Arthur Compton

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Arthur Compton
Arthur Compton.jpg
Born Arthur Holly Compton
(1892-09-10)September 10, 1892
Wooster, Ohio, United States
Died March 15, 1962(1962-03-15) (aged 69)
Berkeley, California, United States
Nationality United States
Fields Physics
Institutions Washington University in St. Louis
University of Chicago
University of Minnesota
Alma mater College of Wooster
Princeton University
Doctoral advisor Hereward L. Cooke
Doctoral students Luis Walter Alvarez
Winston H. Bostick
Robert S. Shankland
Joyce A. Bearden
Known for Compton scattering
Compton wavelength
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Physics (1927)
Franklin Medal (1940)
Hughes Medal (1940)
Signature
Notes
Brother of Wilson Compton and Karl Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his discovery of the Compton effect. He is also known for his leadership of the Manhattan Project's Metallurgical Laboratory. He served as Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis from 1945 to 1953.

In 1919, Compton was awarded one of the first two National Research Council Fellowships that allowed students to study abroad. He chose to go to Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory in England, where he studied the scattering and absorption of gamma rays. Further research along these lines led to the discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation. It was a sensational discovery at the time, for the wave nature of light had been well-demonstrated, but the idea that light could have a dual nature was not easily accepted.

During World War II, Compton was a key figure in the Manhattan Project that developed the first nuclear weapons. His reports were important in launching the project. In 1942 he became head of the Metallurgical Laboratory, with responsibility for producing nuclear reactors to convert uranium into plutonium, finding ways to separate the plutonium from the uranium and to design an atomic bomb. Compton oversaw Enrico Fermi's creation of Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor, which went critical on December 2, 1942. The Metallurgical Laboratory was also responsible for the design and operation of the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Plutonium began being produced in the Hanford Site reactors in 1945.

After the war, Compton became Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis. During his time as Chancellor, the university formally desegregated its undergraduate divisions, named its first female full professor, and enrolled a record number of students as wartime veterans returned to the United States.

Early life[edit]

Arthur Compton and Werner Heisenberg in 1929 in Chicago

Arthur Compton was born in Wooster, Ohio in 1892 to Elias and Otelia Catherine (née Augspurger) Compton.[1] She was named American Mother of the Year in 1939.[2] They were an academic family. Elias was dean of the University of Wooster (later The College of Wooster), which Arthur also attended. Arthur's eldest brother, Karl, who also attended Wooster, earned a PhD in physics from Princeton University in 1912, and was president of MIT from 1930 to 1948. His second brother Wilson likewise attended Wooster, earned his PhD in economics from Princeton in 1916 and was president of the State College of Washington, later Washington State University from 1944 to 1951.[3] All three brothers were members of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity.[4]

Compton was initially interested in astronomy, and took a photograph of Halley's Comet in 1910.[5] Around 1913, Compton described an experiment where an examination of the motion of water in a circular tube demonstrated the rotation of the earth.[6] He graduated from Wooster that year with a Bachelor of Science degree. He then also entered Princeton, where he received his Master of Arts degree in 1914.[7] He then studied for his PhD in physics under the supervision of Hereward L. Cooke, writing his dissertation on "The intensity of X-ray reflection, and the distribution of the electrons in atoms".[8]

When he earned his PhD in 1916, Arthur, Karl and Wilson Compton became the first group of three brothers to earn PhDs from Princeton. Later, they would become the first three to simultaneously head American colleges.[3] They had a sister, Mary, who married a missionary, C. Herbert Rice, who became the principal of Forman Christian College in Lahore.[9] In June 1916 Compton married Betty Charity McCloskey, a Wooster classmate and fellow graduate.[9] They had two sons, Arthur Alan and John Joseph Compton.[10]

He became a physics instructor at the University of Minnesota, then spent two years a research engineer with the Westinghouse Lamp Company in Pittsburgh, where he worked on the development of the sodium-vapor lamp. During World War I he developed aircraft instrumentation for the Signal Corps.[9]

In 1919, Compton was awarded one of the first two National Research Council Fellowships that allowed students to study abroad. He chose to go to Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory in England. Working with George Paget Thomson, the son of J.J. Thomson, he studied the scattering and absorption of gamma rays.[11][12] He observed that the scattered rays were more easily absorbed than the original source.[7] Compton was greatly impressed by the Cavendish scientists, especially Ernest Rutherford, Charles Galton Darwin and Arthur Eddington, and he ultimately named his second son after J. J. Thomson.[12]

For a time Compton was a deacon at a Baptist church. "Science can have no quarrel," he said "with a religion which postulates a God to whom men are as His children."[13]

Physics professor[edit]

Arthur Holly Compton on the cover of Time Magazine on January 13, 1936 holding his cosmic ray detector

Compton returned to the United States, where he was appointed Wayman Crow Professor of Physics, and Head of the Department of Physics at Washington University in St. Louis in 1920.[7] In 1923 he moved to the University of Chicago as Professor of Physics,[7] where he would stay for the next 22 years.

Compton effect[edit]

In 1922, he found that X-ray quanta scattered by free electrons had longer wavelengths and, in accordance with Planck's relation, less energy than the incoming X-rays, the surplus energy having been transferred to the electrons.This discovery, known as the "Compton effect" or "Compton scattering", demonstrated the particle concept of electromagnetic radiation.[14][15]

In 1923, Compton published a paper in the Physical Review which explained the X-ray shift by attributing particle-like momentum to photons which Einstein had invoked the use of for his 1905 Nobel Prize–winning explanation of the photo-electric effect. First postulated by Max Planck, these conceptualized as elements of light "quantized" by containing a specific amount of energy depending only on the frequency of the light. In his paper, Compton derived the mathematical relationship between the shift in wavelength and the scattering angle of the X-rays by assuming that each scattered X-ray photon interacted with only one electron. His paper concludes by reporting on experiments which verified his derived relation:

\lambda' - \lambda = \frac{h}{m_e c}(1-\cos{\theta}),

where

\lambda is the initial wavelength,
\lambda' is the wavelength after scattering,
h is the Planck constant,
m_e is the electron rest mass,
c is the speed of light, and
\theta is the scattering angle.[15]

The quantity hmec is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron; it is equal to 2.43×10−12 m. The wavelength shift λ′λ lies between zero (for θ = 0°) and twice the Compton wavelength of the electron (for θ = 180°).[16]

Compton found that some X-rays experienced no wavelength shift despite being scattered through large angles; in each of these cases the photon failed to eject an electron. Thus the magnitude of the shift is related not to the Compton wavelength of the electron, but to the Compton wavelength of the entire atom, which can be upwards of 10,000 times smaller.[15]

Compton scattering was a sensational discovery at the time, for the wave nature of light had been well demonstrated, and the idea that it could have a dual nature was not easily accepted. It earned Compton the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927. Compton and Alfred W. Simon developed the method for observing at the same instant individual scattered X-ray photons and the recoil electrons. In Germany, Walther Bothe and Hans Geiger independently developed a similar method.[14]

X-rays[edit]

Compton at the University of Chicago in 1933 with graduate student Luis Alvarez next to his cosmic ray telescope.

In 1925 Compton demonstrated that the scattering of 130,000-volt X-rays from the first sixteen elements in the periodic table (hydrogen to sulfur) were polarized, a result predicted by J. J. Thomson. William Duane from Harvard University then spearheaded an effort to prove that Compton's interpretation of the Compton effect was wrong. Duane carried out a series of experiments to disprove Compton, but instead found evidence that Compton was correct. In 1924, Duane conceded that this was the case.[14]

Compton investigated the effect of X-rays on the sodium and chlorine nuclei in salt. He also used X-rays to investigate ferromagnetism, concluding that it was a result of the alignment of electron spins.[17] In 1926, he became a consultant for the Lamp Department at General Electric. In 1934, he returned to England as Eastman visiting professor at Oxford University. While there General Electric asked him to report on activities at General Electric Company plc's research laboratory at Wembley. Compton was intrigued by the possibilities of the research there into fluorescent lamps. His report prompted a research program in America that developed the fluorescent lamp.[18][19]

Compton's first book, X-Rays and Electrons, was published in 1926. In it he showed how to calculate the densities of diffracting materials from their X-ray diffraction patterns.[17] He revised his book with the help of Samuel K. Allison to produce X-Rays in Theory and Experiment (1935). This work remained a standard reference for the next three decades.[20]

Cosmic rays[edit]

By the early 1930s, Compton had become interested in cosmic rays. At the time, their existence was known but their origin and nature remained speculative. Their presence could be detected using a spherical "bomb" containing compressed air or argon gas and measuring its electrical conductivity. Trips to Europe, India, Mexico, Peru and Australia gave Compton the opportunity to measure cosmic rays at different altitudes and latitudes. Along with other groups who made observations around the globe, they found that cosmic rays were 15 per cent more intense at the poles than at the equator. Compton attributed this to the effect of cosmic rays being made up principally of charged particles, rather than photons as Robert Millikan had suggested, with the latitude effect being due to Earth's magnetic field.[21]

Manhattan Project[edit]

Arthur Compton's ID badge from the Hanford Site. For security reasons, he used a fake name.

In April 1941, Vannevar Bush, head of the wartime National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), created a special committee headed by Compton to report on the NDRC uranium program. Compton's report, which was submitted in May 1941, foresaw the prospects of developing radiological weapons, nuclear propulsion for ships, and nuclear weapons using uranium-235 or the recently discovered plutonium.[22] In October he wrote another report on the practicality of an atomic bomb. For this report, he worked with Enrico Fermi on calculations of the critical mass of uranium-235, conservatively estimating it to be between 20 kilograms (44 lb) and 2 tonnes (2.0 long tons; 2.2 short tons). He also discussed the prospects for uranium enrichment with Harold Urey, spoke with Eugene Wigner about how plutonium might be produced in a nuclear reactor, and with Robert Serber about how the plutonium produced in a reactor might be separated from uranium. His report, submitted in November, stated that a bomb was feasible, although he was more conservative about its destructive power than Mark Oliphant and his British colleagues.[23]

The final draft of Compton's November report made no mention of using plutonium, but after discussing the latest plutonium research with Ernest Lawrence, Compton became convinced that a plutonium bomb was also feasible. In December, Compton was placed in charge of the plutonium project.[24] He hoped to achieve a controlled chain reaction by January 1943, and to have a bomb by January 1945. To tackle the problem, he had all the different research groups working on plutonium and nuclear reactor design at Columbia University, Princeton University and the University of California, Berkeley, concentrated together as the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago. Its objectives were to produce reactors to convert uranium to plutonium, to find ways to chemically separate the plutonium from the uranium and to design a bomb.[25] In June 1942, the United States Army Corps of Engineers assumed control of the nuclear weapons program and Compton's Metallurgical Laboratory became part of the Manhattan Project.[26] That month, Compton gave Robert Oppenheimer responsibility for bomb design.[27] It fell to Compton to decide which of the different types of reactor designs that the Metallurgical Laboratory scientists had devised should be built, even though a successful reactor had not yet been built.[28]

When labor disputes delayed construction of the Metallurgical Laboratory's new home in the Red Gate Woods, Compton decided to build Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor, under the stands at Stagg Field.[29] Under Fermi's direction, it went critical on December 2, 1942.[30] Compton arranged for Mallinckrodt to undertake the purification of uranium ore,[31] and with DuPont to build the plutonium semi-works at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.[32]

A major crisis for the plutonium program occurred in July 1943, when Emilio Segrè's group confirmed that plutonium created in the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge contained high levels of plutonium-240. Its spontaneous fission ruled out the use of plutonium in a gun-type nuclear weapon. Oppenheimer's Los Alamos Laboratory met the challenge by designing and building an implosion-type nuclear weapon.[23]

Compton was at the Hanford site in September 1944 to watch the first reactor being brought online. The first batch of uranium slugs was fed into Reactor B at Hanford in November 1944, and shipments of plutonium to Los Alamos began in February 1945. [33] Throughout the war, Compton would remain a prominent scientific adviser and administrator. In 1945, he served, along with Lawrence, Oppenheimer, and Fermi, on the Scientific Panel which recommended military use of the atomic bomb against Japan.[34] He was awarded the Medal for Merit for his services to the Manhattan Project.[35]

Return to Washington University[edit]

After the war ended, Compton resigned his chair as Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago and returned to Washington University in St. Louis, where he was inaugurated as the university's ninth Chancellor in 1946.[35] During Compton's time as Chancellor, the university formally desegregated its undergraduate divisions in 1952, named its first female full professor, and enrolled a record number of students as wartime veterans returned to the United States. His reputation and connections in national scientific circles allowed him to recruit many nationally renowned scientific researchers to the university. Despite Compton's accomplishments, he was criticized then, and subsequently by historians, for moving slowly toward full racial integration, making Washington University the last major institution of higher learning in St. Louis to open its doors to African Americans.[36]

Compton retired as Chancellor in 1954, but remained on the faculty as Distinguished Service Professor of Natural Philosophy until his retirement from the full-time faculty in 1961. In retirement he wrote Atomic Quest, a personal account of his role in the Manhattan Project, which was published in 1956.[35]

Philosophy[edit]

Compton was one of a handful of scientists and philosophers to propose a two-stage model of free will. Others include William James, Henri Poincaré, Karl Popper, Henry Margenau, and Daniel Dennett.[37] In 1931, Compton championed the idea of human freedom based on quantum indeterminacy and invented the notion of amplification of microscopic quantum events to bring chance into the macroscopic world. In his somewhat bizarre mechanism, he imagined sticks of dynamite attached to his amplifier, anticipating the Schrödinger's cat paradox, which was published in 1935.[38]

Reacting to criticisms that his ideas made chance the direct cause of our actions, Compton clarified the two-stage nature of his idea in an Atlantic Monthly article in 1955. First there is a range of random possible events, then one adds a determining factor in the act of choice.

A set of known physical conditions is not adequate to specify precisely what a forthcoming event will be. These conditions, insofar as they can be known, define instead a range of possible events from among which some particular event will occur. When one exercises freedom, by his act of choice he is himself adding a factor not supplied by the physical conditions and is thus himself determining what will occur. That he does so is known only to the person himself. From the outside one can see in his act only the working of physical law. It is the inner knowledge that he is in fact doing what he intends to do that tells the actor himself that he is free.[39]

Death and legacy[edit]

Compton died in Berkeley, California, from a cerebral hemorrhage on March 15, 1962. He was survived by his wife and sons.[10] He is buried in the Wooster Cemetery in Wooster, Ohio.[40]

Compton received many awards in his lifetime, including the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927, the Matteucci Gold Medal in 1933, the Royal Society's Hughes Medal and the Franklin Institute's Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1940.[41] He is commemorated in various ways. The Compton crater on the Moon is co-named for Compton and his brother Karl.[42] The physics research building at Washington University in St Louis is named in his honor.[43] Compton invented a more gentle, elongated, and ramped version of the speed bump called a "Holly hump," many of which are on the roads of the Washington University in St. Louis campus.[44] The University of Chicago Residence Halls remembered Compton and his achievements by dedicating Arthur H. Compton House in his honor.[45] Compton also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.[46] Arthur H. Compton House in Chicago is listed as a National Historic Landmark.[47] NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was named in honor of Compton. The Compton effect is central to the gamma ray detection instruments aboard the observatory.[48]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Compton, Arthur (1926). X-Rays and Electrons: an Outline of Recent X-Ray Theory. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. OCLC 1871779. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1935). X-Rays in Theory and Experiment. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. OCLC 853654. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1935). The Freedom of Man. New Haven: Yale University Press. OCLC 5723621. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1940). The Human Meaning of Science. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. OCLC 311688. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1949). Man's Destiny in Eternity. Boston: Beacon Press. OCLC 4739240. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1956). Atomic Quest. New York: Oxford University Press. OCLC 173307. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1967). Johnston, Marjorie, ed. The Cosmos of Arthur Holly Compton. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. OCLC 953130. 
  • Compton, Arthur (1973). Shankland, Robert S., ed. Scientific Papers of Arthur Holly Compton. Chicago: University of Chicago Press;. ISBN 9780226114309. OCLC 962635. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hockey 2009.
  2. ^ "Past National Mothers of the Year". American Mothers, Inc. Retrieved July 23, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Compton 1967, p. 425.
  4. ^ "The Official History of the Beta Beta Chapter of the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity". Alpha Tau Fraternity. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  5. ^ Compton 1967, pp. 11–12.
  6. ^ Compton, A. H. (May 23, 1913). "A Laboratory Method of Demonstrating the Earth's Rotation". Science 37 (960): 803–806. Bibcode:1913Sci....37..803C. doi:10.1126/science.37.960.803. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Arthur H. Compton – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved March 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Arthur Holly Compton (1892–1962)". University of Notre Dame. Retrieved July 24, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c Allison 1965, p. 82.
  10. ^ a b Allison 1965, p. 94.
  11. ^ Allison 1965, p. 83.
  12. ^ a b Compton 1967, p. 27.
  13. ^ "Science: Cosmic Clearance". Time Magazine. January 13, 1936. 
  14. ^ a b c Allison 1965, pp. 84–86.
  15. ^ a b c Compton, Arthur H. (May 1923). "A Quantum Theory of the Scattering of X-Rays by Light Elements". Physical Review 21 (5): 483–502. Bibcode:1923PhRv...21..483C. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.21.483. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  16. ^ "The Compton wavelength of the electron". University of California Riverside. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Allison 1965, pp. 87–88.
  18. ^ Allison 1965, pp. 88–89.
  19. ^ "Eastman Professorship". The Association of American Rhodes Scholars. Retrieved July 26, 2013. 
  20. ^ Allison 1965, p. 90.
  21. ^ Compton 1967, pp. 157–163.
  22. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 36-38.
  23. ^ a b Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 46-49.
  24. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 50-51.
  25. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 54-55.
  26. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 74-75.
  27. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, p. 103.
  28. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 180-181.
  29. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 108-109.
  30. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, p. 174.
  31. ^ Allison 1965, p. 92.
  32. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 190-191.
  33. ^ Hewlett & Anderson 1962, pp. 304-310.
  34. ^ "Recommendations on the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons". nuclearfiles.org. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c Allison 1965, p. 93.
  36. ^ Pfeiffenberger, Amy M. (Winter 1989). "Democracy at Home: The Struggle to Desegregate Washington University in the Postwar Era". Gateway-Heritage (Missouri Historical Society) 10 (3): 17–24. 
  37. ^ "Two-Stage Models for Free Will". The Information Philosopher. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  38. ^ Compton, A. H. (August 14, 1931). "The Uncertainty Principle and Free Will". Science 74 (1911): 172. Bibcode:1931Sci....74..172C. doi:10.1126/science.74.1911.172. PMID 17808216. 
  39. ^ Compton 1967, p. 115.
  40. ^ "Arthur Compton". Find a Grave. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  41. ^ Allison 1965, p. 97.
  42. ^ "Compton". Tangient LLC. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  43. ^ "Arthur Holly Compton Laboratory of Physics". Washington University. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  44. ^ "Compton Speed Bumps for Traffic Control, 1953". Washington University. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Compton House". University of Chicago. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  46. ^ St. Louis Walk of Fame. "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees". stlouiswalkoffame.org. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  47. ^ "Compton, Arthur H., House". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  48. ^ "The CGRO Mission (1991 - 2000)". NASA. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]