1860 in science
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|List of years in science (table)|
|... 1850 . 1851 . 1852 . 1853 . 1854 . 1855 . 1856 ...
1857 1858 1859 -1860- 1861 1862 1863
... 1864 . 1865 . 1866 . 1867 . 1868 . 1869 . 1870 ...
|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- July 18 – Total solar eclipse. Warren De La Rue's photographs of this event, taken in Spain, together with those of Angelo Secchi, demonstrate the solar character of the prominences or red flames seen around the limb of the moon during such an eclipse.
- June 30 – Debate about evolution at the new Oxford University Museum of Natural History.
- John Curtis publishes Farm Insects, being the natural history and economy of the insects injurious to the field crops of Great Britain and Ireland... with suggestions for their destruction in Glasgow.
- Joseph Dalton Hooker concludes publication of The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror ... 1839–1843 with issue of the final part of Flora Tasmaniae in London.
- September 3–5 – Karlsruhe Congress, the first international meeting of chemists.
- Marcellin Berthelot rediscovers and names acetylene.
- Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, using their newly improved spectroscope, discover and name caesium in mineral water from Bad Dürkheim, Germany.
- Stanislao Cannizzaro, resurrecting Avogadro's ideas regarding diatomic molecules, compiles a table of atomic weights and presents it at the 1860 Karlsruhe Congress, ending decades of conflicting atomic weights and molecular formulas, and leading to Mendeleev's discovery of the periodic law.
- Albert Niemann makes a detailed analysis of the coca leaf, isolating and purifying the crystalline alkaloid which he calls cocaine.
- July 9 – The Nightingale Training School and Home for Nurses, the first nursing school based on the ideas of Florence Nightingale, is opened at St Thomas' Hospital in London.
- Gustav Fechner publishes Elemente der Psychophysik, establishing the discipline of psychophysics and introducing the Weber–Fechner law on the intensity of stimuli.
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- April 9 – Earliest known decipherable sound recording of the human voice, a phonautogram, produced by Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. Playback is impossible at this time.
- December 29 – Launch of HMS Warrior by the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company, the first all-iron warship, for the first time combining steam engines delivering high speed, rifled breech-loading guns, iron frames and armoured cladding, and the propeller, in the largest naval ship built to this date.
- February 29 – Herman Hollerith (died 1929), American statistician, punched card data processing inventor.
- May 2
- May 25 – James McKeen Cattell (died 1944), American psychologist.
- January 27 – János Bolyai (born 1802), mathematician.
- January 27 – Thomas Brisbane (born 1773), astronomer.
- June 29 – Thomas Addison (born 1793), physician and scientist.
- July 1 – Charles Goodyear (born 1800), inventor of the vulcanization process.
- Bakerian Lecture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London) 152 pp. 333–416.
- Sampson, F. Bruce (1985). "Botany of the Antarctic Voyage". Early New Zealand Botanical Art. Auckland: Reed Methuen. p. 76. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. XIII. Some spectroscopic discoveries". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1413–1434. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1413W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1413. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- Eric R. Scerri,The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Niemann, Albert. On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves ("Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern", published version of Ph.D. dissertation); "Ueber eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern". Archiv der Pharmazie 153 (2): 129–256. 1860. doi:10.1002/ardp.18601530202.
- Fancher, Raymond E. (1996). Pioneers of Psychology (3rd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-96994-0.
- Sheynin, Oscar (May 2004). "Fechner as a statistician". British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 57 (1): 53–72. doi:10.1348/000711004849196. PMID 15171801.
- Rosen, Jody (March 27, 2008). "Researchers Play Tune Recorded Before Edison". New York Times.
- Brownlee, Walter (1985). Warrior: the First Modern Battleship. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27579-8.
- Brownlee, Walter (1987). "HMS Warrior". Scientific American 257 (6): 130–136. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1287-130.
- Wells, John (1987). The immortal Warrior, Britain’s first and last battleship. Emsworth: Kenneth Mason. ISBN 0-85937-333-9.