Alcatraz Island

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"Alcatraz" redirects here. For the former high-security prison on the island which existed from 1934 to 1963, see Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary. For other uses, see Alcatraz (disambiguation).
Alcatraz Island
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Alcatraz Island photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, February 14, 2013
Map showing the location of Alcatraz Island
Map showing the location of Alcatraz Island
Location San Francisco Bay, California, US
Nearest city San Francisco, California
Coordinates 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.82667°N 122.423333°W / 37.82667; -122.423333Coordinates: 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.82667°N 122.423333°W / 37.82667; -122.423333[1]
Area 22 acres (8.9 ha)[2]
Established 1934 (1934)
Governing body National Park Service
Alcatraz
Alcatraz Island Flowers.jpg
The Social Hall, destroyed by fire during the Native American occupation.
Area 47 acres (19 ha)[3]
Built 1847
Architect U.S. Army, Bureau of Prisons; U.S. Army
Architectural style Mission/Spanish Revival
NRHP Reference # 76000209[3]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP June 23, 1976[3]
Designated NHL January 17, 1986[4]

Alcatraz Island is located in the San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.[2] Often referred to as "The Rock", the small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison (1868), and a federal prison from 1933 until 1963.[5] Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of aboriginal people from San Francisco who were part of a wave of Native activism across the nation with public protests through the 1970s. In 1972, Alcatraz became a national recreation area and received designation as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.

Today, the island's facilities are managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area; it is open to tours. Visitors can reach the island by ferry ride from Pier 33, near Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco. Hornblower Cruises and Events, operating under the name Alcatraz Cruises, is the official ferry provider to and from the island. Hornblower launched the nation's first hybrid propulsion ferry in 2008, the Hornblower Hybrid, which now serves the island, docking at the Alcatraz Wharf.[6]

It is home to the abandoned prison, the site of the oldest operating lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, early military fortifications, and natural features such as rock pools and a seabird colony (mostly Western Gulls, cormorants, and egrets). According to a 1971 documentary on the History of Alcatraz, the island measures 1,675 feet (511 m) by 590 feet (180 m) and is 135 feet (41 m) at highest point during mean tide.[7] However, the total area of the island is reported to be 22 acres (8.9 ha).[2]

Landmarks on the island include the Main Cellhouse, Dining Hall, Library, Lighthouse, the ruins of the Warden's House and Officers Club, Parade Grounds, Building 64, Water Tower, New Industries Building, Model Industries Building, and the Recreation Yard.

History[edit]

Alcatraz Island, 1895.
Alcatraz in the dawn mist, from the east. The "parade ground" is at left.
Alcatraz Island and lighthouse at sunset
The water tower and powerhouse (at right), which generated electricity for the island.
A model of Military Point Alcatraz, 1866–1868, now on display at Alcatraz Island

Native Americans kept away from the island, calling it "Evil Island" and believing it to be cursed.[7] The first Spaniard to document the island was Juan Manuel de Ayala in 1775, who charted San Francisco Bay and named one of the three islands he identified as the "La Isla de los Alcatraces," which translates as "The Island of the Pelicans,"[1][8][9][10][11][12] from the archaic Spanish alcatraz (in English: "pelican"), a loan word from Albatross. Over the years, the English version "Alcatraz" became popular and is now widely used. In August 1827, French Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly wrote "...running past Alcatraze's (Pelicans) Island...covered with a countless number of these birds. A gun fired over the feathered legions caused them to fly up in a great cloud and with a noise like a hurricane."[13] The California Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) is not known to nest on the island today. The Spanish put a few small buildings on the island, little else.[7]

Military garrison[edit]

The earliest recorded owner of the island of Alcatraz is Julian Workman, to whom it was given by Mexican governor Pio Pico in June 1846, with the understanding that Workman would build a lighthouse on it.[14] Julian Workman is the baptismal name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente and personal friend of Pio Pico. Later in 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, John C. Fremont, champion of Manifest Destiny and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5,000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple.[7][15][16][17] In 1850, President Millard Fillmore ordered that Alcatraz Island be set aside specifically as a United States military reservation,[11] for military purposes based upon the U.S. acquisition of California from Mexico following the Mexican-American War.[18] Fremont had expected a large compensation for his initiative in purchasing and securing Alcatraz Island for the U.S. government, but the U.S. government later invalidated the sale and paid Fremont nothing. Fremont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s.[16][18]

The lighthouse tower adjacent to the prison cell house

Following the acquisition of California by the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) which ended the Mexican-American War, and the onset of the California Gold Rush the following year, the U.S. Army began studying the suitability of Alcatraz Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco Bay. In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B. Tower, the United States Army Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, eventuating in Fortress Alcatraz. The island's first garrison at Camp Alcatraz, numbering about 200 soldiers and 11 cannons, arrived at the end of that year.

When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the island mounted 85 cannons (increased to 105 cannons by 1866) in casemates around its perimeter, though the small size of the garrison meant only a fraction of the guns could be used at one time. At this time it also served as the San Francisco Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Confederate sympathizers.[19] Alcatraz, built as a "heavily fortified military site on the West Coast", formed a "triangle of defense" along with Fort Point and Lime Point, and ensured security to the bay. The island was also the site of the first operational lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States.[11] Alcatraz never fired its guns offensively, though during the war it was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast.[20]

Military prison[edit]

Main article: Alcatraz Citadel

Because of its isolation from the outside by the cold, strong, hazardous currents of the waters of San Francisco Bay, Alcatraz was used to house Civil War prisoners as early as 1861.

Following the war in 1866, the army determined that the fortifications and guns were being rapidly rendered obsolete by advances in military technology. Modernization efforts, including an ambitious plan to level the entire island and construct shell-proof underground magazines and tunnels, were undertaken between 1870 and 1876 but never completed (the so-called "parade ground" on the southern tip of the island represents the extent of the flattening effort).[21] Instead, the army switched the focus of its plans for Alcatraz from coastal defense to detention, a task for which it was well suited because of its isolation. In 1867, a brick jailhouse was built (previously inmates had been kept in the basement of the guardhouse), and in 1868, Alcatraz was officially designated a long-term detention facility for military prisoners. The facility was later discontinued for POW's in 1946. Among those incarcerated at Alcatraz were Confederates caught on the West Coast,[7] and some Hopi Native American men in the 1870s.[22]

In 1898, the Spanish-American war increased the prison population from 26 to over 450, and from 1905 to 1907 it was commanded by George W. McIver. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, civilian prisoners were transferred to Alcatraz for safe confinement. On March 21, 1907, Alcatraz was officially designated as the Western U.S. Military Prison, later Pacific Branch, U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, 1915.[19] In 1909 construction began on the huge concrete main cell block, designed by Major Reuben Turner, which remains the island's dominant feature. It was completed in 1912. To accommodate the new cell block, the Citadel, a three-story barracks, was demolished down to the first floor, which was actually below ground level. The building had been constructed in an excavated pit (creating a dry "moat") to enhance its defensive potential. The first floor was then incorporated as a basement to the new cell block, giving rise to the popular legend of "dungeons" below the main cell block. The Fortress was deactivated as a military prison in October 1933 and transferred to the Bureau of Prisons.[19]

During World War I, the prison held conscientious objectors, including Philip Grosser, who wrote a pamphlet entitled Uncle Sam's Devil's Island about his experiences.[23]

Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary[edit]

An exterior view of the Alcatraz main cell block from the exercise yard.

The United States Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz was acquired by the United States Department of Justice on October 12, 1933, and the island became a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison in August 1934. Alcatraz was designed to hold prisoners who continuously caused trouble at other federal prisons.[24] At 9:40 am in the morning of August 11, 1934, the first batch of 137 prisoners arrived at Alcatraz, arriving by railroad from the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas at Santa Venetia, California, before being escorted to Alcatraz, handcuffed in high security coaches and guarded by some 60 special FBI agents, U.S. Marshals and railway security officials.[7][25] Most of the prisoners were notorious bank robbers and murderers.[7] The prison initially had a staff of 155, including the first warden James A. Johnston and associate warden J. E. Shuttleworth, both considered to be "iron men".[7] The staff were highly trained in security, but not rehabilitation.[7]

Cell 181 in Alcatraz where Al Capone was imprisoned

During the 29 years it was in use, the jail held some of the most notorious criminals in American history,[7] such as Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud (the Birdman of Alcatraz), George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Bumpy Johnson, Rafael Cancel Miranda (a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party who attacked the United States Capitol building in 1954),[26] Mickey Cohen, Arthur R. "Doc" Barker, James "Whitey" Bulger, and Alvin "Creepy" Karpis (who served more time at Alcatraz than any other inmate). It also provided housing for the Bureau of Prisons staff and their families.

During its 29 years of operation, the penitentiary claimed that no prisoner successfully escaped. A total of 36 prisoners made 14 escape attempts, two men trying twice; 23 were caught, six were shot and killed during their escape, two drowned, and five are listed as "missing and presumed drowned".[27] The most violent occurred on May 2, 1946, when a failed escape attempt by six prisoners led to the Battle of Alcatraz. On June 11, 1962, Frank Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin carried out one of the most intricate escapes ever devised.

Post-prison years[edit]

Because the penitentiary cost much more to operate than other prisons (nearly $10 per prisoner per day, as opposed to $3 per prisoner per day at Atlanta),[28] and half a century of salt water saturation had severely eroded the buildings, then Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy ordered the penitentiary closed on March 21, 1963. In addition, citizens were increasingly protesting the environmental effects of sewage released into San Francisco Bay from the approximately 250 inmates and 60 Bureau of Prisons families on the island. That year, the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, on land, opened as the replacement facility for Alcatraz.

Native American occupation[edit]

A lingering sign of the 1969–71 Native American occupation (2006 Photograph).

Alcatraz Island was occupied by Native American activists for the first time on March 8, 1964. The event was reported by, among others, the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Francisco Examiner.[citation needed]

Beginning on November 20, 1969, a group of Native Americans called United Indians of All Tribes, mostly college students from San Francisco, occupied the island to protest federal policies related to American Indians. Some of them were children of Indians who had resettled in the city as part of an urbanization program encouraged by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) from the 1930s to the 1950s. The BIA hoped to give Indians new opportunities in the cities, as many Indian reservations were isolated from job markets. A number of employees of the Bureau of Indian Affairs also occupied Alcatraz at that time, including Doris Purdy, an amateur photographer, who later produced footage of her stay on the island.[29]

The occupiers, who stayed on the island for nearly two years, demanded the island's facilities be adapted and new structures built for an Indian education center, ecology center and cultural center. The American Indians claimed the island by provisions of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) between the U.S. and the Sioux; they said the treaty promised to return all retired, abandoned or out-of-use federal lands to the Native peoples from whom it was acquired. (Note: The Treaty of 1868 stated that all abandoned or unused federal land adjacent to the Great Sioux Reservation could be reclaimed by descendants of the Sioux Nation.) Indians of All Tribes then claimed Alcatraz Island by the "Right of Discovery", as indigenous peoples knew it thousands of years before any Europeans had come to North America. Begun by urban Indians of San Francisco, the occupation attracted other Native Americans from across the country, including American Indian Movement (AIM) urban activists from Minneapolis.

The Alcatraz cellhouse, lighthouse, and Warden's House which was burned out during the 1969-71 Native American occupation.

The Native Americans demanded reparation for the many treaties broken by the US government and for the lands which were taken from so many tribes. In discussing the Right of Discovery, the historian Troy R. Johnson states in The Occupation of Alcatraz Island, that indigenous peoples knew about Alcatraz at least 10,000 years before any European knew about any part of North America.

During the nineteen months and nine days of occupation by the American Indians, several buildings at Alcatraz were damaged or destroyed by fire, including the recreation hall, the Coast Guard quarters and the warden's home. The origin of the fires is disputed. The U.S. government demolished a number of other buildings (mostly apartments) after the occupation had ended. Graffiti from the period of Native American occupation are still visible at many locations on the island.[30]

During the occupation, President Richard Nixon rescinded the Indian termination policy, designed by earlier administrations to end federal recognition of tribes and their special relationship with the US government. He established a new policy of self-determination, in part as a result of the publicity and awareness created by the occupation. The occupation ended on June 11, 1971.[31]

In 2011 a permanent multimedia exhibit was opened on Alcatraz examining the 19-month occupation. Located in the former band practice room in a cellblock in the basement, the space serves as the cultural center the Native American occupiers requested upon their occupation. The exhibit, called "We Are Still Here," features photos, videos and sound recordings gathered by staff and students at San Francisco State University and California State University, East Bay. Curators of the exhibit interviewed descendents of occupation leader Richard Oakes, and others who participated.[32]

Landmarks[edit]

The entire Alcatraz Island was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976,[3] and was further declared a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[4][33] In 1993, the National Park Service published a plan entitled Alcatraz Development Concept and Environmental Assessment.[34] This plan, approved in 1980, doubled the amount of Alcatraz accessible to the public to enable visitors to enjoy its scenery and bird, marine, and animal life.[35]

Map of Alcatraz

Development[edit]

Today, American Indian groups, such as the International Indian Treaty Council, hold ceremonies on the island, most notably, their "Sunrise Gatherings" every Columbus Day and Thanksgiving Day.

The Global Peace Foundation proposed to raze the prison and build a peace center in its place. During the previous year, supporters collected 10,350 signatures that placed it on the presidential primary ballots in San Francisco for February 5, 2008.[36] The proposed plan was estimated at $1 billion. For the plan to pass, Congress would have to have taken Alcatraz out of the National Park Service. Critics of the plan said that Alcatraz is too rich in history to be destroyed.[37] On February 6, 2008, the Alcatraz Island Global Peace Center Proposition C failed to pass, with 72% of voters rejecting the proposition.[38]

Fauna and flora[edit]

Habitat[edit]

Brandt's Cormorant nesting on Alcatraz Island
  • Cisterns. A bluff that, because of its moist crevices, is believed to be an important site for California slender salamanders.
  • Cliff tops at the island's north end. Containing a onetime manufacturing building and a plaza, the area is listed as important to nesting and roosting birds.
  • The powerhouse area. A steep embankment where native grassland and creeping wild rye support a habitat for deer mice.
  • Tide pools. A series of them, created by long-ago quarrying activities, contains still-unidentified invertebrate species and marine algae.[citation needed] They form one of the few tide-pool complexes in the bay, according to the report.
  • Western cliffs and cliff tops. Rising to heights of nearly 100 feet (30 m), they provide nesting and roosting sites for sea birds including pigeon guillemots, cormorants, Heermann's Gulls, and Western Gulls. Harbor seals can occasionally be seen on a small beach at the base.
  • The parade grounds. Carved from the hillside during the late 19th century and covered with rubble since the government demolished guard housing in 1971, the area has become a habitat and breeding ground for black-crowned night herons, western gulls, slender salamanders, and deer mice.
  • The Agave Path, a trail named for its dense growth of agave. Located atop a shoreline bulkhead on the south side, it provides a nesting habitat for night herons.
  • Alcatraz prison and its surroundings.

Flora[edit]

Flowers on Alcatraz

Gardens planted by families of the original Army post, and later by families of the prison guards, fell into neglect after the prison closure in 1963. After 40 years, they are being restored by a paid staff member and many volunteers, thanks to funding by the Garden Conservancy and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy. The untended gardens had become severely overgrown and had developed into a nesting habitat and sanctuary for numerous birds. Now, areas of bird habitat are being preserved and protected, while many of the gardens are being restored to their original state.

In clearing out the overgrowth, workers found that many of the original plants were growing where they had been planted – some more than 100 years ago. Numerous heirloom rose hybrids, including a Welsh rose that had been believed to be extinct, have been discovered and propagated. Many species of roses, succulents, and geraniums are growing among apple and fig trees, banks of sweet peas, manicured gardens of cutting flowers, and wildly overgrown sections of native grasses with blackberry and honeysuckle.

In popular culture[edit]

Alcatraz Island appears often in media and popular culture, including films dating from 1962: The Book of Eli (2010), X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), Catch Me If You Can (2002), The Rock (1996), Murder in the First (1995), Escape from Alcatraz (1979), The Enforcer (1976), Birdman of Alcatraz (1962), and J. J. Abrams' 2012 television series Alcatraz.

It also was featured in the animated series Yu-Gi-Oh!, in the book Al Capone Does My Shirts and in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II in a downloadable zombie survival map called "Mob of the Dead". It is also featured as a playable racetrack in the 1996 arcade racing video game San Francisco Rush: Extreme Racing. Alcatraz has also been portrayed often as a safe haven or base of operations in many post-apocalyptic movies, such as The Book of Eli.

Alcatraz gets flattened by the crashing starship USS Vengeance [39] in Star Trek Into Darkness (2013).

Gallery[edit]

A panorama of Alcatraz as viewed from San Francisco Bay, facing east. Sather Tower and UC Berkeley are visible in the background on the right.
Different view of the Water Tower built in 1940. 
Alcatraz Utility House and Power Plant Chimney, built in 1939. 
School House (two story building in the middle) and the Electric Repair shop (foreground) built in the 1930's. 
Alcatraz Island view from the West. Image shot from an altitude of approximately 1800ft. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Alcatraz Island". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  2. ^ a b c "Alcatraz Island". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  3. ^ a b c d "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  4. ^ a b "Alcatraz Island". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  5. ^ Odier, Odier (1982). The Rock: A History of Alcatraz: The Fort/The Prison. L'Image Odier. ISBN 0-9611632-0-8. 
  6. ^ Waitley, Denis; Waitley, Dayna; Waitley, Deborah (25 April 1999). The psychology of winning for women. Executive Excellence Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-890009-13-7. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "This Is An Alcatraz Documentary (Part 1)". Narrated by Howard Duff. 1971. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "The March of Portolá and the Log of the San Carlos – Zoeth S. Eldredge & E. J. Molera – Log of the San Carlos". Books-about-california.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  9. ^ "The History of Alcatraz Island". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  10. ^ "History: Military Fortress". Alcatrazcruises.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  11. ^ a b c "BOP: Alcatraz". Bop.gov. Archived from the original on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  12. ^ "Alcatraz Island – History & Culture (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. 2010-03-27. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  13. ^ Auguste Duhaut-Cilly (1999). A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands, and Around the World in the Years 1826-1829. University of California Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-520-21752-2. 
  14. ^ The Rock (1915). "A Brief History of the Island of Alcatraz". The Rock (Improvement Fund, Pacific Branch United States Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz, California) 1 (January): 3. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Full text of "The expeditions of John Charles Frémont"". Archive.org. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  16. ^ a b "Famous Hauntings". Sgha.net. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  17. ^ "h2g2 – Alcatraz, San Francisco, California, USA". BBC. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  18. ^ a b "Alcatraz-World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  19. ^ a b c Hannings, Bud (March 2005). Forts of the United States: An Historical Dictionary, 16th Through 19th Centuries. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7864-1796-4. 
  20. ^ "Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island". Militarymuseum.org. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  21. ^ Alcatraz Preservation Project: Exposing the Layers of An American Landmark (pamphlet), Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, 2003.
  22. ^ "The most painful story of resistance to assimilation programs and compulsory school attendance laws involved the Hopis in Arizona, who surrendered a group of men to the military rather than voluntarily relinquish their children. The Hopi men served time in federal prison at Alcatraz". Child, Brenda J. (February 2000). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900–1940. University of Nebraska Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-8032-6405-4. 
  23. ^ Grosser, P., Block, H., Blackwell, A. S., & Berkman, A. (1933). Uncle Sam's Devil's Island: experiences of a conscientious objector in America during the World War. Boston: Published by a Group of friends. OCLC 13728108
  24. ^ Oliver, Marilyn Tower (1998). Alcatraz Prison in American HIstory. Berkley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-89490-990-8. 
  25. ^ "For Desperate or Irredeemable Types United States Federal Penitentiary Alcatraz". A History of Alcatraz Island, 1847-1972, Historic Resources Study. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  26. ^ "Former Alcatraz inmate speaks about his time", San Francisco Examiner, by D. Morita; October 9, 2009
  27. ^ "Alcatraz Escape Attempts". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  28. ^ Ocean View Publishing Company. "A Brief History of Alcatraz, p. 5". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 
  29. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1md5YYKl-9g
  30. ^ Alcatraz Island, California State University Long Beach
  31. ^ Indians of All Tribes, Alcatraz Is Not an Island, Berkeley, Wingbow Press, 1972
  32. ^ Meredith May (2011-11-21). "American Indians get permanent exhibit at Alcatraz". Bay Area & State (SFGate). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  33. ^ Stephen A. Haller (April 15, 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Alcatraz Island / La Isla de los Alcatraces / Fort Alcatraz / The Post at Alcatraz / Pacific Branch, U.S. Military Prison / U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz Island / United States Penitentiary ad Alcatraz Island" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-06-21.  and Accompanying 18 photos, exterior and interior, from 1985, 1980, and undated. PDF (4.03 MB)
  34. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20061015075505/http://www.nps.gov/archive/goga/admin/planning/alca-eis/doc/chap1.doc
  35. ^ Adams, Gerald D., Alcatraz Proposal Highlights Wildlife Plan Would Open Up More of Rock, San Francisco Examiner (July 27, 1993), News section, p. A1.
  36. ^ "Voters consider changing Alcatraz to peace center". Reuters. February 4, 2008. 
  37. ^ Locke, Michelle (2008-02-02). "LJWorld.com / Activist wants to transform Alcatraz into global peace center". .ljworld.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  38. ^ "Elections and Results | KNTV Bay Area". NBC 11. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  39. ^ USS_Vengeance

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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