Wu wei

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Wu-wei)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wu wei
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese无为
Traditional Chinese無爲
Vietnamese name
VietnameseVô vi
Korean name
Japanese name
The people of Qi have a saying - "A man may have wisdom and discernment, but that is not like embracing the favourable opportunity. A man may have instruments of husbandry, but that is not like waiting for the farming seasons." Mencius

Wu wei (無爲) is a concept literally meaning "inexertion".[1]:p7 Wu wei emerged in the Spring and Autumn period, and Confucianism, to become an important concept in Chinese statecraft and Taoism, and was most commonly used to refer to an ideal form of government[1]:p6 including the behavior of the emperor. Describing a state of unconflicting personal harmony, free-flowing spontaneity and savoir faire, it generally also more properly denotes a state of spirit or mind, and in Confucianism accords with conventional morality. Sinologist Jean François Billeter describes it as a "state of perfect knowledge of the reality of the situation, perfect efficaciousness and the realization of a perfect economy of energy", which in practice Edward Slingerland qualifies as a "set of ("transformed") dispositions (including physical bearing)... conforming with the normative order."[1]:p7


Sinologist Herrlee Creel considers wu wei, as found in the Tao Te Ching and Zhuangzi, to denote two different things.

  1. An "attitude of genuine non-action, motivated by a lack of desire to participate in human affairs" and
  2. A "technique by means which the one who practices it may gain enhanced control of human affairs."

The first is quite in line with the contemplative Taoism of the Zhuangzi. Described as a source of serenity in Taoist thought, only rarely do Taoist texts suggest that ordinary people could gain political power through wu wei. The Zhuangzi does not seem to indicate a definitive philosophical idea, simply that the sage "does not occupy himself with the affairs of the world."

The second sense appears to have been imported from the earlier governmental thought of "Legalist" Shen Buhai (400 BC – c. 337 BC) as Taoists became more interested in the exercise of power by the ruler.[2] Called "rule by non-activity" and strongly advocated by Han Fei, during the Han dynasty, up until the reign of Han Wudi rulers confined their activity "chiefly to the appointment and dismissal of his high officials", a plainly "Legalist" practice inherited from the Qin dynasty.[3][4] This "conception of the ruler's role as a supreme arbiter, who keeps the essential power firmly in his grasp" while leaving details to ministers, has a "deep influence on the theory and practice of Chinese monarchy",[5] and played a "crucial role in the promotion of the autocratic tradition of the Chinese polity", ensuring the ruler's power and the stability of the polity.[6]

Only appearing three times in the first (more contemplative) half of the Zhuangzi, early Taoists may have avoided the term for its association with "Legalism" before ultimately co-opting its governmental sense as well, as attempted in the Zhuangzi's latter half. Thought by modern scholarship to have been written after the Zhuangzi, wu wei becomes a major "guiding principle for social and political pursuit"[7] in the more "purposive" Taoism of the Tao Te Ching, in which the Taoist "seeks to use his power to control and govern the world (Creel)."[8]

Confucian development[edit]

Sinologist Herrlee G. Creel believed that an important clue to the development of wu wei existed in the Analects, in a saying attributed to Confucius, which reads: "The Master said, 'Was it not Shun who did nothing and yet ruled well? What did he do? He merely corrected his person ("made himself reverant" – Edward Slingerland) and took his proper position (facing south) as ruler'". The concept of a divine king whose "magic power" (virtue) "regulates everything in the land" (Creel) pervades early Chinese philosophy, particularly "in the early branches of Quietism that developed in the fourth century B.C."[9][1]:p9

Edward Slingerland argues wu wei in this sense has to be attained. But in the Confucian conception of virtue, virtue can only be attained by not consciously trying to attain it.[1]:p6 The manifestation of Virtue is regarded as a reward by Heaven for following its will - as a power that enables them to establish this will on earth. In this, probably more original sense, wu wei may be regarded as the "skill" of "becoming a fully realized human being", a sense which it shares with Taoism. This "skill" avoids relativity through being linked to a "normative" metaphysical order, making its spontaneity "objective". By achieving a state of wu wei (and taking his proper ritual place) Shun "unifies and orders" the entire world, and finds his place in the "cosmos". Taken as a historical fact demonstrating the viable superiority of Confucianism (or Taoism, for Taoist depictions), wu wei may be understood as a strongly "realist" spiritual-religious ideal, differing from Kantian or Cartesian realism in its Chinese emphasis on practice.[1]:pp8–9

The "object" of wu wei "skill-knowledge" is the Way, which is – to an extent regardless of school – "embodying" the mind to a "normative order existing independently of the minds of the practitioners". The primary example of Confucianism – Confucius at age 70 – displays "mastery of morality" spontaneously, his inclinations being in harmony with his virtue. Confucius considers training unnecessary if one is born loving the Way, as with the disciple Yan Hui. Mencius considered that men are already good, and need only realize it not by trying, but by allowing virtue to realize itself, and coming to love the Way. Training is to come to spontaneously love the Way. Virtue is compared with the grain seed (being domesticated) and the flow of water.[1]:pp10–13,15–16 Xun Kuang considered it possible to attain wu wei only through a long and intensive traditional training.[1]:pp10–13

Taoist development[edit]

Following the development of wu wei in a political sense by Shen Buhai, and then Mencius, the Zhuangzhi and Laozi turn towards an unadorned "no effort". Laozi, as opposed to carved Confucian jade, advocates a return to the primordial Mother and to become like uncarved wood. He condemns doing and grasping, urging the reader to cognitively grasp oneness (still the mind), reduce desires and the size of the state, leaving human nature untouched. In practice, wu wei is aimed at through behaviour modification; cryptically referenced meditation and more purely physical breathing techniques as in the Guanzi (text), which includes just taking the right posture.[1]:p14

When your body is not aligned [形不正],

The inner power will not come.
When you are not tranquil within [中不靜],
Your mind will not be well ordered.
Align your body, assist the inner power [正形攝德],
Then it will gradually come on its own.[10]

Though, by still needing to make a cognitive effort, perhaps not resolving the paradox of not doing, the concentration on accomplishing wu wei through the physiological would influence later thinkers.[1]:p14 The Dao De Jing became influential in intellectual circles about 250 BCE (1999: 26-27), but, included in the 2nd century Guanzi, the likely older Neiye or Inward Training may be the oldest Chinese received text describing what would become Daoist breath meditation techniques and qi circulation, Harold D. Roth (1999: 23-25) considering it a genuine 4th-century BCE text.

When you enlarge your mind and let go of it,

When you relax your [qi 氣] vital breath and expand it,
When your body is calm and unmoving:
And you can maintain the One and discard the myriad disturbances.
You will see profit and not be enticed by it,
You will see harm and not be frightened by it.
Relaxed and unwound, yet acutely sensitive,
In solitude you delight in your own person.
This is called "revolving the vital breath":
Your thoughts and deeds seem heavenly.[11]

Verse 13 describes the aspects of shen "numen; numinous", attained through relaxed efforts.

There is a numinous [mind] naturally residing within [有神自在身];

One moment it goes, the next it comes,
And no one is able to conceive of it.
If you lose it you are inevitably disordered;
If you attain it you are inevitably well ordered.
Diligently clean out its lodging place [敬除其舍]
And its vital essence will naturally arrive [精將自來].
Still your attempts to imagine and conceive of it.
Relax your efforts to reflect on and control it.
Be reverent and diligent
And its vital essence will naturally stabilize.
Grasp it and don't let go
Then the eyes and ears won't overflow
And the mind will have nothing else to seek.
When a properly aligned mind resides within you [正心在中],
The myriad things will be seen in their proper perspective.[12]

Political development[edit]


No government has long been able to practice "doing nothing" and stay in power.[13] Unable to find his philosopher-king, Confucius placed his hope in virtuous ministers.[14] Apart from the Confucian ruler's "divine essence" (ling) "ensuring the fecundity of his people" and fertility of the soil, Creel notes that he was also assisted by "five servants", who "performed the active functions of government."[15] Xun Kuang's Xunzi, a Confucian adaptation to Qin "Legalism", defines the ruler in much the same sense, saying that the ruler "need only correct his person" because the "abilities of the ruler appear in his appointment of men to office": namely, appraising virtue and causing others to perform.

More important information lay in the recovery of the fragments of administrator (aka "Legalist") Shen Buhai. Shen references Yao as using Fa (administrative method) in the selection and evaluation of men.[16] Though not a conclusive argument against proto-Taoist influence, Shen's Taoist terms do not show evidence of Taoist usage (Confucianism also uses terms like "Tao", meaning the "Tao", or "Way" of government), lacking any metaphysical connotation.[17] The later "Legalist" book, the Han Feizi has a commentary on the Tao Te Ching, but references Shen Buhai rather than Laozi for this usage.[18]

Shen is attributed the dictum "The Sage ruler relies on method and does not rely on wisdom; he relies on technique, not on persuasions",[19] and used the term wu wei to mean that the ruler, though vigilant, should not interfere with the duties of his ministers, saying "One who has the right way of government does not perform the functions of the five (aka various) officials, and yet is the master of the government".[20][21]

Since the bulk of both the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi appear to have been composed later, Creel argued that it may therefore be assumed that Shen influenced them,[22][21] much of both appearing to be counter-arguments against "Legalist" controls.[23] The thirteenth chapter of the Zhuangzi, "T'ien Tao", seems to follow Shen Buhai down to the detail, saying "Superiors must be without action in-order to control the world; inferiors must be active in-order to be employed in the world's business..." and to paraphrase, that foundation and principle are the responsibility of the superior, superstructure and details that of the minister, but then goes on to attack Shen's administrative details as non-essential.[24]

Elsewhere the Zhuangzi references another "Legalist", Shen Dao, as impartial and lacking selfishness, his "great way embracing all things".[25]

Non-action by the ruler[edit]

Zhaoming Mirror frame, Western Han dynasty

Shen Buhai argued that if the government were organized and supervised relying on proper method (Fa), the ruler need do little – and must do little.[26][27] Apparently paraphrasing the Analects, Shen did not consider the relationship between ruler and minister antagonistic necessarily,[28] but still believed that the ruler's most able ministers his greatest danger,[29] and is convinced that it is impossible to make them loyal without techniques.[30] Sinologist Herrlee G. Creel explains: "The ruler's subjects are so numerous, and so on alert to discover his weaknesses and get the better of him, that it is hopeless for him alone as one man to try to learn their characteristics and control them by his knowledge... the ruler must refrain from taking the initiative, and from making himself conspicuous – and therefore vulnerable – by taking any overt action."[31]

Emphasizing the use of administrative methods (Fa) in secrecy, Shen Buhai portrays the ruler as putting up a front to hide his weaknesses and dependence on his advisers.[32] Shen therefore advises the ruler to keep his own counsel, hide his motivations, and conceal his tracks in inaction, availing himself of an appearance of stupidity and insufficiency.[33][34] Shen says:

If the ruler's intelligence is displayed, men will prepare against it; if his lack of intelligence is displayed, they will delude him. If his wisdom is displayed, men will gloss over (their faults); if his lack of wisdom is displayed, they will hide from him. If his lack of desires is displayed, men will spy out his true desires; if his desires are displayed, they will tempt him. Therefore (the intelligent ruler) says 'I cannot know them; it is only by means of non-action that I control them.'[35][36]

Acting through administrative method (Fa), the ruler conceals his intentions, likes and dislikes, skills and opinions. Not acting himself, he can avoid being manipulated.[21] The ruler plays no active role in governmental functions. He should not use his talent even if he has it. Not using his own skills, he is better able to secure the services of capable functionaries. Creel argues that not getting involved in details allowed Shen's ruler to "truly rule", because it leaves him free to supervise the government without interfering, maintaining his perspective.[37][38] Seeing and hearing independently, the ruler is able to make decisions independently, and is, Shen says, able to rule the world thereby.[39]

The ruler is like a mirror, reflecting light, doing nothing, and yet, beauty and ugliness present themselves; (or like) a scale establishing equilibrium, doing nothing, and yet causing lightness and heaviness to discover themselves. (Administrative) method (Fa) is complete acquiescence. (Merging his) personal (concerns) with the public (weal), he does not act. He does not act, and yet the world itself is complete.

— Shen Buhai[40]

This wu wei (or nonaction) might be said to end up the political theory of the "Legalists" , if not becoming their general term for political strategy, playing a "crucial role in the promotion of the autocratic tradition of the Chinese polity." The (qualified) non-action of the ruler ensures his power and the stability of the polity.[41]

Non-action in statecraft[edit]

"The Way of Listening is to be giddy as though soused. Be dumber and dumber. Let others deploy themselves, and accordingly I shall know them."
Right and wrong whirl around him like spokes on a wheel, but the sovereign does not complot. Emptiness, stillness, non-action—these are the characteristics of the Way. By checking and comparing how it accords with reality, [one ascertains] the "performance" of an enterprise.[42][43]
Han Fei
Detail of The Spinning Wheel, by Chinese artist Wang Juzheng, Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279)[44]

Shen Buhai insisted that the ruler must be fully informed of the state of his realm, but couldn't afford to get caught up in details and in an ideal situation need listen to no one. Listening to his courtiers might interfere with promotions, and he does not, as Sinologist Herrlee G. Creel says, have the time to do so. The way to see and hear independently is the grouping together of particulars into categories using mechanical or operational method (Fa). On the contrary the ruler's eyes and hears will make him "deaf and blind" (unable to obtain accurate information).[45][46][47][48] Seeing and hearing independently, the ruler is able to make decisions independently, and is, Shen says, able to rule the world thereby.[49]

Despite this, Shen's method of appointment, "Ming-shih", advises a particular method for listening to petitioners in the final analyses, which would be articulated as Xing-Ming by Han Fei. In the Han Dynasty secretaries of government who had charge of the records of decisions in criminal matters were called Xing-Ming, which Sima Qian (145 or 135 – 86 BC) and Liu Xiang (77–6 BC) attributed to the doctrine of Shen Buhai (400 – c. 337 BC). Liu Xiang goes as far as to define Shen Buhai's doctrine as Xing-Ming.[50][51][52] Rather than having to look for "good" men, ming-shih or xing-ming can seek the right man for a particular post by comparing his reputation with real conduct (xing "form" or shih "reality"), though doing so implies a total organizational knowledge of the regime.[53][54][55]

More simply though, one can allow ministers to "name" themselves through accounts of specific cost and time frame, leaving their definition to competing ministers. Claims or utterances "bind the speaker to the realization a job (Makeham)". This was the doctrine, with subtle differences, favoured by Han Fei. Favoring exactness, it combats the tendency to promise too much.[56][57][58] The correct articulation of Ming ("name", "speech", "title") is considered crucial to the realization of projects.[59][60]

Shen resolved hair-splitting litigation through wu wei, or not getting involved, making an official's words his own responsibility.[61] Shen Buhai says, "The ruler controls the policy, the ministers manage affairs. To speak ten times and ten times be right, to act a hundred times and a hundred times succeed – this is the business of one who serves another as minister; it is the not the way to rule."[62] The correlation between wu wei and ming-shih likely informed the Taoist conception of the formless Tao that "gives rise to the ten thousand things."[63]

Yin (passive mindfulness)[edit]

Adherence to the use of technique in governing requires the ruler not engage in any interference or subjective consideration.[64] Sinologist John Makeham explains: "assessing words and deeds requires the ruler's dispassionate attention; (yin is) the skill or technique of making one's mind a tabula rasa, non-committaly taking note of all the details of a man's claims and then objectively comparing his achievements of the original claims."[65]

A commentary to the Shiji cites a now-lost book as quoting Shen Buhai saying: "By employing (yin), 'passive mindfulness', in overseeing and keeping account of his vassals, accountability is deeply engraved." The Guanzi similarly says: "Yin is the way of non-action. Yin is neither to add to nor to detract from anything. To give something a name strictly on the basis of its form – this is the Method of yin."[66][67] Yin also aimed at concealing the ruler's intentions, likes and opinions.[68]

Shen Dao[edit]

Shen Dao espouses an impersonal administration in much the same sense as Shen Buhai, and argued for wu wei, or the non action of the ruler, along the same lines, saying

The Dao of ruler and ministers is that the ministers labour themselves with tasks while the prince has no task; the prince is relaxed and happy while the ministers bear responsibility for tasks. The ministers use all their intelligence and strength to perform his job satisfactorily, in which the ruler takes no part, but merely waits for the job to be finished. As a result, every task is taken care of. The correct way of government is thus.[69][70]

Shen Dao eschews appointment by interview in favour of a mechanical distribution apportioning every person according to their achievement.[71][72] Linking administrative methods or standards to the notion of impartial objectivity associated with universal interest, and reframing the language of the old ritual order to fit a universal, imperial and highly bureaucratized state,[73] Shen cautions the ruler against relying on his own personal judgment,[74] contrasting personal opinions with the merit of the objective standard as preventing personal judgements or opinions from being exercised. Personal opinions destroy standards, and Shen Dao's ruler therefore "does not show favoritism toward a single person."[73]

When an enlightened ruler establishes [gong] ("duke" or "public interest"), [private] desires do not oppose the correct timing [of things], favoritism does not violate the law, nobility does not trump the rules, salary does not exceed [that which is due] one's position, a [single] officer does not occupy multiple offices, and a [single] craftsman does not take up multiple lines of work... [Such a ruler] neither overworked his heart-mind with knowledge nor exhausted himself with self-interest (si), but, rather, depended on laws and methods for settling matters of order and disorder, rewards and punishments for deciding on matters of right and wrong, and weights and balances for resolving issues of heavy or light...[73]

The reason why those who apportion horses use ce-lots, and those who apportion fields use gou-lots, is not that they take ce and gou-lots to be superior to human wisdom, but that one may eliminate private interest and stop resentment by these means. Thus it is said: 'When the great lord relies on fa and does not act personally, affairs are judged in accordance with (objective) method (fa).' The benefit of fa is that each person meets his reward or punishment according to his due, and there are no further expectations of the lord. Thus resentment does not arise and superiors and inferiors are in harmony.

If the lord of men abandons method (Fa) and governs with his own person, then penalties and rewards, seizures and grants, will all emerge from the lord's mind. If this is the case, then those who receive rewards, even if these are commensurate, will ceaselessly expect more; those who receive punishment, even if these are commensurate, will endlessly expect more lenient treatment... people will be rewarded differently for the same merit and punished differently for the same fault. Resentment arises from this."[75][76][77]

Han Fei[edit]

Devoting the entirety of Chapter 14, "How to Love the Ministers", to "persuading the ruler to be ruthless to his ministers", Han Fei's enlightened ruler strikes terror into his ministers by doing nothing (wu wei). The qualities of a ruler, his "mental power, moral excellence and physical prowess" are irrelevant. He discards his private reason and morality, and shows no personal feelings. What is important is his method of government. Fa (administrative standards) require no perfection on the part of the ruler.[78]

Han Fei's use of wu wei may have been derivative of Taoism, but its Tao emphasizes autocracy ("Tao does not identify with anything but itself, the ruler does not identify with the ministers"). Sinologists like Randall P. Peerenboom argue that Han Fei's Shu (technique) is arguably more of a "practical principle of political control" than any state of mind.[79][80] Han Fei nonetheless begins by advising the ruler to remain "empty and still":

Tao is the beginning of the myriad things, the standard of right and wrong. That being so, the intelligent ruler, by holding to the beginning, knows the source of everything, and, by keeping to the standard, knows the origin of good and evil. Therefore, by virtue of resting empty and reposed, he waits for the course of nature to enforce itself so that all names will be defined of themselves and all affairs will be settled of themselves. Empty, he knows the essence of fullness: reposed, he becomes the corrector of motion. Who utters a word creates himself a name; who has an affair creates himself a form. Compare forms and names and see if they are identical. Then the ruler will find nothing to worry about as everything is reduced to its reality.


Tao exists in invisibility; its function, in unintelligibility. Be empty and reposed and have nothing to do-Then from the dark see defects in the light. See but never be seen. Hear but never be heard. Know but never be known. If you hear any word uttered, do not change it nor move it but compare it with the deed and see if word and deed coincide with each other. Place every official with a censor. Do not let them speak to each other. Then everything will be exerted to the utmost. Cover tracks and conceal sources. Then the ministers cannot trace origins. Leave your wisdom and cease your ability. Then your subordinates cannot guess at your limitations.[81][82][83][84][85][86]

Han Fei's commentary on the Tao Te Ching asserts that perspectiveless knowledge – an absolute point of view – is possible, though the chapter may have been one of his earlier writings.[87]

Han dynasty[edit]

"Legalism" dominated the intellectual life of the Qin and early Han together with Taoism. Early Han dynasty Emperors like Emperor Jing (r. 157–141 BCE) would be steeped in a Taoistic laissez-faire.[88] But Shen Buhai's book would be widely studied even from the beginning of the Han era.[89] Jia Yi's (200–168 AD) Hsin-shu, undoubtedly influenced by the "Legalists", describes Shen Buhai's techniques as methods of applying the Tao, or virtue, bringing together Confucian and Taoist discourses under the imagery of the Zhuangzi.[84]:pp49,65 Many later texts, for instance in Huang-Lao, use similar images to describe the quiescent attitude of the ruler.[84]:p55

The Huang-Lao text Huainanzi (Western Han Dynasty 206 B.C. – 9 A.D.), arguing against Legalist centralization, would go on to include naturalist arguments in favour of rule by worthies on the basis that one needs their competence for such things as diplomacy, and defines wu wei as follows: "What is meant ... by wu-wei is that no personal prejudice [private or public will,] interferes with the universal Tao [the laws of things], and that no desires and obsessions lead the true course ... astray. Reason must guide action in order that power may be exercised according to the intrinsic properties and natural trends of things."[90]

The Huang–Lao text Jing fa says

The right way to understand all these (things) is to remain in a state of [vacuity,] formlessness and non-being. Only if one remains in such a state, may he thereby know that (all things) necessarily possess their forms and names as soon as they come into existence, even though they are as small as autumn down. As soon as forms and names are established, the distinction between black and white becomes manifest... there will be no way to escape from them without a trace or to hide them from regulation... [all things] will correct themselves.[91]

Further Taoist usage[edit]

In the Taoist texts, wu wei ( ) is often associated with water and its yielding nature. In illustration, it can assume any form or shape it inhabits.

Wu may be translated as not have or without; Wei may be translated as do, act, serve as, govern or effort. The literal meaning of wu wei is "without action", "without effort", or "without control", and is often included in the paradox wei wu wei: "action without action" or "effortless doing". The practice of wu wei and the efficacy of wei wu wei are fundamental tenets in Chinese thought and have been mostly emphasized by the Taoist school. One cannot actively pursue wu wei. It manifests as a result of cultivation. The Tao is a guide.

There is another less commonly referenced sense of wu wei; "action that does not involve struggle or excessive effort". In this instance, wu means "without" and Wei means "effort". The concept of "effortless action" is a part of Taoist Internal martial arts such as T'ai chi ch'uan, Baguazhang and Xing Yi. It follows that wu wei complies with the distinguishing feature of Taoism, that of being natural.

In Zen Calligraphy, wu wei has been represented as an ensō (circle); in China, the calligraphic inscriptions of the words wu wei themselves resonate with old Taoist stories.[clarification needed]

Several chapters of the most important Taoist text, the Tao Te Ching, attributed to Laozi, allude to "diminishing doing" or "diminishing will" as the key aspect of the sage's success. Taoist philosophy recognizes that the Universe already works harmoniously according to its own ways; as a person exerts their will against or upon the world they disrupt the harmony that already exists. This is not to say that a person should not exert agency and will. Rather, it is how one acts in relation to the natural processes already existent. The how, the Tao of intention and motivation, that is key.

Related translation from the Tao Tê Ching by Priya Hemenway, Chapter II:

The Sage is occupied with the unspoken
and acts without effort.
Teaching without verbosity,
producing without possessing,
creating without regard to result,
claiming nothing,
the Sage has nothing to lose.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Edward Slingerland (2007). Effortless Action: Wu-wei As Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China. https://books.google.com/books?id=gSReaja3V3IC
  2. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 73-78 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA73
  3. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 99 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA99
  4. ^ Pan Ku. trans. Homer Dubs, The History of the Former Han Dynasty
  5. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 99 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA99
  6. ^ Xuezhi Go, 2002. p. 198 The Ideal Chinese Political Leader. https://books.google.com/books?id=6vG-MROnr7IC&pg=PA198
  7. ^ Xuezhi Guo 2001, p.84 The Ideal Chinese Political Leader. https://books.google.com/books?id=6vG-MROnr7IC&pg=PA142
  8. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 73-78 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA73
  9. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 58. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA58
  10. ^ Verse 11, tr. Roth 1999: 66
  11. ^ 24, tr. Roth 1999:92
  12. ^ tr. Roth 1999: 70
  13. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 48. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA48
  14. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 59. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA59
  15. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 58. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA58
  16. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 64. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA64
  17. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 62-63
  18. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 69. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA69
  19. ^ Paul R. Goldin p.93. Studies in Early Chinese Philosophy. Insidious Syncretism in the Political Philosophy of Huainanzi. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1wn0qtj.10 JSTOR
  20. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 48 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA48, 62–63 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA62
  21. ^ a b c S. Y. Hsieh, 1995. p.92 Chinese Thought: An Introduction https://books.google.com/books?id=-E5LZeR7QKwC&pg=PA92
  22. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 48. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA48, 62-63 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA62
  23. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 69. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA69
  24. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 71. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA71
  25. ^ Antonio S. Cua 2003 p.362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy
  26. ^ Creel 1970 p.69,99. What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA69
  27. ^ Creel, 1974 p.66. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  28. ^ R. P. Peerenboom 1993 p.241. Law and Morality in Ancient China. https://books.google.com/books?id=ctWt6bvFaNAC&pg=PA241
  29. ^ Creel, 1974 p.35 Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  30. ^ Xuezhi Go, 2002. p.143 The Ideal Chinese Political Leader.
  31. ^ Creel 1970 p.67. What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA67
  32. ^ Karyn Lai 2017. p.171. An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=3M1WDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA171
  33. ^ Creel 1970 p.67 What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA72
  34. ^ Creel, 1974 p.35. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  35. ^ Creel 1970 p.66. What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA66
  36. ^ Huang Kejian 2016 p.185. From Destiny to Dao: A Survey of Pre-Qin Philosophy in China. https://books.google.com/books?id=bATIDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA185
  37. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 65-66. https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA65
  38. ^ Xuezhi Go, 2002. p.198 The Ideal Chinese Political Leader
  39. ^ Creel, 1974 p.26. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  40. ^ Creel 1970 p.64 What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA64
  41. ^ Xuezhi Go, 2002. p.198 The Ideal Chinese Political Leader.
  42. ^ Paul R. Goldin 2013. p. 10. Introduction: Han Fei and the Han Feizi. https://www.sas.upenn.edu/ealc/system/files/bio/%5Buser-raw%5D/papers/Introduction.pdf
  43. ^ Chen Qiyou 2000: 2.8.156
  44. ^ Deng, Yingke and Pingxing Wang. (2005). Ancient Chinese Inventions. 五洲传播出版社. ISBN 7-5085-0837-8. Page 48.
  45. ^ Creel 1970 p. 81. What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA81
  46. ^ Creel, 1974 pp. 33, 68–69. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  47. ^ A. C. Graham 1989. p. 283. Disputers of the Tao. https://books.google.com/books?id=QBzyCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA283
  48. ^ http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Shen%20Bu%20Hai.htm
  49. ^ Creel, 1974 p. 26. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  50. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 72, 80, 103–104
  51. ^ Creel, 1959 pp. 199–200. The Meaning of Hsing-Ming. Studia Serica: Sinological studies dedicated to Bernhard Kalgren
  52. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) pp. 91–92. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  53. ^ Creel, 1974 p. 57 Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  54. ^ Creel 1970 p.83. What Is Taoism? https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA65
  55. ^ Creel, 1959 p. 203. The Meaning of Hsing-Ming. Studia Serica: Sinological studies dedicated to Bernhard Kalgren
  56. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) p. 91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  57. ^ Mark Edward Lewis, 1999 p. 33, Writing and Authority in Early China
  58. ^ Paul R. Goldin 2013. p. 9. Introduction: Han Fei and the Han Feizi. https://www.sas.upenn.edu/ealc/system/files/bio/%5Buser-raw%5D/papers/Introduction.pdf
  59. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) p. 91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  60. ^ John Makeham 1994 p. 67. Name and Actuality in Early Chinese Thought. https://books.google.com/books?id=GId_ASbEI2YC&pg=PA67
  61. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) p. 91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  62. ^ Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 65
  63. ^ Julia Ching, R. W. L. Guisso. 1991. pp. 75,119. Sages and Filial Sons. https://books.google.com/books?id=ynfrlFZcUG8C&pg=PA75
  64. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) pp. 90-91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  65. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) pp. 90-91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  66. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) pp. 90-91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  67. ^ John Makeham 1994 p. 69. Name and Actuality in Early Chinese Thought. https://books.google.com/books?id=GId_ASbEI2YC&pg=PA69
  68. ^ Makeham, J. (1990) pp. 90-91. The Legalist Concept of Hsing-Ming: An Example of the Contribution of Archaeological Evidence to the Re-Interpretation of Transmitted Texts. Monumenta Serica, 39, 87–114. JSTOR 40726902
  69. ^ L.K. Chen and H.C.W Sung 2015 p.251 Dao Companion to Daoist Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=L24aBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA251
  70. ^ Emerson. Shen Dao: Text and Translation
  71. ^ John Knoblock 1990. p.172. Xunzi: Books 7-16. https://books.google.com/books?id=DNqmAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA172
  72. ^ Masayuki Sato 2003. p.122,126,133-136. The Confucian Quest for Order. https://books.google.com/books?id=FXJuJl5XTqAC&pg=PA134
  73. ^ a b c Erica Brindley, The Polarization of the Concepts Si (Private Interest) and Gong (Public Interest) in Early Chinese Thought. pp. 6, 8, 12–13, 16, 19, 21–22, 24, 27
  74. ^ Shen Dao's Own Voice, 2011. p. 202. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011
  75. ^ Paul R. Goldin, Persistent Misconceptions about Chinese Legalism. p.8-9 https://www.academia.edu/24999390/Persistent_Misconceptions_about_Chinese_Legalism_
  76. ^ Masayuki Sato 2003. p.129. The Confucian Quest for Order. https://books.google.com/books?id=FXJuJl5XTqAC&pg=PA129
  77. ^ Soon-Ja Yang 2013 p.50. Shen Dao's Theory of fa and His Influence on Han Fei. Dao Companion to the Han Feizi. https://books.google.com/books?id=l25hjMyCfnEC&pg=PA50
  78. ^ Ellen Marie Chen, 1975 pp. 2,4, 6–9 Reason and Nature in the Han Fei-Tzu, Journal of Chinese Philosophy Volume 2.
  79. ^ Xing Lu 1998. Rhetoric in Ancient China, Fifth to Third Century, B.C.E.. p. 264. https://books.google.com/books?id=72QURrAppzkC&pg=PA264
  80. ^ Roger T. Ames 1983. p. 50. The Art of Rulership. https://books.google.com/books?id=OkTurZP__qAC&pg=PA50
  81. ^ "Chapter V. The Tao of the Sovereign". The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
  82. ^ HanFei, "The Way of the Ruler", Watson, p. 16
  83. ^ Han Fei-tzu, chapter 5 [Han Fei-tzu chi-chieh 1), p. 18; cf. Burton Watson, Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964)
  84. ^ a b c Mark Csikszentmihalyi. Chia I's "Techniques of the Tao" and the Han Confucian Appropriation of Technical Discourse. Asia Major, Third Series, Vol. 10, No. 1/2 (1997), pp. 49-67 https://www.jstor.org/stable/41645528
  85. ^ Huang Kejian 2016 pp. 186–187. From Destiny to Dao: A Survey of Pre-Qin Philosophy in China. https://books.google.com/books?id=bATIDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA186
  86. ^ Lim Xiao Wei, Grace. 2005. Law and Morality in the Han Fei Zi, p. 18
  87. ^ Chad Hansen, 1992 p. 371 A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought https://books.google.com/books?id=nzHmobC0ThsC&pg=PA371
  88. ^ Hansen, Chad, "Daoism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/daoism/
  89. ^ Creel, 1974 p.35. Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C.
  90. ^ John M. Hobson, The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Cambridge 2004), p. 190.
  91. ^ L.K. Chen and H.C.W Sung 2015 p. 253 Dao Companion to Daoist Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=L24aBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA253

External links[edit]