a double 380 kV connection between them.
In September 2010, a survey was held by the Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen among more than 800 families who live very close to wind turbines in West Flanders. The results were better than expected. Before the turbines were constructed 59.3% were satisfied, this percentage rose to 68.3 after they were constructed. In addition 83.9% didn't oppose the construction of additional wind turbines. There has however also been fierce protest against some projects for example plans to construct turbines in Mol and Hannut have stalled.
The Belgian State committed to generate 13% of its energy (electricity, transport and heating) from sustainable sources by 2020. The annual wind energy potential in Belgium is estimated at 8.2 TWh (5.4 TWh offshore, 2.8 TWh onshore). This requires a production capacity of 2.1 GW offshore and 1.1 GW onshore. Wind energy makes up 47% of the 17 TWh renewable energy potential by 2020, according to the GEMIX report.
In 2008, Belgium consumed 88 TWh of electricity (excluding electricity that was not transported on the high voltage grid).
Installed capacity and generation
|Year||Offshore||Land-based||Total electricity generation all sources (GWh)||Total wind generation (GWh)||Electrical generation met by wind (%)*|
|Capacity (MW)||Generation (GWh)||Capacity (MW)||Generation (GWh)|
|* Based on table without other adjustments.|
Land based installed wind capacity grew to 1,517 MW in 2015 producing 2,855 GWh of electricity, a figure almost matched by the 712 MW offshore installed capacity producing 2,613 GWh, reflecting the better wind conditions at sea and associated higher capacity factor. A rough calculation shows that in 2015 1.88 GWh were produced by each MW capacity of land based wind power whilst sea base capacity produced 3.67 GWh, although the difference may be exaggerated somewhat due to land based capacity growing significantly throughout the year. In 2015 the capacity factors for land based wind power in Belgium was 21.40% and for offshore 41.90%. Offshore wind power thus operates at its full capacity almost twice as often on average as compared to onshore wind power in Belgium.
Offshore wind farms
|Project name||MW||Turbines||Date operational|
|C-Power||325.2||54||Operational since Sep 2013|
|Northwind||216||72||Operational since May 2014|
|Belwind||171||66||65 Turbines since 2010 and 1 since 2014|
|Total Operational (end 2015)||713.2||192||End 2015|
|Norther||370||44||Commissioning expected 2019|
|Northwester 2||217–224||22-32||Planning 2018|
|Mermaid Wave||20-61||4 batteries||Concession granted|
|Total future new installations||1,468-1,624||(+ 4 batteries) 218-272||from End 2018|
By year end 2015 Belgium had three active offshore wind power projects totalling 192 turbines and 713.2 MW of power. A further 7 offshore projects are in the planning phase and projected to total an additional 1468-1624 MW of windpower capacity in 2018. The distance of the projects from shore typically range from 21 to 52 km, and the bathymetry of the water indicates the turbines will be based in waters typically between 12 and 42 metres deep.
Wind farm concessions in the North Sea.
By Royal Order of May 2004 an area is reserved for the production of renewable energy. This area was subdivided into eight concessions. All of which have since been awarded to project developers. Three projects are already producing electricity, two other are under construction. Following a political row in 2016 after a tender with much lower costs in the neighboring Dutch site Borssele, the Belgium system using consessions is being revised. 
C-Power, the Thorntonbank Wind Farm, was the first wind farm operational in the Belgian North Sea. Its first construction phase was completed in May 2009. This phase was a demonstration phase, with the installation of 6 turbines of 5 MW (= 30 MW). The construction of the second and the third phases was finalized on September 2013. A total of 48 turbines of 6.15 MW were installed during thoses two phases (= 295.2 MW). C-Power has therefore a total of 54 turbines, with a combined capacity of 325.2 MW. The turbines generate around 1050 GWh per year, which can provide electricity to 300.000 homes.
Northwind is located on the Lodewijk Bank and has a total of 72 turbines of 3MW each, with a combined capacity of 216 MW. It was commissioned in May 2014 and can provide electricity to 250.000 homes.
Nobelwind's construction was completed in May 2017 and the wind farm is fully operational since December 2017. With its 50 windturbines of 3,3 MW each, the farm has a combined capacity of 165 MW, which can provide electricity to 160.000 homes.
In December 2016, Norther N. V. (Eneco/ Elicio) announced that MHI Vestas Offshore Wind will provide 44 x V164-8.4 MW wind turbines totalling approximately 370 MW to the Norther offshore wind project, located in the Belgian North Sea approximately 23 km off the coast of Zeebrugge. When commissioned in 2019, the Norther project will be Belgium’s largest wind power plant.
A project by Otary RS. Rentel has a total of 42 turbines of 7.35 MW each, with a combined capacity of 309 MW. This project is currently in its construction phase and should start to produce electricity during the second half of 2018.
A project by Otary RS. Planned capacity 246 MW
Planned capacity 217-224 MW.
Planned capacity 20-61 MW.
In order to use the generation capacity more efficiently plans are being made to construct an artificial island 3 km from Wenduine. On the island a lake would function as the reservoir of a pumped storage power station, estimated to produce 300 MW for 3 hours a day. The project is currently only in the concept phase. As of july 2018, no progress has been made.
Historical data Flemish region
(end of year)
|Number of turbines
(end of year)
(calculated according to
At the end of 2011 there were 191 operational onshore wind turbines with a combined capacity of 341.7MW. Due to the a lack of vast open spaces the wind turbines are installed in more than 60 small groups throughout the region. Often along highways or canals and in industrial or agricultural areas.
The operators of these wind farms are diverse. Some are operated by companies that specialize in wind power like Aspiravi or Electrawinds. Others by traditional electricity producers Electrabel and SPE. Several are operated by cooperatives like Ecopower or Aspiravi Samen. Finally a few are operated by organisations with a different core business like retail network Colruyt or pharmaceutical company Pfizer as part of a Corporate social responsibility strategy. Colruyt's turbines produce an estimated 13.75 GWh annually.
Installed capacity per province (as of 2012):
Historical data Walloon Region
|Date||Capacity (MW)||Number of turbines||Estimated annual
This region is home to the largest turbines in Belgium. The Windvision wind farm near Estinnes houses 11 Enercon E-126 turbines each with a total height of 198.5 metres and a generation power of 6 MW. The park is part of the EU demonstration project 7MW-WEC-by-11 nine turbines will be upgraded to 7.5 MW.
Greenwind built a 25 MW park of 10 turbines of 2.5 MW in Froidchappelle.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wind power in Belgium.|
- Energy in Belgium
- List of wind turbines in Belgium
- Solar power in Belgium
- Renewable energy by country
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