|Intercommunality||Marseille Provence Métropole|
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Roland Povinelli|
|• Land1||50.3 km2 (19.4 sq mi)|
|• Population2 density||370/km2 (960/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||13002 / 13190|
|Elevation||116–721 m (381–2,365 ft)
(avg. 223 m or 732 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Allaudiens or Allaudiennes.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Politics and Administration
- 4 Population and Society
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture and heritage
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 External links
It is located 12 km north-east of Marseille, 10 km north-east of Aubagne and 35 km south of Aix-en-Provence. Access to the commune is by the D908 road from Marseille in the south-west passing through the commune and continuing north to join the D96 north of La Bouilladisse. Access to the village is by the D48 branching off the D908 and looping back as the D48A. There is also the D4A road from the 11th arrondissement in the south, and the D44G from the 12th arrondissement in the south-west.
As Allauch is located on the edge of the Marseille conurbation there are numerous urban districts located within the commune. These are:
- 405 Santo Estello
- Bon Rencontre
- Enco de Pont
- La Bourdonniere
- La Tuiliere
- Les Aubagnens
- Les Embucs
- Les Grands Louis
- Les Maurins
- Les Rampins
- Les Rascous
- Les Tourres
'Allauch Village is located on the north-eastern fringe of the Marseille conurbation with large parts of the west of the commune also forming part of this conurbation joining with Plan-de-Cuques to the west..
Allauch is separated from Mimet by the massif of l'Étoile, resulting in it being necessary to detour to Cadolive in order to go from Allauch to Mimet. Similarly it is separated from the Aubagne urban area by the Garlaban hills to the south-east. Apart from the urban area in the west of the commune, the rest is heavily forested and mountainous.
- Deficit in social housing
Each year Allauch pays about € 200,000 for missing social housing in order to reach the 20% required by the Urban Renewal Law (SRU). According to the commune however, available land is limited: of the 5,032 hectares of the commune a total of 4,000 is conservation land, 500 are already urbanized and the balance is sometimes affected by risks (flooding, collapse, fire, etc.). Recent increases in the price of land suitable for building has resulted in increasing difficulties in growing the social housing stock.
The City Council has decided that each construction project should have between 20% and 30% social housing. The first obstacle is that the commune owns little suitable land in built-up areas to build social housing (near schools, shops, services, transport, etc. to avoid creating "ghettos"). The value of the land is very high and the commune must sell land to social housing operators at well below the actual value. Furthermore the municipality must guarantee 50% of the borrowings and contribute financially up to € 20,000 per unit. The procedures are slow and it can take 3 or 4 years from the sales agreement and delivery of the first housing.
Another obstacle is that, in 2006, 108 applications for social housing (Social Housing loans) were made by the commune but only 48 were granted by the urban community to which the state has delegated its powers, while the State requires the construction of 64 units per year.
According to the Abbe Pierre Foundation for Disadvantaged Housing, of 319 housing units the commune should have built between 2002 and 2006 it has neither built nor funded any, something that Allaudiens were far from disapproving having re-elected the Povinelli list of candidates by 81.15% in the local elections in 2008.
The commune may have another opportunity to fulfil its obligation by purchasing existing housing through preemption to transform social housing.
Communications and transport
- RTM Routes
- Bus Route 144 connects the metro station at Marseille-La Rose to La Pounche, Pie d'Autry, and Allauch-Village.
- Bus Route 142/142JET/143 connect the Marseille-la-Rose metro station to Logis-Neuf, La Bourdonniere, and La Fève.
- Bus Route 7T connects the Métro-Bus-Tramway Foch-Cinq-Avenues (in the center of Marseille) to Barbaraou (Golf d'Allauch).
- Buses to the Hills
The Hills buses connect to different urban areas of Allauch at certain times:
- Route A: La Fève - le Logis-Neuf – Allauch-Village – Carlevan - Les Embus - Marseille (Les Trois Lucs), with a bus every 30 minutes from 7:00 to 9:30am and 4:30 to 7:00pm.
- Route B: Plan-de-Cuques (Rond-point des Oliviers) – Allauch-Village – Fontvieille - Carlevan, with a bus every 20 minutes from 7:00 to 9:30am and 4:30 to 7:00pm.
Detailed article: Canal de Marseille.
The Jarret is the main river in Allauch. Together with the Huveaune it was one of the only sources of water for Marseille for a long time. There are also two canals in the commune: the Canal de Provence and the Canal de Marseille, both built to supply many communes, but primarily Marseille, with drinking water and also for irrigation.
Allauch has a Mediterranean climate: precipitation is mainly in September to May with a peak in October–November and a rather wet and mild winter. The summers are hot and dry.
The table below shows the temperatures and precipitation from 1961 to 1990 for Marseille-Marignane:
Weather Data for Marseille
|Climate data for Marseille-Marignane|
|Average high °C (°F)||10.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.7
|Average low °C (°F)||2.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||47.2
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||6.5||6.0||5.5||5.3||4.9||3.5||1.6||3.0||3.6||5.8||5.1||6.0||56.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||150.0||155.5||215.1||244.8||292.5||326.2||366.4||327.4||254.3||204.5||155.5||143.3||2,835.5|
|Source: Metereological data for Marseille-Marignane from 1961 to 1990 September 2013|
One of the objects found in the Baume Sourno Cave (dark cave) may have been used as a wedding gift for the young Gyptis. The history of Marseille has a story that Marseille was born from the union of a handsome Greek sailor and the daughter of King Nann, the chief of a Ligurian tribe around the year 600 BC However, historians believe that Allauch was the chief town of a Ligurian tribe called ségobrige. The beautiful Gyptis could have been allaudienne and Marseille girl from Allauch. In Provence and in Allauch in particular people like legends.
A Coat of Arms has been bequeathed to the commune from being the seat for the Saracens: in the 10th century the Moors besieged the village. At the brink of starvation the villagers, to deceive the enemy, sent twenty loaves and their remaining spear points. The Saracens were discouraged, imagining that abundance reigned behind the walls. They broke camp. It was night and the moon was in its last quarter with three stars shone around it. So the arms of Allauch have three stars, a crescent moon, and two silver wings (arrow quills).
Under the auspices of the canons of the Cathedral de la Major Marseille, the castle was built in the 12th century. There remains a postern, some ramparts, and Our Lady of the Castle which was built in 1148 . The pride of Allauch, it is still a place of worship and pilgrimage. The canons remained the Spiritual and Temporal Lords for nearly seven centuries until the French Revolution. They attracted a new population seeking land to cultivate. Then began a period of clearing the land and covering it with vineyards, olive groves, and wheat.
On the eve of the Revolution more than three-quarters of Allauch soil belonged to the peasants who worked it, about 20% by the nobles and bourgeois, and only 3% by the clergy. Throughout the 19th century Allauch declined: Agriculture and livestock stagnated as did the production of plaster and chalk extracted using traditional methods.
In contrast to the early 19th century, during the suppression of the free port of Marseille, Allauch was the scene of contraband tobacco. Probably practiced initially by only a few it soon became generalized and became the main industry of Allauch during the century ahead of the stone quarries, the plasterworks, and the bauxite deposits.
The construction of the Canal de Marseille started a recovery: running water arrived in Allauch in 1888. Then an electric tram line connecting Marseille to Plan-de-Cuques came in 1902 followed by a connection to Bourdonnière and Allauch via Pounche in 1908: it was the end of isolation and confirmation of a new prosperity to come.
In the Decree of 25 March 1966 Allauch was classed as an urban commune and today Allauch has become increasingly a residential commune.
Politics and Administration
The following table shows the share of seats on the Allauch Municipal Council:
|Extreme Left||Gilles Viallon||3||opposition|
Allauch and the quality of life
In the 1960s a study by Agam predicted population figures of 60 to 80,000 in Allauch in 2000. Today the commune has about 20,000 inhabitants. This is the result of political will of the various mayors who have never ceased to protect the hills, to restrict urbanisation, and contained demographic change.
According to the municipality, Allauch is an "art town" of greenery on the outskirts of Marseille with two-thirds of its territory consisting of hills while of the 119 communes in the department Allauch came 22nd highest for the housing tax (19.71% municipal rate in 2007) and 6th highest for the property tax (33.24% municipal rate in 2007).
The politics of the commune management of land use plan has both limited building areas in order not to distort the landscape and allowed only normal sized housing so that there would be sound economic development respecting the environment and refusing any infrastructure that denaturalises Allauch (highways, supermarkets, industries creating nuisances etc.) and saving natural areas and green belts.
There is in place a protection service for the hills with an annual budget of €350,000 (15 water tanks, 2,000 hours annually to monitor the start of any fires), clearing obligations, and reforestation.
In the vote on joining the Urban Community of Marseille Provence Métropole, Allauch commune voted against for fear of no longer having a voice regarding the land use plan. The joining of the urban community in 2000 may have reduced the decision-making powers of the commune in urban planning matters, highways, or street cleanliness by moving the decision-making centre but will perhaps achieve the construction of a school ijn Allauch.
- Vaterstetten (Germany) since 1982. A Bavarian town near Munich: twice a year the Twinning Committee exchanges guests with matching German hosts and provides accommodation with allaudienne families during visits to the region and events where the two communities meet. Each year on the last Saturday of August is the beer festival hosted by an orchestra and a Bavarian dance evening in which everyone can sing, dance and enjoy good sauerkraut. The Feast of Saint Nicolas is aimed at young people. In July a trip is organized to Vaterstetten for Allaudiens to the Christmas market in the town to sell Provençal products.
- Vico Equense (Italy) since 2004. near Naples: throughout the year Bella Italia organizes events for the Italian community in Allauch such as Italian evenings (dinner dance with live music and an Italian singer), bingo, trips (Ventimiglia, South of Italy etc.)
- Armavir (Armenia) since 2005: The AZAD association represents an important part of the Armenian community in Allauch. Its objective is to promote Armenian culture, maintain the Armenian cultural heritage (language, traditions) and organize conferences and exhibitions to know Armenia, its current problems, its future, and especially its history.
Population and Society
In 2009, the commune had 18,646 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Distribution of Age Groups
Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Allauch and Bouches-du-Rhône Department in 2009
|0 to 14 Years||17.7||15.3||19.0||16.7|
|15 to 29 Years||16.9||14.9||20.1||18.5|
|30 to 44 Years||16.0||17.8||20.3||19.7|
|45 to 59 Years||24.0||24.0||19.8||20.0|
|60 to 74 Years||17.1||16.6||13.9||14.4|
|75 to 89 Years||7.8||10.0||6.6||9.7|
- Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE.
- Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE.
|1962-1968||1968-1975||1975-1982||1982-1990||1990-1999||Demographic Evolution 1962-1999|
|Total Population Increase||1,485||1,136||2,370||2,573||2,815||10,379|
Since 1962 the death rate has overtaken the birth rate: the population grew by 10,379 people over 37 years with a net migration of 11,146 people offsetting a natural decrease of 767 inhabitants over the period.
Of the 18,943 inhabitants in 1999, 10,060 lived in the same housing as in 1990, 2,304 lived somewhere else within the commune, 5,182 lived elsewhere in the department, 277 elsewhere in the region, 842 elsewhere in France, 34 lived in the DOM-TOM and 144 were abroad.
Each school has a computer site with 10 computers, a printer, a scanner and an internet connection. The school bus is free. Nearly 1,500 meals are prepared daily in the Allauch central kitchen and transported in heated units to the schools. Each student entering Grade 2 undergoes dental screening and receives a dictionary provided by the municipality. Sports instructors and lifeguards are involved in each class so that children can engage in physical activity provided by a professional. A spectacle is offered for all kindergarten children at Christmas and elementary classes benefit from €120 per teacher to complete their library and buy CDs. Prevention sessions and training are provided by the Departmental Educational Committee for Health.
Since 1994 Allauch has had a college attended by 950 students. A laptop with internet connection is paid for by the General Council for each fourth and third level student. A system of online scores for college students allows communication between parents, teachers, and students as well as simplifying administrative work.
The parents of students and the municipality are now fighting for the implementation of a college in the commune.
Allauch is part of the Public Security District of Marseille which has the 13th highest crime rate of the 400 metropolitan districts of public safety. No details of crime in the commune or Allauch town is available.
Cultural events and festivals
Throughout the year there are many events in the commune:
- traditional festivals
- the fire of Saint-Jean concludes a week of festivities
- at Saint-Clair six pigs are roasted on the spit all night and sold at auction
- the feast of Saint-Laurent with a parade in traditional costumes
- themed fairs and markets
- Universe of Marcel Pagnol
- Old trades of Provence such as fishermen or shepherds
- wine fair and local products
- Soaps of Marseille
- exhibitions of paintings or photos.
During the night before Christmas there is a Midnight Mass and a Provençal living Nativity runs down the descent of the shepherds to the sound of fifes, tambourines, bells, and bleating.
In Summer in Allauch there is an original and diverse programme accessible to all. These take place in the majestic site of the Bastide de Fontvieille for concerts of classical music, intimate shows, etc., and in the Theatre of Nature for larger events such as ballets, plays, and musicals. They allow the public to discover talented artists and stage directors, known or unknown, local or national.
Cultural and sporting activities
Allauch has a rare Museum of Sacred Art of France with a permanent collection of international renown and offers a range of temporary exhibitions on the theme of Religion or local culture.
The commune also has five community centres that offer activities close to home such as ballet, modern jazz, hip-hop, gymnastics, martial arts, painting workshops, mosaic and sculpture, theatre, guitar or piano lessons, yoga, sports, and scholastic support courses.
The commune manages and maintains many facilities which are available to twenty sports associations: team sports, gymnastics, swimming, judo, tennis, triathlon, modern pentathlon, Tae Kwon Do, and Kick Boxing.
Every Monday, Wednesday and Friday in July and August from 8pm to 1am, young people aged 14 to 25 years can enjoy free sports facilities supervised by qualified personnel (sports trainers, BAFA facilitators, lifeguards, etc.). A minibus service is free. In the days when "Sommer Sport" is on, young people from 12–17 years old can learn new skills in sometimes unusual sports such as tree climbing, netball, or Futsal.
Every year there are: the "La Ronde Allauch" foot race, the Cyclo-Cross, and the Trail of the Green Canton.
Allauch also has a 13 hole golf course.
The Central Hospital of Allauch is a public health unit of 280 beds and places including a 30 bed Alzheimer care unit, a 25-bed nursing home, and 79 places in nursing homes to care for elderly and disabled people.
It has a total budget of 17 million Euros and more than 310 employees. 75% of patients are over 75 years old when they enter the hospital.
- Thyde Monnier (1887 - 1967), Provençal writer (La Rue Courte, Nans le berger)
- Marcel Pagnol (1895 - 1974), writer and filmmaker. As a child he spent his holidays in the Bastide Neuve in the district of Bellons which, contrary to popular belief, is in the Allauch commune. In his Souvenirs d'enfance, he located many of his adventures in the hills of Allauch such as the "Grosibou Cave", the Baume Sourne, the Escaoupres etc. Later, he would write Manon des sources in these hills. Finally he shot scenes in his film Angèle in the old town (the Terrasse du Petit-Goûter, the Rue Frédéric-Chevillon) and others in the hills of Allauch (the Gours, the Jas de Batisto).
As shown in the following table people are on average more affluent, better educated, and more skilled than the national average.
Real estate is relatively expensive with single-family homes more common than collective housing and with the percentage of homeowners being much higher than the national average. The percentage of people living alone is much lower than the national average.
|% Principle Residences||94.8%||83%|
|% Individual Houses||82%||56.8%|
|% Owner Occupied||76.1%||55.3%|
|% Households of 1 person||17.6%||31%|
|% Households of 3 persons or more||51.7%||37.9%|
|% Households without a car||9.9%||20.9%|
|% Households with 1 car||41.6%||48.8%|
|% Households with 2 cars or more||48.5%||30.3%|
|% Over 15 years old without a diploma||13.5%||20%|
|% Education at BAC+2 level or higher||20.6%||17.6%|
|% Intermediate professions||29.8%||22.1%|
|Unemployment rate (1999)||11.3%||12.9%|
|Average income per household (2004)||€21,537||€15,027|
|% Average price of apartments (2006)||3,155.05 €/m²|
|% Average price of houses (2006)||4,179 €/m²|
Source: the Internet except as noted for items from the 1999 census
Economy and tourism
In 1999 out of 7,592 Allaudiens who were employed, 1,583 worked in the commune, 5,717 in another commune in the Aix-Marseille agglomeration, and 156 in another commune in the department.
Of the 3,032 jobs in the commune, 1,449 are occupied by workers living outside the commune.
For employees in the commune 19.8% of men and 37.1% of women working full-time worked in the public service in 1999 (these rates were 14.3% and 16.5% for the nearby town of Plan-de-Cuques) reflecting more on the lack of private sector employment in the commune rather than excessive creation of staff positions.
The Business Park of Fontvieille established in 1981 is the heart of the economic life of the commune. The criterion for acceptable settlement by the council is based on respect for the living environment by installing activities which do not create a nuisance or pollution.
The main activities fall into two divisions: food (nougat, cafés) and small tech industries.
Near the Business Park the Laphal laboratory, a pharmaceutical company of international renown, provides more than 130 jobs in the commune. It has attracted many companies with complementary activities (e.g. IPP Pharma).
Allauch has over a hundred shops spread over three main urban centres: le Village, Logis Neuf, and Pounche: food, health and hygiene, home furnishings, bars, restaurants, and services. A shopping mall was recently opened in Fontvieille.
Arts and crafts also have a place especially during the Christmas market: ironwork, pottery, glassware, fabric, and figurines.
Allauch has two Gîtes de France (homestays), 9 tourist apartments, one 3 star hotel, one 2 star hotel, two 1 star hotels, a guesthouse, and a residential hotel complex. There is no municipal campsite.
The craftsmen from the commune make black and white nougat, tooth snacks (hard biscuits), the suce-miel (sucking honey) made as chewing gum has been made for a hundred years.
In January during the festival of gastronomy some fifty craftsmen and farmers hold a market: there are honey, olive oil, AOC Côtes de Provence wine, Navettes de Marseille (Provençal pastries), Tapenade, Gibassier, Calisson, and Eggplant salads and appetizers on sale.
Allauch is also known for its Santons (figurines).
Culture and heritage
Monuments and tourist sites
- Fontvieille Castle
- Ruins of Ners Castle in the Pichauris valley.
- The esplanade of windmills: five windmills on an esplanade overlooking the bay of Marseille at 228 metres above sea level. Formerly located in the heart of the village, they were moved when the construction of the church of Saint Sebastian blocked their wind.
- The Vieux Bassin: an old reservoir from the 19th century now a living cultural exhibition hall
- Saint Sebastian Church
- Saint Laurent Church of the Bourdonnière
- Notre-Dame-du-Château Chapel and its gallery organ
- Logis Neuf Synagogue
- Paintings in the Saint Sebastion Church
Young dead taken by angels from the heart of purgatory, Adolphe Monticelli, 1868
- The Museum of Allauch with symbols and sacred relics.
The Allauch Museum welcomes visitors to the heart of the old village in the former building of the town hall which has been fully rehabilitated. The museum invites a new generation to better understand the foundations of Western Christian culture.
The Massif of Garlaban which is also called the hills of Marcel Pagnol overlooks the urban area.
- Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department
- Cantons of the Bouches-du-Rhône department
- Arrondissements of the Bouches-du-Rhône department
- Henri Raybaud
Notes and references
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 , the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
- Inhabitants of Bouches-du-Rhône (French)
- Google Maps
- As at 1 January 2004 there was a shortage of 1,276 social housing units. The commune has 20 years to comply with the required 20% social housing rate and must therefore build 64 social housing units per year
- 2008 commune winners document Fondation Abbé Pierre
- although in the town there are 82% houses and only 18% apartments.
- Map of major risks, source: Académie d'Aix-Marseille (French)
- Data from the Station at Marseille-Marignane, sources:Infoclimat, INSEE and Lameteo.org
- Most of this section is sourced from the Museum of Allauch
- The story of Gyptis
- Picturesque France: Contraband Tobacco (French)
- List of Mayors of France
- Official site for the commune: lifestyle (French)
- Ministry of Finance: Direct Local Taxes 2007 (French)
- The commune declined the installation of a McDonald's
- In February 2008 on the 11th day of Reforestation, 2,000 trees were planted such as almond, hackberry, blackthorn, and arbutus
- History of the Community on Allauch.com (French).
- As part of the SRU, the Prefect may enter into an agreement with a social housing landlord if it results in the construction of social housing in the commune regardless of the policy of the commune in terms of development (normal size and quality of buildings, integrated architecture to the environment, location of buildings)
- National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
- INSEE: Demographic Evolution 1962-1999 (French)
- On the basis that the residence of children born during this period were considered to be resident with their mothers in 1990.
- INSEE migrations (French)
- 35th animated Nativity by Gilbert Orsini from Saturday, 24 November 2012 to Sunday 27 January 2013 organized by the "Memory of Clay 'Association in collaboration with the City of Allauch
- the 3rd Biennial of Contemporary Art of Allauch was held from 9 October 2009 to 14 February 2010 (from 27 September 2011 to 26 February 2012 was cancelled)
- Different urban areas in Allauch are quite distant from each other and not very well served by public transport
- Central Hospital of Allauch - Who are we? (French)
- cf. IGN Map Top-25 No. 3245ET, pli D1, or see this photo taken in the square
- Allauch on internaute.com (French)
- INSEE: Employment workplaces by sex and conditions of employment of individuals (status) (French).
- .INSEE Employment workplaces by sex and conditions of employment of individuals (conditions of employment) (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00081112 Château de Fontvieille (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00081113 Saint Sebastian Church (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00081111 Notre Dame Chapel and remains of the Castle (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM13001751 Gallery Organ (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM13000275 Gallery Organ: Instrumental part (French)
- Symbols and sacred relics (French)
- Official website (French)
- Official tourism website (French)
- (French) Territorial Service for architecture and heritage (STAP) of Bouches-du-Rhône: Allauch]
- (French) Regional Directorate of the Environment, Planning, and Housing (DREAL)
- Inventory and regulatory protection of the environment of the commune (French)
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