Brian Josephson

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Brian Josephson
photograph
Born (1940-01-04) 4 January 1940 (age 74)
Cardiff, Wales
Institutions Fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge
Professor emeritus of physics, University of Cambridge
Alma mater University of Cambridge
BA, MA (1960, 1964)
PhD (1964)
Thesis Non-linear conduction in superconductors[1]
Doctoral advisor Brian Pippard
Known for Josephson effect
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1973)
Spouse Carol Anne Olivier (m. 1976; one daughter)[2]
Website
Homepage

Brian David Josephson, FRS (born 4 January 1940), is a Welsh theoretical physicist and professor emeritus of physics at the University of Cambridge.[3] Best known for his pioneering work on superconductivity and quantum tunnelling, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for his prediction of the eponymous Josephson effect, made in 1962 when he was a 22-year-old PhD student at Cambridge. He shared the prize with physicists Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever, who jointly received half the award for their own work on quantum tunnelling.[4]

Josephson has spent his academic career as a member of the Theory of Condensed Matter group at Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory. He has been a fellow of Trinity College since 1962, and served as professor of physics from 1974 until 2007.[4]

In the early 1970s he took up transcendental meditation and turned his attention to issues outside the parameters of mainstream science. He set up the Mind–Matter Unification Project at the Cavendish to explore the idea of intelligence in nature, the relationship between quantum mechanics and consciousness, and the synthesis of science and Eastern mysticism, broadly known as quantum mysticism.[5] Those interests have led him to express support for topics such as parapsychology, water memory and cold fusion, and have made him a focus of criticism from fellow scientists.[4]

Early life and career[edit]

Education[edit]

photograph
Entrance to the old Cavendish Laboratory on Free School Lane, Cambridge. Josephson has been a member of the Theory of Condensed Matter group at the Cavendish for much of his career.

Josephson was born in Cardiff, Wales, to Jewish parents, Mimi (née Weisbard, 1911–1998) and Abraham Josephson.[2] He attended Cardiff High School, where he credits some of the school masters for having helped him, particularly the physics master M. S. Jones, who introduced him to theoretical physics.[6] In 1957 he went up to Cambridge, where he read mathematics at Trinity College. After completing Maths Part II in two years, and finding it somewhat sterile, he decide to switch to physics.[7]

Josephson was known at Cambridge as a brilliant, but shy, student. Physicist John Waldram recalled overhearing Nicholas Kurti (1908–1998), an examiner from Oxford, discuss Josephson's exam results with David Shoenberg, then reader in physics at Cambridge, and asking: "Who is this chap Josephson? He seems to be going through the theory like a knife through butter."[8] While still an undergraduate, he published a paper on the Mössbauer effect, pointing out a crucial issue other researchers had overlooked. According to one eminent physicist speaking to Physics World, he wrote several papers important enough to assure him a place in the history of physics even without his discovery of the Josephson effect.[9]

He graduated in 1960 and became a research student in the university's Mond Laboratory on the old Cavendish site, where he was supervised by Brian Pippard (1920–2008).[10] American physicist Philip Anderson, also a Nobel Prize winner, spent a year in Cambridge in 1961–1962, and recalled that having Josephson in a class was "a disconcerting experience for a lecturer, I can assure you, because everything had to be right or he would come up and explain it to me after class."[11] It was during this period, as a PhD student in 1962, that he carried out the research that led to his discovery of the Josephson effect; Cambridge unveiled a plaque on the Mond Building dedicated to the discovery in November 2012.[12] He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1962, and obtained his PhD in 1964 for a thesis entitled Non-linear conduction in superconductors.[13]

Discovery of the Josephson effect[edit]

One-volt NIST Josephson junction array standard with 3020 superconducting junctions.

Josephson was 22 years old when he did the work on quantum tunnelling that won him the Nobel Prize. He discovered that a supercurrent could tunnel through a thin barrier, predicting, according to physicist Andrew Whitaker, that "at a junction of two superconductors, a current will flow even if there is no drop in voltage; that when there is a voltage drop, the current should oscillate at a frequency related to the drop in voltage; and that there is a dependence on any magnetic field."[14] This became known as the Josephson effect and the junction as a Josephson junction.[15]

His calculations were published in Physics Letters (chosen by Pippard because it was a new journal that did not charge fees for publication) in a paper entitled "Possible new effects in superconductive tunnelling," received on 8 June 1962 and published on 1 July.[16] They were confirmed by Philip Anderson and John Rowell of Bell Labs in Princeton in their paper, "Probable Observation of the Josephson Superconducting Tunneling Effect," submitted to Physical Review Letters in January 1963.[17]

Before Anderson and Rowell confirmed the calculations, the American physicist John Bardeen (1908–1991), who had shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics (and who shared it again in 1972), objected to Josephson's work. He submitted an article to Physical Review Letters on 25 July 1962, arguing that "there can be no such superfluid flow." The disagreement led to a famous confrontation in September that year at Queen Mary College, London, at the Eighth International Conference on Low Temperature Physics. When Bardeen (one of the most eminent physicists in the world) began speaking about his own theory of single-particle tunnelling, Josephson (still a student) stood up and interrupted him. The men exchanged views, reportedly in a civil and soft-spoken manner. Donald G. McDonald described the discussion as "youth versus maturity, daring spirit versus depth of experience, and mathematics versus intuition." Josephson, as it turned out, was right.[18]

Whitaker writes that the discovery of the Josephson effect led to "much important physics," including the invention of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), which are used in geology to make highly sensitive measurements, as well as in medicine and computing.[19] IBM used Josephson's work in 1980 to build a computer that was up to 100 times faster than that of the IBM 3033 mainframe. The result was known at the time as a Josephson computer.[20]

Nobel Prize[edit]

photograph
In November 2012 Cambridge unveiled a plaque on the Mond Building dedicated to the discovery of the Josephson effect.[12]

Josephson was awarded several important prizes for his discovery, including the 1969 Research Corporation Award for outstanding contributions to science,[21] and the Hughes Medal and Holweck Prize in 1972. In 1973 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics, sharing the $122,000 award with two other scientists who had also worked on quantum tunnelling. Josephson was awarded half the prize "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects."[22]

The other half of the award was shared equally by Japanese physicist Leo Esaki of the Thomas Watson Research Center in Yorktown, New York, and Norwegian-American physicist Ivar Giaever of General Electric in Schenectady, New York, "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively."[23] Unusually, along with Josephson, neither Esaki nor Giaever held professorships at the time of the award.[24]

Positions held[edit]

Josephson moved to the United States in 1965 to take a position as research assistant professor at the University of Illinois. He returned to Cambridge in 1966 as an assistant director of research at the Cavendish Laboratory, where he remained a member of the Theory of Condensed Matter group, a theoretical physics group, for the rest of his career.[25] He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1970, and the same year was awarded a National Science Foundation fellowship by Cornell University, where he spent one year. In 1972 he became a reader in physics at Cambridge and in 1974 a full professor, a position he held until he retired in 2007.[26]

A practitioner of transcendental meditation (TM) since the early seventies, Josephson became a visiting faculty member in 1975 of the Maharishi European Research University in the Netherlands, part of the TM movement. He also held visiting professorships at Wayne State University in 1983, the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1984, and the University of Missouri-Rolla in 1987.[27]

Parapsychology[edit]

Early interest, transcendental meditation[edit]

photograph
Josephson became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1962. The college has a history of interest in parapsychology.

Josephson became interested in the late sixties in the mind–body problem, and is one of the few scientists to argue that parapsychological phenomena (telepathy, psychokinesis and other paranormal themes) may be real.[28] Philip Anderson, Josephson's former teacher, believes that Josephson was motivated by an interest in the paranormal even when he discovered the Josephson effect: "I'm sure that if you looked deeply into his motivations it was his interest in paranormal phenomenon which led him to be interested in ways in which weird things could happen due to quantum mechanics – ways in which you can actually study the strange phenomenon of quantum mechanics on the macroscopic level. So he was hoping that somehow this would tell him how to read minds, but that's really a speculation."[29]

In 1970, according to Anderson, Josephson "was doing better and better physics, he was doing wonderful physics, but ... the Josephson effect became bigger and bigger and he was made an FRS and he was given all kinds of prizes." It added up to a lot of public attention, even before the Nobel Prize, as well as regular travelling and other distractions.[30] The following year, perhaps to help himself focus, he began practising transcendental meditation (TM), which had become popular with several celebrities, most famously the Beatles.[31]

Winning the Nobel Prize in 1973 gave Josephson the freedom to work in less orthodox areas, and he became increasingly involved – including during science conferences, to the irritation of fellow scientists – in talking about meditation, telepathy and higher states of consciousness.[32] In May 1974 he addressed a symposium held to welcome the founder of the TM movement, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1918–2008), to Cambridge.[33] The following month he was one of 21 scientists who tested claims by Matthew Manning, a Cambridge teenager who said he had psychokinetic abilities; Josephson apparently told a reporter that he believed Manning's powers were a new kind of energy, although he later withdrew or corrected the statement.[34]

Josephson said that Trinity College's long interest in the paranormal meant that he did not dismiss these ideas out of hand.[35] Several presidents of the Society for Psychical Research had been fellows of Trinity, and the Perrott-Warrick Fund, set up in Trinity in 1937 to fund parapsychology research, is still administered by the college.[36] He continued to explore the idea that there is intelligence in nature, particularly after reading Fritjof Capra's The Tao of Physics (1975), and in 1979 took up a more advanced form of TM, known as the TM-Sidhi program; according to Anderson, the TM movement produced a poster showing Josephson levitating several inches above the floor.[37] Josephson argued that meditation could lead to mystical and scientific insights, and that, as a result of it, he had come to believe in a creator.[38]

Fundamental Fysiks Group[edit]

External images
Some members of the Fundamental Fysiks Group in 1975. Left to right: Jack Sarfatti, Saul-Paul Sirag, Nick Herbert, and Fred Alan Wolf (seated)

Josephson became involved in the mid-seventies with a group of physicists associated with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, who were investigating paranormal claims. They had organized themselves loosely into something called the Fundamental Fysiks Group, and had effectively become the Stanford Research Institute's (SRI) "house theorists," according to historian of science David Kaiser. There was a lot of popular and government interest at the time in the implications of quantum mechanics – the American government was financing research at SRI into telepathy – and physicists able to understand it found themselves at the centre of much local interest. The Fundamental Fysiks Group used ideas from quantum physics, particularly Bell's theorem and quantum entanglement, to explore issues such as action at a distance, clairvoyance, precognition, remote viewing and psychokinesis.[39]

In 1976 Josephson travelled to California to meet two leading members of the group, laser physicists Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, authors of Mind Reach (1977). Targ and Puthoff had set up a parapsychology, or "psi," lab at SRI, and had had papers published about it in peer-reviewed journals, including Nature.[40] They had also been involved in testing claims by Uri Geller that he could make objects move using psychokinesis. Josephson stayed at the Physics-Consciousness Research Group's headquarters during that trip. The Physics-Consciousness Research Group was a think tank run by another Fundamental Fysiksist, Jack Sarfatti, and financed by Werner Erhard, a key figure in the human potential movement. The San Francisco Chronicle covered the visit.[41]

Josephson co-organized a symposium on consciousness at Cambridge in 1978, publishing the proceedings as Consciousness and the Physical World (1980),[42] with neuroscientist V. S. Ramachandran. A conference on "Science and Consciousness" followed a year later in Cordoba, Spain, attended by physicists and Jungian psychoanalysts, and addressed by Josephson, Fritjof Capra and David Bohm (1917–1992).[43]

By 1996 he had set up the Mind–Matter Unification Project at the Cavendish Laboratory, which he describes as "a project concerned primarily with the attempt to understand, from the viewpoint of the theoretical physicist, what may loosely be characterised as intelligent processes in nature, associated with brain function or with some other natural process."[44] In 2002 he told Physics World: "Future science will consider quantum mechanics as the phenomenology of particular kinds of organised complex system. Quantum entanglement would be one manifestation of such organisation, paranormal phenomena another."[9]

Views on science[edit]

Josephson has repeatedly criticized the practice of "science by consensus," arguing that the scientific community is too quick to reject certain kinds of ideas. "Anything goes among the physics community – cosmic wormholes, time travel," he argues, "just so long as it keeps its distance from anything mystical or New Age-ish." He refers to this as "pathological disbelief," the attitude that "even if it were true I wouldn’t believe it," and one that he holds responsible for the rejection of papers on the paranormal by the editors of academic journals.[45] He has compared the situation of parapsychology to the theory of continental drift, proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener (1880–1930) to explain observations that were otherwise inexplicable, which was resisted and even ridiculed until further evidence led to its acceptance after Wegener's death.[46]

Reception[edit]

photograph
The Mond Building on the old Cavendish site where Josephson worked. (The crocodile is there in honour of Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937).)[47]
photograph

Matthew Reisz wrote in Times Higher Education in 2010 that Josephson has long been one of physics's "more colourful figures."[48] His support for unorthodox causes has attracted criticism from fellow scientists since the 1970s, including from his teacher Philip Anderson.[49] Josephson regards the criticism as prejudice, and believes that it has served to deprive him of an academic support network.[50]

In 1974 he angered scientists during a colloquium of molecular and cellular biologists in Versailles by inviting them to read the Bhagavad Gita (5th – 2nd century BCE) and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and by arguing about special states of consciousness achieved through meditation. "Nothing forces us," one scientist shouted at him, "to listen to your wild speculations." Biophysicist Henri Atlan wrote that the session ended in uproar.[51]

He was rebuked in 1980 by science writer Martin Gardner (1914–2010), when he and three other physicists – Evan Harris Walker (1935–2006), Olivier Costa de Beauregard (1911–2007) and Richard D. Mattuck – complained in a letter to the New York Review of Books about an article by J.A. Wheeler (1911–2008) that ridiculed parapsychology. Gardner advised the letter writers to "ponder their close resemblances to those eminent physicists who not so long ago were convinced that mediums could photograph the faces of departed spirits and exude luminous ectoplasm from their noses."[52]

Several physicists criticized him again in 2001 after he wrote, in a Royal Mail booklet celebrating the Nobel Prize's 100th anniversary, that Britain was at the forefront of research into telepathy:

Physicists attempt to reduce the complexity of nature to a single unifying theory, of which the most successful and universal, the quantum theory, has been associated with several Nobel prizes, for example those to Dirac and Heisenberg. Max Planck's original attempts a hundred years ago to explain the precise amount of energy radiated by hot bodies began a process of capturing in mathematical form a mysterious, elusive world containing 'spooky interactions at a distance', real enough however to lead to inventions such as the laser and transistor.

Quantum theory is now being fruitfully combined with theories of information and computation. These developments may lead to an explanation of processes still not understood within conventional science such as telepathy, an area where Britain is at the forefront of research.[53]

Physicist David Deutsch responded that the Royal Mail had "let itself be hoodwinked into supporting ideas that are complete nonsense,"[54] although another physicist, Robert Matthews, suggested that Deutsch was skating on thin ice given the latter's own work on parallel universes and time travel.[55] In 2004 Josephson supported claims by Natasha Demkina, a Russian schoolgirl, that she could see inside people's bodies using X-ray vision, prompting Richard Wiseman, professor of psychology at Hertfordshire University and a member of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, to point out that Josephson had no record of publishing on parapsychology.[56] Antony Valentini of Imperial College London withdrew Josephson's invitation to a 2010 conference on the de Broglie-Bohm theory because of his work on the paranormal, although it was reinstated after complaints.[57]

Josephson's reputation for promoting unorthodox causes was cemented by his support for the ideas of water memory and cold fusion, both of which are rejected by mainstream scientists. Water memory is purported to provide an explanation for homeopathy; it is mostly dismissed by scientists as pseudoscience, although Josephson has expressed support for it since attending a conference at which French immunologist Jacques Benveniste (1935–2004) first proposed it.[58] Cold fusion is the hypothesis that nuclear reactions can occur at room temperature. Following the death of Martin Fleischmann (1927–2012), the British chemist who pioneered research into it, Josephson wrote a supportive obituary in the Guardian and complained to Nature that its own obituary had failed to give Fleischmann due credit.[59]

Awards[edit]

Selected works[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brian Josephson, "Non-linear conduction in superconductors", Newton Library Catalogue, University of Cambridge.
  2. ^ a b International Who's Who, 1983-84, Europa Publications Limited, 1983, p. 672.
  3. ^ "Emeritus Faculty Staff List", Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge.
  4. ^ a b c "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica.
  5. ^ "Mind–Matter Unification Project (TCM Group, Cavendish Laboratory)", University of Cambridge.
    • Brian Josephson, "Foreword," in Michael A. Thalbourne and Lance Storm (eds.), Parapsychology in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on the Future of Psychical research, McFarland, 2005, pp. 1–2.
    • Brian Josephson, "We Think That We Think Clearly, But That's Only Because We Don't Think Clearly," in Patrick Colm Hogan and Lalita Pandit (eds.), Rabindranath Tagore: Universality and Tradition, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2003, pp. 107–115.
    • Brian Josephson and Jessica Utts, "Do you believe in psychic phenomena? Are they likely to be able to explain consciousness?", Times Higher Education, 8 April 1996.
  6. ^ Brian Josephson, "Brian Josephson: The Path to the Discovery", Cavendish Laboratory bdj50 conference, University of Cambridge, June 2012, from 8:20 mins.
  7. ^ John Waldram, "John Waldram: Reminiscences", Lectures from the Cavendish Laboratory's bdj50 conference, University of Cambridge, 18 July 2012, 01:19 mins.
  8. ^ Waldram 2012, 2:58 mins.
  9. ^ a b Edwin Cartlidge (May 2002). "Pioneer of the Paranormal". Physics World. 
  10. ^ For the graduation date, see "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. ^ Anderson, Philip. "How Josephson Discovered His Effect", Physics Today, November 1970.
  12. ^ a b "Unveiling of B D Josephson commemorative plaque", University of Cambridge, November 2012.
  13. ^ For the year of his fellowship, see "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica.
  14. ^ Andrew Whitaker, The New Quantum Age: From Bell's Theorem to Quantum Computation and Teleportation, Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 273.
  15. ^ James S. Trefil, "Josephson Effect," The Nature of Science, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003, p. 225.
    • Also see A Century of Excellence in Measurements, Standards, and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication, 1988, p. 315ff.
  16. ^ B. D. Josephson, "Possible new effects in superconductive tunnelling", Physics Letters, 1(7), 1 July 1962 (received 8 June 1962), pp. 251–253.
    • Also see Brian Josephson, "The History of the Discovery of Weakly Coupled Superconductors," in John Roche (ed.), Physicists Look Back: Studies in the History of Physics, CRC Press, 1990, p. 375.
    • For the page charges, see Kojevnikov 1999.
  17. ^ Philip Anderson and John Rowell, "Probable Observation of the Josephson Superconducting Tunneling Effect", Physical Review Letters, 10(6), 15 March 1963 (received 11 January 1963), pp. 230–232.
  18. ^ Donald G. McDonald, "The Nobel Laureate Versus the Graduate Student", Physics Today, July 2001, pp. 46–51.
  19. ^ Whitaker 2012, pp. 273–274.
  20. ^ "New Switch is Key to Supercomputer", Associated Press, 15 July 1980.
    • W. Anacker, "Josephson Computer Technology: A IBM Research Project", IBM Journal of Research and Development, 24(2), March 1980. For speeds, see p. 108.
    • "Brian D. Josephson", Encyclopædia Britannica: "Applying Josephson's discoveries with superconductors, researchers at International Business Machines Corporation had assembled by 1980 an experimental computer switch structure, which would permit switching speeds from 10 to 100 times faster than those possible with conventional silicon-based chips, increasing data processing capabilities by a vast amount."
  21. ^ a b Brian Sullivan, "Physics is Often a Young Man's Game", Associated Press, 17 December 1969.
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973", Nobelprize.org.
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973", Nobelprize.org.
  24. ^ Marika Griehsel (June 2004). "Interview with Brian D. Josephson". nobelprize.org. 
  25. ^ "Cambridge Theory of Condensed Matter group". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Brian D. Josephson", in Stig Lundqvist (ed.), Nobel Lectures, Physics 1971–1980, World Scientific Publishing Co., 1992.
  27. ^ For Maharishi European Research University, see International Who's Who, 1983-84, Europa Publications Limited, 1983, p. 672.
  28. ^ George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56.
  29. ^ Kojevnikov 1999, session III.
  30. ^ Kojevnikov 1999, session IV.
  31. ^ Bob Oates, Celebrating the Dawn: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the TM technique, Putnam, 1976, p. 204: "'I learned the Transcendental Meditation Technique in 1971,' says Dr. Josephson."
    • Emily J. McMurray, Jane Kelly Kosek, and Roger M. Valade, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, Gale Research, 1995, p. 1044: "An important turning point in Josephson's life occurred in 1971, when he heard a radio announcement for a lecture on transcendental meditation (TM). He attended the lecture, became an adherent of TM, and has since become a student also of the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. As part of his daily routine (which may include walking, ice skating, photography, and astronomical studies), Josephson also meditates for about two hours."
    • For celebrities and TM, see Lola Williamson, Transcendent in America, NYU Press, 2010, p. 93.
  32. ^ Eliot Marshall. "For Winners, a New Life of Opportunity – and Perils", Science, 294(5541), 12 October 2001 (pp. 293, 295), p. 295.
  33. ^ "Josephson on transcendental meditation," New Scientist, 16 May 1974, p. 416.
    • Stuart Halperin, "The birth of Creative Intelligence," New Scientist, 23 May 1974, p. 459.
  34. ^ David F. Marks, The Psychology of the Psychic, Prometheus Books, 2000, p. 200.
    • William Justice, Outposts of the Spirit, Hampton Roads Publishing, 2000, p. 90.
    • Matthew Manning, One Foot in the Stars, Thorsons, 1999, pp. 57, 59–61, 302. For Josephson's withdrawing or correcting the statement, see pp. 60–61.
    • For background on Manning, see Allen Spraggett, "New psychic star found; gets messages from the dead", The Miami News, 5 June 1975.
  35. ^ Josephson 2005, p. 1.
  36. ^ The former presidents who were fellows or members of Trinity included:
  37. ^ For Fritjof Capra, see George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56.
    • For higher conciousness and meditation, see Brian Josephson, "A Theoretical Analysis of Higher States of Consciousness and Meditation", Current Topics in Cybernetics and Systems, 1978, pp. 3–4.
    • For the TM-Sidhi program, see Brian Josephson in Pamela Weintraub, The Omni Interviews, Ticknor & Fields, 1984, p. 317.
    • For the poster, see Jeremy Bernstein, Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Laboratories in the Information Age, CUP Archive, 1987, p. 142.
    • For the poster, also see Bruce Schechter, The Path of No Resistance: The Story of the Revolution in Superconductivity, Simon & Schuster, 1989, p. 163.
  38. ^ For mystical and scientific insights, see Paul Davies, The Mind of God, Simon & Schuster, 1993, p. 227.
    • For belief in a creator, see Brian Josephson, "There Need Be No Ultimate Conflict Between Science and Religion," in Henry Margenau and Roy Abraham Varghese (eds.), Cosmos, Bios, Theos, Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 50.
  39. ^ David Kaiser, "How the Hippies Saved Physics" (lecture), MIT School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 2010, from 20 mins; see from 23:20 mins for "house theorists", and from 28:40 mins for "house interpreters."
  40. ^ Targ, Russell and Puthoff, Harold. "Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding", Nature, 17 October 1974.
  41. ^ David Kaiser, How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival, W. W. Norton & Company, 2011, pp. 144, 173.
    • For the Physics-Consciousness Research Group, see David Kaiser, "How the Hippies Saved Physics" (lecture), MIT School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 2010, from 32 mins. Also see Martin Gardner, Science: Good, Bad, and Bogus, Prometheus Books, 1989, p. 95.
  42. ^ Brian Josephson and V.S. Ramachandran (eds.), Consciousness and the Physical World, Pergamon Press, 1980.
  43. ^ Yasuo Yuasa, Overcoming Modernity: Synchronicity and Image-Thinking, SUNY Press, 2009, p. 179.
    • Henri Atlan, Enlightenment to Enlightenment: Intercritique of Science and Myth, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 22ff.
    • Brian Josephson, "Conscious Experience and its Place in Physics," paper presented at Colloque International Science et Conscience, Cordoba, 1–5 October 1979, in Michel Cazenave (ed.), Science and Consciousness: Two Views of the Universe, Edited Proceedings of the France-Culture and Radio-France Colloquium, Cordoba, Spain, Pergamon Press, 1984.
  44. ^ Matthew Segall, "Mind Matter Unification/The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics", Theory of Condensed Matter group, Cavendish Laboratory, 26 March 1996.
  45. ^ Alison George, "Lone voices special: Take nobody's word for it", New Scientist, 9 December 2006 (pp. 56–57), p. 56.
  46. ^ Josephson 2005, pp. 1–2.
  47. ^ "Why a crocodile?", Cavendish Laboratory.
  48. ^ Matthew Reisz, "He didn't see that coming, or did he?", Times Higher Education, 19 April 2010.
  49. ^ Burton Feldman, The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige, Arcade Publishing, 2001, p. 199.
  50. ^ George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 57.
  51. ^ Henri Atlan, Enlightenment to Enlightenment: Intercritique of Science and Myth, SUNY Press, 1993, pp. 20–21.
  52. ^ Olivier Costa de Beauregard, Richard D. Mattuck, Brian D. Josephson and Evan Harris Walker, "Parapsychology: An Exchange", New York Review of Books, 27, 26 June 1980, pp. 48–51.
  53. ^ Brian Josephson, "Physics and the Nobel Prizes", Royal Mail, 2001.
  54. ^ David McKie, "Royal Mail's Nobel guru in telepathy row", The Observer, 30 September 2001.
  55. ^ Robert Matthews, "Time Travel", The Daily Telegraph, 8 November 2001.
  56. ^ "Scientists fail to see eye to eye over girl's 'X-ray vision'", Times Higher Education, 10 December 1994.
  57. ^ Matthew Reisz, "He didn't see that coming, or did he?", Times Higher Education, 19 April 2010.
  58. ^ George (New Scientist) 2006, p. 56.
    • Brian Josephson, "Molecule memories", letters, New Scientist, 1 November 1997.
    • Brian Josephson, "Molecular memory", The Independent, 22 March 1999.
    • Dana Ullman, The Homeopathic Revolution, North Atlantic Books, 2007, p. 130ff.
  59. ^ Brian Josephson, "Martin Fleischmann obituary", The Guardian, 31 August 2012.
    • Brian Josephson, "Fleischmann denied due credit", Nature, 490, 4 October 2012, p. 37 (also available here).
    • For background on cold fusion, see Thomas F. Gieryn, Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line, University of Chicago Press, 1999, pp. 183–232.
  60. ^ Peter Stubbs, "Tunnelling for physicists", New Scientist, 60(870), 1 November 1973.
  61. ^ a b "Brian D. Josephson", Lundqvist 1992.

Further reading[edit]