1908 in science
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|Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...|
- A 40,000-year-old Neanderthal boy skeleton is found at Le Moustier in southwest France by Otto Hauser.
- If its start and end are defined using mean solar time then due to the extreme length of day variation this is the longest year of the Julian calendar or Gregorian calendar, having a duration of 31622401.38 seconds of Terrestrial Time (or ephemeris time).
- June 30 [O.S. June 17] – Tunguska event in Siberia, an explosion believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres (3–6 mi) above the Earth's surface.
- Kikunae Ikeda discovers monosodium glutamate, the chemical behind the taste of umami.
- Heike Kamerlingh Onnes liquefies helium.
- G. H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg independently formulate the Hardy–Weinberg principle which states that both allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain in equilibrium unless disturbed.
History of science
- Site of Ulugh Beg Observatory located in Samarkand by Russian archaeologist V. L. Vyatkin.
- National Technical Museum (Prague) founded.
- Ernst Zermelo axiomizes set theory, thus avoiding Cantor's contradictions.
- Josip Plemelj solves the Riemann problem about the existence of a differential equation with a given monodromic group and uses Sokhotsky-Plemelj formulae.
- Student's t-distribution published by William Sealy Gosset (anonymously).
- Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler introduces the term schizophrenia.
- Austrian American pathologist Leo Buerger gives the first accurate pathological description of Thromboangiitis obliterans ("Buerger's disease") at Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan).
- Victor Horsley and R. Clarke invents the stereotactic method.
- Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford invent the Geiger counter.
- Gustav Mie publishes the Mie solution to Maxwell's equations on the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a sphere.
- A long-distance radio message is sent from the Eiffel Tower for the first time.
- Henry Ford develops the assembly line method of automobile manufacturing and produces the first Model T automobile.
- Nobel Prizes
- January 15 – Edward Teller (died 2003), Hungarian-born physicist, inventor of the hydrogen bomb.
- January 18 – Jacob Bronowski (died 1974), Polish-born scientific polymath.
- January 22 – Lev Davidovich Landau (died 1968), Russian physicist.
- February 11 – Vivian Fuchs (died 1999), English geologist and explorer.
- May 23 – John Bardeen (died 1991), American physicist, co-inventor of the transistor. Only physicist to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics twice.
- September 2 – Nikolai Aleksandrovich Kozyrev (died 1983), Russian astronomer and astrophysicist.
- September 6 – Louis Essen (died 1997), English physicist, co-developer of the first practical atomic clock.
- October 10 – Min Chueh Chang (died 1991), Chinese-born embryologist.
- October 21 – Elsie Widdowson (died 2000), English nutritionist.
- November 4 – Józef Rotblat (died 2005), Polish-born physicist.
- January 3 – Charles Augustus Young (born 1834), astronomer.
- August 25 – Henri Becquerel (born 1852), physicist.
- Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.; Whitrow, G. J. (1984). "Long-Term Changes in the Rotation of the Earth: 700 B.C. to A.D. 1980" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (London) 313 (1524): 47–70. Bibcode:1984RSPTA.313...47S. doi:10.1098/rsta.1984.0082. ISSN 0080-4614. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- Pasechnik, I. P. (1986). "Refinement of the moment of explosion of the Tunguska meteorite from the seismic data". Cosmic Matter and the Earth (in Russian). Novosibirsk: Nauka. p. 66.
- Farinella, P.; Foschini, L.; Froeschlé, Ch.; Gonczi, R.; Jopek, T. J.; Longo, G.; Michel, P. (2001). "Probable asteroidal origin of the Tunguska Cosmic Body". Astronomy & Astrophysics 377: 1081–1097. Bibcode:2001A&A...377.1081F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011054. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
- Trayner, Chris (1994). "Perplexities of the Tunguska Meteorite". The Observatory 114: 227–231. Bibcode:1994Obs...114..227T. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
- "Kikunae Ikeda Sodium Glutamate". History of Industrial Property Rights. Japan Patent Office. 2002-10-07. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- 'Student' (March 1908). "The probable error of a mean". Biometrika 6 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1093/biomet/6.1.1. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
- Kuhn, R. (2004). "Eugen Bleuler's concepts of psychopathology". History of Psychiatry 15: 361–6. doi:10.1177/0957154X04044603. PMID 15386868.
- Buerger, Leo (1908). "Thrombo-angiitis obliterans: a study of the vascular lesions leading to presenile spontaneous gangrene" (PDF). The American Journal of Medical Sciences 136: 567–80. doi:10.1097/00000441-190810000-00011.
- Mie, Gustav (1908). "Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen". Annalen der Physik (Leipzig) 25: 377–445. Bibcode:1908AnP...330..377M. doi:10.1002/andp.19083300302. Retrieved 2012-01-17. English translation, American translation